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1997 Proceedings of the 14th ISARC, Pittsburgh, USA

High-Precision Application of GPS in the Field of Real-Time Equipment Positioning

Francois Peyret, David Betaille, Gaetan Hintzy
Pages 2-10

Abstract: In the frame of its research about real-time positioning and control of road construction equipment, the « Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees, has carried out in 1996 a study to know more about the actual vertical accuracy that a RTK1 GPS2 could reach under worksite conditions. This ...

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New Data Fusion Techniques for High-Precision Localization of Civil-Engineering Equipment

Ph. Bonnifait, F. Peyret, G. Garcia
Pages 11-20

Abstract: This paper presents two localization fusion techniques for civil-engineering machines. The first one concerns 2D localization and the second one is intended to 6 dof position and attitude determination. The system uses an optical instrument called SIREM which provides azimuth and elevation angles of known landmarks. The approach is based ...

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Real-Time Integrated GPS/lnertial Systems for Machine Control Applications

Erik Lithopoulos, Bryan Kliewer, Bruno Sherzinger
Pages 21-21

Abstract: The use of Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS has made real-time decimeter and centimeter positioning possible. Standalone GPS, however, does have shortcomings: At least four satellites must be visible at all times to maintain positioning. If satellite view is obstructed, position information is no longer available. When satellites become again ...

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Surveying Through Solid Walls

William C. Stone
Pages 22-40

Abstract: A good metrology system in the automated environment must. (1) measure the three dimensional position and attitude of any component to a reasonable degree of accuracy; (2) acquire these data fairly rapidly; and (3) be capable of making reliable measurements anywhere on site. A significant limitation for existing surveying systems ...

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Wireless Networking for Integration of Real-Time Construction Metrology Systems

Lawrence E. Pfeffer
Pages 41-50

Abstract: The evolution toward sensors/metrology systems with embedded processing holds great potential for construction automation, provided that effective, standard communications and data-exchange techniques can be developed. Unfortunately, most metrology systems have limited interfaces that slight the communications/data- exchange issues. Serial, hardwired links (e.g., RS-232,422) are a common, low denominator.The ...

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Computer-Vision Control for a Floor-Tiling Robot

Ronie Navon, Yehiel Rosenfeld
Pages 52-57

Abstract: At this stage of the floor-tiling robot's development it was decided to concentrate on the autonomy at a workstation, which means that all operations at a workstation - stabilizing and calibrating at a workstation, loading tiles, etc. - including real-time quality assurance (QA) are done without human intervention, while the ...

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Development of On-Board Weighting and Force Sensor System for Construction Machines: Static Analysis

Fiorenzo Malaguti
Pages 58-61

Abstract: This paper considers an on-board system for construction machines to measure weight of handling or excavated materials and/or contact force of machine tool or end effector for construction robot.Weight and force are measured indirectly by the differential pressure of hydraulic actuators of machines, driving the machine arms. This system improves ...

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Excavator-Mounted Ordnance Locating System for Remote Excavation

Steven J. Lorenc, Leonhard E. Bemold
Pages 62-72

Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach to solving the problem of detecting, locating, and removing buried unexploded ordnance. The locating system consists of an active electromagnetic sensor coil mounted on a backhoe excavator. The system has the unique ability that the coil is capable of eliminating the metallic effect of ...

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Imaging Ladar Camera for Washing Robots

Karl R. Schulz
Pages 73-77

Abstract: Imaging sensor systems are inevitable components of intelligent and automated machinery. Imaging sensor systems based on the laser radar (ladar) principle are proposed to provide advanced machine capabilities such as collision avoidance, obstacle detection, object recognition and position determination. This paper describes the adaption of a 3-d ladar camera to ...

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A Non-Prism Laser Measurement System Using Image Control

Tadashi Kanzaki, Shuichi Nishizawa, and Michio Matsumoto
Pages 78-85

Abstract: A non-prism laser measurement system using image control is described. The device combines imaging, non- prism laser measurement, and computer control techniques to achieve an early understanding of topography and the amount of earthworks required as well as improved work safety. Consisting of CCD cameras, non-prism laser measurement equipment, rotational ...

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A Computer Aided System for Incorporating the Effects of Rains in Scheduling Planning

Sy-Jye Guo
Pages 87-93

Abstract: Traditional scheduling software such as P 3, OPENPLAN and Microsoft Project have been widely used for schedule. planning for various construction projects. However, these software do not employ the effects of rains in the scheduling process. . Thus, two identical projects would yield the same total project duration even though ...

