1996 Proceedings of the 13th ISARC, Tokyo, Japan

Simplification of Concrete Structure Shape and Utilization of Precast Concrete for Robotization

Noriaki Aoyama, Yukihiro Tsukada, Tadashi Yoshida, Hirotaka Kawano, Toru Abe

"With an aim of automating and streamlining construction work as well as securing safety, the Ministry of Construction has been striving from 1990 to 1994, for the accomplishment of a general technology development project, 'Development of new construction process technology' that covered an extensive field of construction. The primary ...

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Overview of the National Project "Friendly Network Robotics"

Masayuki Kondo
Pages 1-7

The Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry has started the feasibility study on the new project "Friendly Network Robotics" in 1996. This project is conducted under the Industrial Science and Technology Frontier Program. The project aims at developing technologies to construct human ...

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Current Development and Issues in Construction Robot Technology

Haruyoshi Okazaki
Pages 9-14

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Construction Automation and Robotics in Australia

Jonathan O'Brien
Pages 15-22

In this paper a number of recent developments in the field of construction, mining and non-traditional robotics are reviewed. Details of a variety of commercial and prototype systems2 are provided and conclusions are drawn as to the existence of some limiting factors relative to the development of the field automation ...

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The Current Status and Key Issues in the Future on Automation and Robotics in Construction in Germany

T. Bock, J. Fliedner, H. Weingartner
Pages 23-32

This article describes the state of art, relating to automized processes, in different fields of the German construction industry. First the German demands for future construction efforts are shown and the specialities of the German construction sites are presented. Then the actual state of the art of different autornized construction ...

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Current Status and Key Issues in the Future of Automation and Robotics in Construction in Israel

Yehiel Rosenfeld
Pages 33-36

The format of this brief status report is that of an extended abstract. Its purpose is to highlight more than a decade of development, and show how an apparently futuristic idea gradually transforms to an inevitable practical solution. It focuses mainly on the steady activity of Technion - Israel Institute ...

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Current Status and Key Issues for Construction Automation and Robotics in Japan

Yukio Hasegawa
Pages 37-42

At first, the current status of automation and robotics in Japan is introduced. Since the end of 1970's much efforts have been devoted to, automation and robotization of, construction works. As the result, many types of robot have been introduced into the industry for improving labor conditions, productivity and quality ...

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Automation of the U.K. Construction Industry - Current Status and Key Issues

Fikry K Garas
Pages 43-50

The current state of automation is revised with a view of establishing what developments need to take place to improve the competitiveness of the U.K. construction industry. In addressing automation, consideration is given to the whole subject of "Computer Integrated Construction".

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Current Status and Key Issues for Construction Automation and Robotics in the USA

Miroslaw J. Skibniewski
Pages 51-57

Construction automation and robotics research in the United States has been part of the academic and industrial R&D effort since early 1980's. First construction robot and related protptypes were developed in 1982-83. Since then, approx. 10 R&D centers nationwide are engaged in robot hardware development for construction and hazardous waste ...

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Study on Super Long Distance Space Telerobotics

Hiroaki Ujiie, Fumio Yasumoto, Kenji Ogimoto, Shigeoki Hirai, Kazuo Machida, Yujin Wakita, S. Peters, P. Backes
Pages 59-64

Telerobotics research for Super Long Distance has been underway between MITI of Japan and NASA JPL of United States. Foe this telerobotics, the limited amount of data transfer,communication delay and the uncertainty of robot environment will be the major issues. To overcome these problems, a telerobotic system, with a knowledge ...

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Site Assembly in Construction Industry by means of a Large Range Advanced Robot

C. Balaguer, E. Gambao, A. Barrientos, E. A. Puente, R. Aracil
Pages 65-72

This paper deals with the application of a large range robot for on site assembly operations in the construction industry. The wall erection task, using standard and special concrete blocks, is the main operation of the robot. The assembly process and the robot have been developed under the Computer Integrated ...

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Development of a Mobile Manipulator for Underground Excavation Task

Hironori Adachi, Tatsuo Arai, Noriho Koyachi, Keiko Homma, Ken'ichiro Nishimura
Pages 73-80

A national research and development program on Underground Development Technology has started in 1989. In this program, a basic study of a excavating robot has been done at the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. This paper describes an experimental mobile manipulator for the excavating task. Four legs and a pair of crawlers ...

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Research on the Field of the Intelligent Robot System Control for the Construction

Pavel Belohoubek, Zdenek Kolibar, Otakar Vystrcil
Pages 81-86

This paper is engaged in the development of the intelligent robot control system of the robot ALR-4.1 for the construction. At this is necessary to solve great number of tasks, for example the robot - technologies, design, control system, trajectory planning, servodrive control, collision free motion planning etc This is ...

