Publications / 2013 Proceedings of the 30th ISARC, Montréal, Canada

Real-Time Safety Risk Analysis of Construction Projects Using BIM and RTLS

S. Setayeshgar, A. Hammad, F. Vahdatikhaki, C. Zhang
Pages 731-741 (2013 Proceedings of the 30th ISARC, Montréal, Canada, ISBN 978-1-62993-294-1, ISSN 2413-5844)

The identification of potential accidents on construction sites has been a major concern in the construction industry and it needs a proactive safety plan to reduce the risk of accidents. There are no efficient methods for checking if safety measures are taken properly on construction sites. Consequently, workers on site are not given enough awareness about dangerous areas. In addition, construction sites are dynamic and on-site situations are changing in terms of permanent and temporary structures and facilities. This information can be represented using Building Information Modeling (BIM). This paper proposes the integration of BIM and safety risk analysis by considering the risk levels associated with the work spaces of different construction tasks. Work spaces are generated in a BIM model according to the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) of the project, reference objects in the BIM, and the schedule and resources of the task. Each work space is assigned to one or more tasks or functions, e.g., work spaces for specific tasks, shared spaces (paths), storage spaces, or spaces prohibited to workers. The assignment of work spaces is based on the workers, equipment and materials involved in the task. All the work spaces are associated with a specific duration according to the schedule of the project. Then risk evaluation of the construction site is applied in order to evaluate safety risks based on their severity and the degree of exposure of workers. For example, work spaces for storing hazard materials and for heavy construction equipment have higher risks than other work spaces. The results of the risk evaluation can be visualized in a 4D BIM model.

Keywords: Safety, Simulation, Real time, BIM, RTLS