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Computer-Aided Planning in Construction Survey and Analysis of Group Planning Procedures

Naruo Kano, Makoto Momose, Masaharu Saito
Pages 94-101

Abstract: This paper discusses a survey on construction planning conducted in an attempt to establish a computer- aided support system and identify the newly established system's structure and method for construction planning and scheduling. After videotaping four engineers developing a given construction plan through group discussion, the minutes of the discussions ...

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Study on Systematization of Construction Scheduling Method Structure of Construction Scheduling and its Constitute Systems

Yoichi Yuasa, Yoshikazn Sasaki
Pages 102-109

Abstract: Based on our experience, an emphasis in construction scheduling is not always same. Then we surveyed various opinions of construction engineers about construction scheduling. As a result it was clarified that methods of construction scheduling were different in each phase of projects and each type of projects. We classified construction ...

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Automated Construction System for High-Rise Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Tatsuya Wakisaka, Noriyuki Furuya, Kyoichi Hishikawa, Yasuo Inoue, Takashi Shiokawa, Kyoji Yoshino, Koji Hamada, Fumihiro Inoue, Kohci Kurita
Pages 111-118

Abstract: The all-weather automated construction system has been developed to reduce the total cost of high-rise reinforced concrete building construction, and was applied to a 26-story reinforced concrete condominium project located in Chib a prefecture in 1995 for the first time in the world. This automated construction system consists of four ...

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Automated Production of Generic-Form Reinforced Concrete Structures Through Use of an Improved Progressive Strength Construction Method

Jonathan O'Brien
Pages 119-128

Abstract: This paper relates to the development of a method for the total automation and site robotisation of the concrete frame production process on real world, non- standardised, commercial building structures. The proposed method uses currently available technology and is an improvement on the highly successful Progressive Strength System developed ...

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Development of an Automatic-Oriented Sheltered Building Construction System

Nario Yoshida, Takeo Kanagawa, Yuichi Tani, Yasuhiro Oda
Pages 129-138

Abstract: In order to meet the increasingly sophisticated requirements for large-scale construction projects, in 1993, Penta-Ocean Construction began to develop a comprehensive system that would facilitate building construction work in all weather with minimum disturbance to the surrounding neighborhood. We call this system FACES: Future Automated Construction Efficient System. The system ...

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Improvement of a Computer Integrated and Automated Construction System for High-Rise Building and its Application for RC (Rail City) Yokohama Building

Junichiro Maeda, Yasuyoshi Miyatake
Pages 139-146

Abstract: A variety of improvements have been added to the Shimizu Manufacturing system by Advanced Robotics Technology (SMART) developed by Shimizu Corporation based on evaluation of the results from the system's application in the construction of a building in Nagoya, Japan several years ago. The improved system was used this time ...

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Current Challenges in the Application of Agent Theory to Construction Management in Innovative, Intelligent Field Factory

Shigeomi Nishigaki, Masanori Kaku, Yoshio Maruyama, Kinya Tamaki
Pages 148-153

Abstract: This research project is a part of IMS IF7 titled "Innovative, Intelligent Field Factory," which is one of IMSresearch projects in Japan. The research program of IF7 consists of the three work packages. In work package 1, particular emphasis will be placed on realization of modularized construction system. Work ...

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The Development of an Interactive Simulation of Site Information Technology Systems in Relation to Construction Automation

J A Scott, D A Bradley, D W Seward, R M Adelson, M Pengelly
Pages 154-159

Abstract: Though the construction industry was one of the first to adopt aspects of Information Technology (IT) in the areas such as drafting and design, its introduction at the site level remains sparse. One of the reason for this is believed to be the suspicions that exists in the industry as ...

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Incorporating a 3D Urban Environment Model between Government and Local Architectural Firms

Naai-Jung Shih, Wei-Jeh Lan
Pages 160-165

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study how to incorporate current modeling data with design under constraints of current computational capability and applied software and hardware of local architecture firms. The study is made to facilitate the review of newly designed buildings and evaluating their possible impact on the ...