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A New Approach to Construction Robot Programming

R. Navon, A Retik
Pages 87-94

The paper describes a virtual-reality-based approach to programming construction robots. This approach is needed because of the ever changing conditions and the nature of the construction work. As a result, construction robots need much more programming relative to their industrial counterparts, this being a labor intensive task using known methods. ...

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Mechanism and Control of a Dynamic Lifting Robot

T. Ueno, N. Sunaga, K. Brown, H. Asada
Pages 95-102

This paper focuses on a new approach to robot design and control for dealing with heavy loads. Referring to human dynamic motion, we studied dynamic task strategies to create large forces by dynamically moving the internal body. Much greater force can be obtained by this technique than the traditional quasi-static ...

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Concepts of an Advanced Cartesian Control System for a Redundant Twin Boom Drill Rig

B. Fink, M. Hiller, H. Krolls, S. Schweikart
Pages 103-112

The handling of complex machines such as redundant manipulators requires ap-propriate control systems in order to make the operating of the system easier and to reduce processing time. This paper presents an advanced control system for a drilling rig used in tunnel construction which is currently under develop- ment in ...

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Heavy Object Handling System by Cooperation of a Robot and a Crane with Multiple Wires

Hisashi Osumi, Tamio Arai
Pages 113-120

This paper proposes a strategy for handling a heavy object by cooperation of a position-controlled robot and a crane with multiple wires. Installation of compliant mechanism is essential to avoid excessive inner forces caused by positioning errors of the robot and the crane. First, the necessary mechanical conditions to achieve ...

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The Impact of Subcontracting Practice on Building Construction Automation: A Case Study on Building Prefabrication

Ting-Ya Hsieh
Pages 121-130

Pressured by labor shortage, quality requirements and tight construction schedules, building constructors are seeking automated technologies to resolve these unfriendly conditions while achieving the targeted profit. For the past decades, numerous automated concepts are being incorporated into conventional construction methods to form a composite construction technology for producing more favorable ...

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Questionnaire on Robotization in Building Work for Chartered Architects

Hikoichi Katano, Tatsuya Wakisaka, Toru Shinozaki, Takashi Takimoto
Pages 131-140

The Construction Robotics Committee of the Building Contractors Society has been extensively conducting construction work robotization questionnaires targeted to the construction trade - including specialized builders, construction machine manufactures and leasing companies - in order to promote the development and use of construction robots. This particular questionnaire was carried ...

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Study on Development and Utilization of Construction Robots

Masao Kameda, Akio Suzuki, Junichi Watanabe, Masaro Nishigami
Pages 141-150

The objective of this study was to establish an effective and practical method for developing construction robots. Therefore, a survey of construction robot developers was conducted regarding the development process and the degree of robot utilization. This survey suggests that although the development of robots is primarily conducted according ...

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Construction Robot Development Using Genetic Algorithm Technique

Anna M. McCrea, Ronie Navon
Pages 151-160

In this paper, it has been shown how to utilize the genetic algoritlun (GA) technique in construction robot development. The investigation of the problem is carried out on the example of an automated device for the restoration of steel bridges, as the technology of the process poses a high level ...

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What is a Robot?

Melanie Richardson, Derek Trowell
Pages 161-168

The late 1950's saw the onset of many utopian visions of automation in the fields of Architecture and Construction. Architects began to imagine how automotive technology might fuse with design ideas, and even, how technology might become the generator of form. Perhaps, for the first time, however, the possibilities that ...

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Robotic Assembly System for Computer Integrated Construction

Thomas Bock
Pages 169-178

Based on the experiences as a member of the working group ""SMAS"" within the programme entitled ""Development of an Advanced Construction Technology by . Applying the Electronic Technology"" of the Japanese Ministry of Construction between 1985 and 88 the author proposed the R+D of a mobile robotic assembly system for ...

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Holistic-Automation of Construction Projects

Jonathan O'Brien
Pages 179-188

While advanced construction automation technology undoubtedly has great potential it has not as yet achieved any significant degree of industry use. This paper analyses some of the reasons for this and then proposes a new method for the creation of cost-effective field and project automation systems.

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Re-Engineering Construction Work-Processes for Building Automation

Roozbeh Kangari
Pages 195-204

To develop a cost effective building automation system, there is a need for new way of thinking. Automating the traditional construction operations most likely woud not result in a sustainable and profitable sy stem. We must develop the automated sy stems in the context of construction work-processes ratber than traditional ...