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Designing for Automated Construction

A. Scott Howe
Pages 167-176

Abstract: The majority of automated construction research and development has been bottom-up, from the construction / engineering side rather than top-down from the design end. The first part of this paper is devoted (0 the design of a research programme which seeks to address topics related to the conceptual design of ...

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Economic Analysis of Robots Employment in Building

Abraham Warszawski, Yehiel Rosenfeld
Pages 177-184

Abstract: The paper presents a complete and a simplified model for the economic analysis of robots employment on building sites. Four generic types of building robots are analyzed with the aid of the model and of the available productivity data, which have been published to-date by developers and users of building ...

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Robot Systems for Residential Building Construction: Integration and Operation

D. Spath, J. Schmidt, J. Andres
Pages 185-197

Abstract: The article deals with the operation of robot systems for the onsite construction of residential buildings and their integration in a semi-automated construction process. On one hand the integration and necessary work preparation tasks will be described for a mobile onsite masonry robot developed in the European project ROCCO (Robot ...

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Control, Monitoring and Warning Computerized System for a Semi-Automated Sliding System of Assembled Roof

Shigeomi Nishigaki, Y oshio Maruyama, Osami Matsunaga, Y oshinobu Futamura, Seisaku Kato, Hiromi Fukuchi, Shoshi Kazue
Pages 199-205

Abstract: Faced by a need to overcome work force shortage and vanishing skill replacement, to avoid dangerous works and to reduce cost, a semi-automated sliding system of assembled roof is developed to build a roof of machine room within underground power plant. The semi-automated sliding system will improve working conditions, since ...

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Evaluation of an Alarm System to Prevent the Overturning of Truck Cranes

Ryoichi Fukagava, Tatsuro Muro, Koichi Tanigami
Pages 206-213

Abstract: The authors have previously proposed a new method to prevent the overturning of truck cranes considering possible ground failures in the 11th ISARC at Brighton. The first aim of this study was to create an alarm system which can predict and judge the degree of danger from the data between ...

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Safety Measures for Coordination between Man and Machine - Case Studies of Dam Concrete Placement

Osamu Hatakeyama, Koi Matsugaki, Tatsu Usui, Hideo Katano, Shinji Kawamoto, Tamotsu Konishi, Yasuo Shimizu, Yujiro Tazawa, Yu Nozawa, Takezo Miyamoto, Hirokuni Morikawa
Pages 214-223

Abstract: Automation and robotics in construction field are being undertaken in views of shortage and aging of construction workers and skilled workers, improvement of working environment and maintenance of good conditions free from hard work and danger. In-depth examination has been carried out at alomost all the sites and surveyed as ...

Keywords: dams, concrete placement, automation, safety measures, coordinated operation

The Simulation and Modelling of Safety Systems for Construction Robots

L. Zhang, D A Bradley , D W Seward
Pages 224-229

Abstract: In order for construction robots to become accepted on site it will be necessary for them to achieve demonstrable levels of operation safety at least equivalent to and probably higher than the equivalent manually operated system. In order to achieve the required levels of performance it will be necessary to ...

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Climbing Robot for Underwater Inspection of Constructions

Valery Gradetsky, Michael Rachkov
Pages 231-236

Abstract: The paper describes an underwater climbing robot for inspection of underwater constructions. It contains an overview of design and technical parameters of the robot. The technological module for inspection is considered. Pecularities of underwater application and different transport modes of robot’s motion to initial working position are presented. Experimental characteristics ...

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Development of Unmanned Deep Foundation Construction Method in Shaft

Masao Shimizu, Kenzi Sasaki, Takuro Shigeno, Akio Hirata, Hironobu Nagase, Tomoo Mimura
Pages 237-245

Abstract: Deep founadtions, because of their economical merits, are used as foundation for steel transmission towers and bridges which are provided in mountain areas, as well as for landslide-restrainig pile at scarps. However, the most of the works, such as excavation are implemented in a narrow circular vertical shaft by human ...

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On-Orbit Construction Experiment by Tele-Operated Robot Arm

Hiroshi Ueno, Hitoshi Satoh, Shigeru Aki, tetsuji Yoshida, Kohtaro Matsumoto, Sachiko Wakabayashi
Pages 246-253

Abstract: On-orbit assembly technology is a key for future large scale structure construction. For several decades, many concepts of space structures have been proposed and some of them have the idea of Robotic construction systems. Authors have developed a concept of a truss joint system for large scale orbital structures and ...