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Survey of Building Robots

A. Warszawski, R. Navon
Pages 205-212

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The Application of Automation and Robotics at BRE’s Cardington Large Building Test Facility

David Cobb
Pages 213-222

This paper reports back on the BRE-lAARC sponsored workshop held in the UK in November 1995. It was unusual insofar as the principal theme sessions were focused on the exploitation of the unique Cardington Large Building Test Facility (LBTF). The LBTF comprises a programme of full-scale buildings constructed 'indoors' for ...

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System Architectures and Safety for Mobile Construction Robots

D W Seward, S D Quayle
Pages 223-230

This paper describes the most recent work on the development of the autonomous robot excavator - LUCIE 2 at Lancaster. Although the LUCIE project (Lancaster University Computerised Intelligent Excavator) has been running for about five years, in recent months it has undergone a radical change in both system hardware and ...

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Development of a Vibratory Roller with Automatic Compaction Data Processing Functions

H. Fujikawa, T. Kiriyarna, M. Fukuda, N. Inaba
Pages 231-238

This is a vibratory roller with an automatic compaction data processing functions capable of performing compaction work by monitoring the compaction degree in a nondesttuctive method. The roller is equipped on its main body with a travel-type RI sensor to measure density in real time and sensors to measure the ...

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Development of Fully Automatic Both-Side Welding (GMAW) for Pipeline

Kenji Kitano, Masahito Ikebe, Hiromi Shiraishi, Tatsuya Kasatani
Pages 239-246

Development of a fully automatic both-side welding method for pipeline construction was achieved in terms of combining an internal clamp and welding device with a two external head welding device. A double-V butt joint of 40 degree geometry was applied with simultaneous three head operation (one internal and two external ...

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A Practical Development of Automated Cleaning System for Construction Aluminum Scaffolding Boards

Fumihiro Inoue, Kyouichi Hishikawa, Tatsuya Wakisaka, Manabu Tanaka, Kaoru Endo
Pages 247-254

"Aluminum scaffolding boards are widely used as contemporary material at construction sites due to light weight. However it is important to carefully clean dirty aluminum boards with mud and concrete paste because they are scratched easily. This paper describes the development of an automated cleaning system to improve the work ...

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Supervision and Control of Working Fixtures Position of the Single Bucket Excavator with regard to Displacement of their Undercarriage and Outriggers' Characteristics

Adam Bartnicki, Stanislaw Konopka, Franciszek Kuczmarski, Andrzej Typiak, Jozef Wrona
Pages 255-260

In automatic control process of a single bucket excavators' work the problem of taking the assumed trajectory by working fixtures is very important. In this paper are described the method of such measurements and the system for positioning of the bucket cutting edge with using the laser beam assumed to ...

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Posture Control of Six-Legged Integrated Locomotion and Manipulation Robot

Haruo Hoshino, Toshio Fukuda, Yuji Adachi, Eiji Muro
Pages 261-270

This paper describes the Six-legged Integrated Locomotion and Manipulation Robot with an omni-directional walking mechanism and 4 d.o.f. manipulator. The walking mechanism consists of a parallel link mechanism connecting the two frames with three linear actuators, and this robot has six extendable legs and can move in any direction. The ...

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Automated Maintenance Robot for Expressway-Tunnel

Motohisa Sato, Akira Kobayasi, Eiji Mori
Pages 271-278

This paper presents the mechanization and automation of inside tunnel ma intenance works at Japan Highway PubIic Corporation (JH), FirstIy Maintenance-VehicIes using in Kan-etu tunnel are introduced, Then automated vehicles for tunnel maintenance are proposed, There are two types of the automated vehicles. One is an all-in-one type automated equipment ...

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Development of a Fully-Mechanized Welding Robot System on Construction Site

Masataka Koyama, Hiroyuki Wada, Hideo Tanijiri, Takashi Arai
Pages 279-284

This paper introduces a new welding robot system used in the construction site. This system is able to perform welding all around the columns by using laser sensors. The shape of the groove is determined by laser sensors and welding conditions are determined for horizontal welding position. The considered application ...

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Development of Automatic System for Diaphragm-Wall Excavator

Takashi Matsuike, Yoshiyuki Sawa, Akira Ohashi, Shinji Sotozono, Ryoichi Fukagawa, Tatsuro Muro
Pages 285-294

A diaphragm wall method needs high accuracy of excavation, and the necessity is larger with depth.The authors have developed an excavation control system, as a supporting system for large-depth excavation, in which the excavator is positioned exactly and its displacement from a designed line is controlled under 30 - 50 ...