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Remotely Operated Mobile System Excavates Buried Nuclear Waste

William R. Bath
Pages 254-258

Abstract: This paper describes a 1,500 metric ton, mobile, remotely operated worksystem that has been designed to excavate and retrieve buried hazardous and low level nuclear waste. The mobile work system includes seven independent, multi-degree-of-freedom, telerobotic excavation tools and four remotely operated, double-lid transfer systems to move the waste through the ...

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A Construction Robot for Autonomous Plastering of Walls and Ceilings

Johan Forsberg, Roger Aarenstrup, Åke Wernersson
Pages 260-268

Abstract: The problem addressed is plastering of walls and ceilings during the construction of apartment and office buildings. The concrete wallls are to be covered by a smooth layer of plaster, a few millimeters thick. The workplace is structured enough that map generation, navigation and motion planning can be performed autonomously. ...

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The Effect of Robotic Brick Placement on Bond Strength

Rami A. Rihani, Steven J. Lorenc, Leonhard E. Bernold
Pages 269-276

Abstract: Several factors can affect the bond strength of brick masonry units. Some of these factors include: Initial rate of absorption (IRA) of water for bricks, brick porosity, brick texture, type of mortar, type of sand, mix proportions, mortar water content, mortar workability, mortar viscosity, time between the application of mortar ...

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On-Site Mobile Plastering Robot: A Practical Design Concept

G. Pritschow, J. Kurz, J. Zeiher, S.E. McCormac, M. Dalacker
Pages 277-285

Abstract: This paper presents basic concepts and enabling technologies for a mobile plastering robot used on the construction site and controlled by a skilled operator. Economic aspects of the German plastering industry, requirements for semi-automated plastering, alternative robotic end-effectors, various kinematic structures as well as suitable drive technologies for a plastering ...

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Paperless Plants for Component Systems Building (CSB)

Antii Nurminen
Pages 286-292

Abstract: An automated CAD/CAM -system for wood frame wall panel manufacture is presented. The paperless plant -philosophy based Computerized Wall Panel -system is blueprint free and utilizes leading edge CAD and Automation technologies resulting in increased productivity, labor savings and increased quality of the end products.

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Computer Aided Methodology for Design of Robots in Construction Industry Applications

C. Balaguer, E. Gambao, A. Barrientos, R. Saltaren
Pages 294-298

Abstract: New large range robots with hydraulic actuators play a key role in the automation of sevaral important construction tasks and its demand is increasing nowadays. However the steps for design of this type of robots are not structured today, and it is performed in an individual way. This paper presents ...

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The Development of a Low Cost Approach to the Prototyping of Construction Plant

D A Bradley, F Margrave, M b Widden, G Melling, H. McKee
Pages 299-304

Abstract: Because of the high development costs of an item of automated or robotic construction plant there is a need for a low cost rapid prototyping system which can support the early stages of the design and development process and provide feedback to the designer of the effect of different kinematic ...

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Graphical Simulation for Design of a Tele-Operated Clinker Clearing Robot

Jongwon Seo, Carl Hass, Alfred Traver, S.V. Sreenivasan, Robert Stone, Richard Greer, Chris Wunz
Pages 305-311

Abstract: Clinkers are waste material in the bottom ash hopper of furnaces of lignite fired power plants. Workers are requierd to wear cubersome, hot suits and manipulate a long heavy steel rod connected to an air hammer to clear clinkers. A tele-operated maintenance robot has been designed to perform the dangerous ...

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Optimal Design Method of a Wheel Travel System for Special Purpose and Robotic Vehicle Operating over Sloped Weak Sandy Terrain

Tatsuro Muro, Takahisa Shigematsu
Pages 312-319

Abstract: In this paper, mathematical modelling of vehicle tractive performance was developed and various center of gravity and height of application force movement effects were analyzed by mathematical simulations. For given set of vehicle dimensions and terrain-wheel system constants, the simulation calculated, effective tractive effort and rear wheel sinkage, slip ratio ...

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The Development and Application of an Automatic Building Construction System Using Push-Up Machines

Tomofumi Sekiguchi, Kansuke Honma, Ryou Mizutani, Hiroyuki Takagi
Pages 321-328

Abstract: The "AMURAD" system developed by Kajima Corporation is so-called "building factory". The first to fourth floors function as a factory where low level construction work is performed utilizing integrated construction information. When one floor is completed, it is pushed up by special computer-controlled jacks. The first application of this system ...