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Development of an Excavation Accuracy Control System for Diaphragm Walls

Hideaki Asai, Roji Ogawa, Yuji Akasaka, Yuichiro Miyazaki
Pages 295-304

Recently, construction has been automated and labor- saving, and diaphragm walls have be come much deeper. In view of this, we have developed an accuracy control system for installing diaphragm walls, using a horizontal multi- axial rotating cutter for excavating. Using this system enables high- accuracy excavation easily. The system ...

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A Motion Planning Software System for Automated Landfill Compaction on Rough Surfaces

Hui-Ping Tserng, Jeffrey S. Russell, Dharrnaraj Veeramani, Raghavan Kunigahalli
Pages 305-314

The integration of robotics and automation techniques in sanitary landfill operations would dramatically reduce construction workers' exposure to hazardous materials and improve the productivity of landfill operations. The autonomous equipment would provide a system where the productivity associated with waste spreading would be increased. Since there are uncertain job-site conditions ...

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Application of Water Jet Cutting to Treatment for Obstructive Piles

Soichi Kohashi, Hajime Takasaki, Kazuhiko Matsui, Akira Ohashi, Takashi Matsuike, Yoshiyuki Sawa
Pages 315-322

This paper presents an application of the water jet cutting method to a treatment for obstructive piles on a planned line of shield tunneling. An automated cutting system and a monitoring system, developed for this treatment, support the work of cutting PHC (Prestressed High-strength Concrete) pile into small pieces before ...

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Research & Development of Automatic System for Open Caisson Method

Yoshitomo Tani, Masanori Nakano, Moriyuki Okoshi, Satoshi Maeda, Hiizu Isa
Pages 323-332

The open caisson method is used in a wide variety of applications such as the construction of building foundations or vertical shafts and, of the various methods available, the open caisson method has a long history of use in foundation construction. Both the structure of the caisson itself and the ...

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Development of the Automatic System for Pneumatic Caisson

Katsumi Kodaki, Masanori Nakano, Toshiaki Nanasawa, Satoshi Maeda, Masamitsu Miyazawa
Pages 333-341

The pneumatic caisson method is applicable in any type of ground and permits the ground being excavated to be observed directly, hence it provides a reliable foundation. However, since the working chamber is put under high pressure, high temperature, and high humidity, his method requires robust, experienced workers. On the ...

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The Development of Quality Control System for the Embankment

Tomonori Takada, Tatsunori Sada, Syouzou Naemura, Noriaki Aoyama
Pages 343-348

It is required for construction to have execution of high quality and high precisionhowever, Today's shortage of skilled workers and aging workingforce is causing a deterioration of quality. Therefore developing new technology for construction sites has become more important than ever before. And we need to promote the spread the ...

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An Operations Planning System for Asphalt Pavement Compaction

Hui-Ping Tserng, Jeffrey S. Russell, Bharath K. Krishnamurthy, Robert L. Schmitt
Pages 349-358

Asphalt density after compaction by the breakdown roller is a key factor influencing asphalt pavement performance. Among the several factors influencing asphalt pavement density, the number of passes required for a rolling operation is a critical factor and difficult to determine and measure appropriately. Furthermore, it is difficult to ensure ...

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An Operator Aiding System for Compactors

Michel Froumentin, Francois Peyret
Pages 359-368

This paper first describes the prototype operator aiding system called MACC, developed and realized by the "Road Test Center" in cooperation with the " Public Works Research institute". This on-board system displays a real-time two-dimensional colored cartography of the compaction pattern of the work site to inform the compactor operator ...

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Development of Advanced Dredger

Tamotsu Ogasawara, Tamiya Fukushima, Masahide Murase, Yuzuru Nakamura
Pages 369-378

The "Dredger" was developed as a specialized vessel for improving the water quality of lake Kasumigaura by dredging its muddy bottom ooze. Unlike normal dredging with a dredger, ooze dredging is a dredging operation performed under difficult constraints, namely, removing only the very oozy sludge built up on the surface ...

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Bank-Foot Water Channel Cleaning Work Truck - Sediment Absorbing Robot and Dehydration Plant

Tamiya Fukushima, Tamotsu Ogasawara, Minoru Kubota, Masaru Totsuka
Pages 379-388

A l.fi-meter channel runs along the bank foot of Lake Kasumigaura, lbaraki Prefecture. From fields and rice paddies that surround the area, soil drains into this channel and accumulates in the bottom. Unless removed, the accumulated soil degenerates the functions of the channel, and in the long run, possibly drain ...

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Example of Application of Mechanized Digging Work Method for Collector Well

Yoshitaka Yanagihara, Masayuki Takasu, Sumio Fukuda
Pages 389-398

Conventionally, collector wells have been largely dug by manual labor and the workers have been likely to be exposed to breakdown of underground walls, generation of toxic gas, lack of oxygen, and the like. There has been another problem related to construction efficiency; since the tools such as breakers are ...

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Monitoring and Warning Computerized System for a Semi-Automatic Lift-Up system of Pre-Assembled Roof Floor

Yoshio Maruyama, Shigeomi Nishigaki
Pages 399-404

Faced by a need to overcome work force shortage and vanishing skill replacement, a semi-automatic lift-up system of pre-assembled roof floor is developed by Hazama Corporation, which is one of general contractors in Japan. The semi-automatic lift-up system is able to automatically lift the pre-assembled roof floor up along with ...

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Simulating Construction Process with an Animation

Naai-Jung Shih
Pages 405-410

This paper presents an animation which simulates construction process by applying tower cranes to assemble shared steel forms in a site of six buildings. Only two sets of steel forms are provided. The animation is simulated based on the length of a cycle.and the number of cycles (a unit ...

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An Object-Oriented Environment for the Construction Planning of High-Rise Buildings

Masaaki Ikeda, Amr A. Oloufa, Yasunari Sekihara
Pages 411-420

New buildings are experiencing a continuous increase in the sophistication of their building systems and methods of construction. This situation creates a need for a planning tool that is capable of serving one or more of the complex set of activities during the project life phases. Several researchers have devised methods ...

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Construction Quality Control Through Voice Recognition Technology

Luh-Maan Chang, Tao-ming Cheng
Pages 421-430

Voice recognition technology is one form of the Automatic Identification system. This automatic data coUection through voice has been successfully applied in many other industries and has the potential to be used in construction quality control. Using this technology, the operator can enter information simply by speaking the desired data ...

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Automated Inspection Planning Through CAD Modeling for Steel Bridge Painting Construction

Machine Hsie
Pages 431-440

To reduce inspection cost, random-sampling is currently the most popular method to check the quality of steel bridge painting construction. The "randomness" of sampling is the key assumption of the statistical random sampling theory. Only when inspection spots are "randomly" selected, is the decision-making based on the collected data meaningful. ...

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Roadrobot Project - An Experience Using STEP in Construction

R. Jardim-Goncalves, J. Pimentao, M. Vital, P. Sousa, H. Silva, Steiger-Garcao
Pages 441-450

Up to now, the construction industry has not achieved a very high degree of automation. This lack has resulted in a demand for very flexible and automated heavy-duty machines, as well as integration concepts for automated construction sites. The utilisation of Information Technology (IT) in outdoor applications, specially in the ...

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Development of Multi-Media Management System for Tunnel Construction and its Practice

Keiji Ono, Shigeyuki Kohno, Hideo Fukai, Takatoshi Ueno
Pages 451-456

It is common that the tunnel construction site in the hard rock ground is remotely located from office on the site, making it difficult to manage the construction works real-time wise with high accuracy. Moreover, the current demands for the increases in length, size and depth of the tunnels and ...

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An Integrated Intelligent Planning Approach for Standardised Prefabricated Components

Nashwan Dawood
Pages 457-465

Design, manufacturing and erection activities of prefabricated units are highly complex, fragmented, time consuming and demand expert personnel. A recent study by the author revealed that the prefabrication industry is highly fragmented, manual intensive and behind other manufacturing based products in terms of information technology and automation. This is causing ...

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A Case-Based Reasoning Approach for Construction Planning

Nie-Jia Yau, Jyh-Bin Yang
Pages 467-474

This research effort aims to use a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) approach for construction planning and attempts to investigate its advantages over traditional expert systems approach. Many expert systems for construction planning have been developed, but the existing planning systems are incapable of dealing with the situations when the required input ...

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Planning and Scheduling Consideration and Constraints in Automated Construction Environment

Chotchai Charoenngam
Pages 475-482

Project planning functions are to establish project activities, their logical relationships and interrelationships to each other, and the sequences in which they are to be accomplished. The process of assigning activities' duration and identifying the start and completion times of activities and project is considered as project scheduling. Project planning ...

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Constraint-Directed Scheduling for Multi-Storey Building Projects

Pasit Lorterapong, Osama Moselhi
Pages 483-492

This paper describes the development of a scheduling prototype system that assists schedulers in managing constraints that are normally encountered in the scheduling of multi-storey building projects. Constraints such as technological constraints, time constraints, resource limitations, space congestion, safety and managerial constraints are treated in this study. The system breaks ...