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Development and Application of FCF Construction Method

Muneyoshi Matsuo, Syouichi Morimoto, Yuzuru Sekihara, Hiroto Nemoto, Masahihko Sawaguchi
Pages 329-336

Abstract: The FCF construction method (Fast Failsafe Climbing Form) with the climbing robot jack as a nucleus, was developed for construction of high rise concrete structures, such as a tower-shape or a cylindrical tall bridge pier, etc. This construction method uses a plural number of the climbing robot jacks to ascend ...

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Development and Trial of a Teleconstruction System

Thomas Bock, Mamoru Mitsuishi
Pages 337-339

Abstract: This paper will introduce a multi-designer and multi-construction machine system which has a realizeability capacity. It also provides a cooperative creation environment from design activity to prototype construction, which is indispensable for product development and the predictive simulation of complex construction projects.The requirements, the necessary functions and the implementation of ...

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Response of Rebar During Robotised Process of Assembling

Blaz Dolinsek, Janez Duhovnik
Pages 340-349

Abstract: The idea of the robot system for the assembiing of the reinforcement cages for reinforced concrete beams and columns and the assembling process are presented. The process of the assembling requires the moving of the rebars, which are rather flexible and therefore deformed due to their dead-weight. Additionally the accelerations ...

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Automated, Real-Time Estimation of Pile Bearing Capacity via Seismic Measurements

Chung-Ham Yang, H. Randolph Thomas
Pages 351-358

Abstract: This research is aimed at developing a seismic measurement based method for estimating pile bearing capacity. By modeling the rigid body motion of the pile-soil system. the pile bearing capacity is analytically derived as a function of mass. natural frequency. damping ratio. and soil quake. Tltis paper presents the procedure ...

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Estimation of Internal Condition in Piled Fragment Rocks by Use of Resistive Forces Acting on the Bucket of Wheel Loaders

Hiroshi Takahashi
Pages 359-366

Abstract: In order to automate the scooping task, it is necessary to obtain the resistive forces acting on the bucket before the scooping is performed. In this study, empirical equations to predict the friction coefficient between the bucket and rocks, the friction coefficient among rocks and particle diameters were obtained by ...

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Evaluation of Ground Properties in Deep Soil Improvement Method and its Application to Construction Automatization

Kazuyoshi Tateyama, Ryoichi Fukagawa, Tsuyoshi Tsujii
Pages 367-372

Abstract: As one of the studies on automatization in the deep soil improvement method, theoretical and experimental studies were carried out to develop a method to estimate soil properties in real-time during construction. In the theoretical study, the resistance acting on the improving machines from the ground was studied with soil ...

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Real-Time Density Measurement Using Compactor Vibratory Responses

R. Edward Minchin, H. Randolph Thomas
Pages 373-378

Abstract: This paper deals with research into the possibility of using the vibratory responses of a soil/asphalt compactor to determine the relative density of the material being compacted.

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Automated Schedule Monitoring System for Precast Building Construction Using Enhanced - Geographic Information System (GIS)

Min- Yuan Cheng, Jiann-Chyun Chen
Pages 380-387

Abstract: This study focuses on developing an automated schedule monitoring system for precast building construction. Erection of prefabricated structural components is the major critical activity for the precast building construction. An efficient lifting schedule plan and control can significantly reduce construction conflicts and project delay. In this research, the system, ArcSched, ...

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Interactive Path Planning for Multi-Equipment Landfill Operations

Hui-Ping Tserng, Bin Ran, Jeffrey S. Russell, John J. Uicker
Pages 388-397

Abstract: A methodoöogy and several algorithms for interactive motion planning are deveLoped for multiequipment Landfill operations in an automated Landfill system (ALS). A system for establishing ALS is aLso proposed in the paper. To deveLop a multi-truck/multicompactor automated Landfill system, the major probLems can be classified into three principal categories: (1) ...

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A New Approach to Simulation of Heavy Construction Operations

Kyong J. Kim, G. Edward Gibson,
Pages 398-405

Abstract: To support the utilization of discrete-event simulation in the analysis and planning of heavy construction operations, this research investigation has established a framework for a more simplified simulation environment. This framework is a resource operation cycle-based simulation modeling approach using an object-oriented information system to support project managers. This approach ...

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