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An Intelligent Virtual Reality Model for Site Layout Planning

A. H. Boussabaine
Pages 493-500

This paper describes research which is underway in the School of Architecture and Building Engineering at the University of Liverpool. The main aim of the first stage of this research is to develop a theoretical model for site layout visualisation. Emphasis has been placed on investigating ways of integrating and ...

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First Results of Hybrid Object-Oriented System for the Optimization of the Construction Site Layout: ESBE

K. Lennnerts
Pages 501-510

ESBE is a hybrid object-oriented system. The objective is the interactive generation of an optimized construction site layout. The task is the locating of the individual construction site facilities. ESBE consists of three major parts: an object-oriented construction site database which contains general and company specific data of the construction ...

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Automation and Integration of the Design and Construction of Concrete Buildings

M. Alfares, A. Seireg
Pages 511-520

The study reported in this paper demonstrates an interactive Computer-Integrated Construction system (CIC) with graphic display for custom design of concrete buildings and automated on-site implementation by robotic devices. The developed system utilizes standardized reusable modular forms which are specially designed for assembly and disassembly by robots. These forms serve ...

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Geometric and Topological Representation of Reinforcement Detail for Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures

R. Kunigahalli
Pages 521-530

This paper presents a topological model for reinforcing elements that can be employed to generate equipment-level instructions for automated rebar cage fabricating and placing machines. The model presented in this paper supports extraction of information pertaining to hooks and splices in logarithmic running time during the construction/manufacturing stage. In addition, ...

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Construction Planning and Manageability Prediction

T. Miyagawa
Pages 531-540

The Construction Planning and Manageability Prediction (CM) System builds a master plan and schedule that explicitly represents planned construction methods and resource utilization. The system simulates the schedule and identifies potential risks causing difficulties during construction. An automated diagnosis procedure analyzes the simulation results to identify potential risk factors in ...

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Automation - Equipped Working Place of a Construction Firm Management Engineer

T. Bobrova, V. Nikitin
Pages 541-546

The Siberian Automobile and Highway Institute presents the results of research on development of the AUTOMATION -EQUIPPED WORKING PLACE OF A CONSTRUCTION ENGINEER (AEWPCE) program package for a personal computer. The complex consists of three main blocks: BLOCK A is the scheduling on the imitation model basis; BLOCK B is ...

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Detection of Underground Obstacles by Using Vision and Force for Excavation

K. Kayaba, E. Nakano
Pages 547-554

A new method for detecting underground obstacles, such as water pipes and power transmission cables, during excavation works is proposed in this paper. The studied method is based on the concept of sensor fusion and incorporates of visual information and force sensor data. The resistive force which acts on the ...

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Communication System of Realtime Two-Dimensional Position Data with Scanning Laser Beam

S. Tonaki, T. Takada
Pages 555-560

Most construction work; indoors and outdoors, involves movements. In the development of robots to be used at the construction site, one of their intended functions is movement control, positioning in particular. In the field of industrial robots as well, recent developments incorporate movement functions represented by AGV (Automatically guided vehicle), ...

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An Outdoor Stereo Vision Brick Recognition System for Construction Robots

L. A. Slivovsky, K. Rahardja, J. Edwards, A. Kak, Y. Tanaka
Pages 561-570

Our work addresses the problem of using robot vision to recognize and localize objects in outdoor environments. Successful applications of robot vision are mostly found in indoor environments where illumination and backgrounds can be carefully controlled. For outdoor applications, a vision system must be robust with respect to the changing ...

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Development of Virtual Survey Marking System (VSMS) for Remote Control of Construction Machinery

Y. Miyauchi, T. Miyajima, T. Sato, M. Hirose
Pages 571-580

Remote control technology for construction machinery is attracting attention because it can permit construction work to be conducted safely in dangerous areas or in such special environments as are encountered when developing deep underground spaces. If remote control of construction machinery is necessary, this means that survey workers cannot enter ...

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The Crucial Information for Improving Manipulator Operation - No.1: In Case of Crane Operation

M. Ikeda, M. Yoneda, F. Arai, T. Fukuda
Pages 581-586

Skilled rough terrain crane operators say that they take many sensory information for getting more precise movements of a machine. The first experiment in this paper reveals which sense is the most important factor for crane operation. By using a 25ton crane simulator, (visual, acoustical and tactile) information of an ...

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Numerical Simulation on Control of the Cutting Edge of the Scraper

H. Takahashi, Y. Seyama
Pages 587-596

This paper is concerned with the simulation of motion control of the cutting edge of the scraper. The task of flattening the ground was divided into two modes such as flattening and loading mode. It was confirmed that the accuracy of this simulation in the flattening mode by using the ...

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Dam Concrete Automatic Transfer System

K. Kazama, E. Takahashi, M. Nakao
Pages 597-606

It is a serious problem with the construction industry that there has been a growing shortage of skilled workers together with the problem of their aging. Rationalization of work, labor saving, and safety control through automation of construction equipments have also been desired. The automation of dam concrete transfer has ...

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Development of a Bulldozer Operation Simulator

S. Mimura, Y. Ishimatsu, T. Yoshida
Pages 607-614

Bulldozers and similar general purpose earthmoving equipment frequently handle soil, work which must be done by operators with considerable experience. A study of an artificial intelligence technology based control system that can permit even inexperienced bulldozer operators to perform high quality earthwork has been carried out. This paper provides a ...

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Advances in Control Systems for Construction Manipulators

R. Greer, C. Haas, G. Gibson, A. Traver, R. L. Tucker
Pages 615-624

Fundamental advances in sensors, actuators, and control systems technology are creating opportunities to improve the performance of traditional construction equipment. New capabilities are being developed as well. These improvements in performance and new capabilities are resulting in better safety and efficiency. However, selecting control strategies can be confusing and measuring ...

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The Prediction of the Interaction between an Excavator for the Diaphragm Wall Method and the Surrounding Ground

R. Fukagawa, T. Muro, H. Yamamoto, T. Matsuike
Pages 625-634

The aim of this paper is to propose a reliable mechanical model which can explain the interaction between an excavator for the diaphragm wall method and the surrounding ground. The non-linear interaction between the control plate of the excavator and the ground was formulated by an exponential type function. The ...

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Self-Programming Construction Machines

R. L. Winter, J. O. Brien
Pages 635-644

Self-programming, intelligent, flexible machine systems offer a desirable alternative to high-volume, hard automation solutions in the complex, ill-structured and dynamic field of construction. A theory of construction is developed which shows that the nature of construction requires the capability for problem solving. Highly complex, dynamic problems require a high degree ...

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Evaluation of Ground Properties and its Application to the Automatic Adjustment System for Vibrating Conditions in Vibratory Soil Compaction

K. Tateyama, T. Fujiyama
Pages 645-652

The compacting effect which a vibrating compactor has on the ground is greatly affected by its mechanical factors such as weight, frequency and dynamic force. In this paper, we study the relationship among the mechanical factors of a vibrating compactor, the ground conditions and the compacting effect of a compactor ...

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Robotic Handling of Gamma-Ray Sources in Site Radiography of Steel Storage Tanks

D. A. Chamberlain, R. Edney, G. Bleakley
Pages 653-662

There are many possible causes of the radiation exposure hazard in on-site gamma radiography. Through poor safety procedures, for example, operators are in danger of rapidly acquiring radiation dosage by proximity to the radioactive source. In such circumstances a dosage, which might otherwise be associated with one year of intensive ...

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Crane Operating Field Control System

J. Nishimura,K. Okuzumi,T. Imamura, T. Kishino
Pages 663-672

Based on conditions in the area surrounding a site, in certain cases constraints apply to the use of cranes in construction. Such cases include sites very close to a road, railway line, power transmission line, or another building, as well as sites where legal restrictions such as civil aeronautics law ...

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Kinematically Induced Excavation by Backhoe Excavator

E. Budny, W. Gutkowski
Pages 673-680

The paper deals with kinematically controlled excavation process performed by a commonly applied backhoe excavator. It is assumed that all three hydraulic actuators which are driving the arms of the machine may work simultaneously. This creates a unique relationship between - bucket's motion as a rigid body and the actuators ...

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Development of Prevention System from Hitting for Hydraulic Excavators

M. Moteki, T. Yoshida
Pages 681-690

Fatalities caused by industrial accidents in the construction industry have remained level since the first half of the 1980s. The majority of these fatalities are caused by falls, contact between workers and construction equipment, or by overturning construction equipment. This project was undertaken to study the hitting between workers and ...

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Visualisation Technique for Robotic Component Connection Systems

B. L. Atkin, S. O. Popo-Ola, R. D. Wing
Pages 691-698

As the construction process moves towards an increasingly automated scenario, the design of fixing systems which can be easily handed by robotic devices becomes an essential factor in the eventual viability of the whole system. This project has studied many common and many uncommon fixing methods, in a survey covering ...

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A Trajectory Following Control for a Miniature Wheel Loader

T. Tsubouchi, H. Ishimoto, S. Sarata, S. Yuta
Pages 699-708

To implement an autonomy upon a wheel loader is emphasized in this research work. Such an autonomy will contribute in assisting human operator of the wheel loader. The present authors have built a miniature wheel loader (MWL) whose name is ""Yamazumi"", on which a trajectory following control scheme has been ...

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Development of Surveying Robot

M. Takasu, T. Sato, S. Kojima, K. Hamada
Pages 709-716

The purpose of surveying robot is to streamline a series of work at sites, such as transportation and setting of surveying equipment, surveying, the recording of coordinates data, to achieve labor-saving and high efficiencies in surveying work. Characteristics of surveying robots are shown below. 1) A precise survey can ...

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A New Technique of Position-Fixing for Site Vehicles

B. Gorham
Pages 717-726

This paper reviews the development of an automatic laser theodolite LASERFIX first designed at the University of East London in 1979 and since that time protected by a number of international patents. Applications of that theodolite to surveying, robot calibration and tunnelling machine guidance are introduced, and the specific problems ...

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The Automation of Piling Rig Positioning Using Satellite GPS

D. W. Seward, J. R. Ward, J. D. Findlay, H. Kinniburgh
Pages 727-732

The paper is in two parts: Part one describes the Stent Automatic Pile Positioning and Recording system (SAPPAR) which was launched in November 1994. The system utilises a Trimble satellite global positioning system (GPS) to assist rig drivers to accurately position the rig over a pile position without the need for ...

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Automatic Surveying System of the Geographical Feature Utilizing Newly Developed Long-Distance and Angle Measuring Instrument without Target Prism

Y. Tsukada, N. Aoyama, S. Maeda, T. Nozawa, K. Shimazaki, M. Kato
Pages 733-742

The Public Works Research Institute of the Ministry of Construction, having developed an automatic measuring system of construction progress amount in the earth work together with the Advanced Construction Technology Center, Aoki Corporation and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., herein reports it. In the conventional method, measurement technicians are obliged to move ...

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Application of Wireless Telemeter Multiplex Transmission System to Shield Tunnelling

M. Iijima, S. Shiba, T. Yamazaki, T. lwasaki
Pages 743-750

There is increasing demand for labor saving and improvement of work environment in today's construction sites, necessarily resulting in more extensive mechanization, robotization and information- intensification for different work steps. Three important technologies supporting these trends are data processing by computer, electronic communications and control techniques. Through the study by ...

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Development of Driving Jack System for Tunnel Boring Machine

F. Ishise, K. Kazama, S. Honmura, M. Sameshima
Pages 751-760

To realize stable excavation control on unsound ground and linear control along with scheduled lines when excavation operations are performed with tunnel boring machines, etc; driving jack systems have been developed as an application of parallel links which enable us to use position/posture controls with 6 degrees of freedom. This ...

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Development of the Electromagnetic Induction Welding Device for Isolation Sheets

K. Deguchi, K. Miyazawa, T. Haba, H. Sakurai, S. Tsubone
Pages 761-767

An electromagnetic induction welding device for isolation sheets has been developed with the aim of labor-saving, greater automation, and improved safety during the installation of isolation sheets in tunnels and other similar structures. This innovative development of the conventional sheet welding system is able to automatically locate welding points, disks ...

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Decision Process of a Control Limit for Micro-Tunnelling Robots

T. Takatsu
Pages 769-778

In this paper, we derive a procedure to design a control limit for Micro-tunnelling Robots. The main problem to design the control limit is that the relation between the trajectory of the Micro-tunnelling Robot and the work quality is unknown. We accordingly make a mathematical model for simulation experiment to know ...

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Fully Automated System for Shield Tunnelling under Integrated Control

H. Ohno, K. Kazama, A. Higashide, A. Tomioka
Pages 779-788

In recent years, with the overcrowding of cities in Japan, the use of underground space has become more and more intensive. As a result, the shield tunnelling method has been increasingly used for underground development. Also recently, the diameter of shield tunnels has increased, and the conditions under which the ...

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Development of an Automatic Transportation System Intended for Long Tunnels

H. Suzuki, T. Umegae, K. Fujita, S. Kozuki, S. Saito, H. Takahashi, Y. Murakami
Pages 789-796

With the rapid advancement of tunnel-boring machines, driving operation has recently been carried out with a higher level of speed and efficiency. However, in the case of long tunnels, a rapid transportation system that supports speedy driving is indispensable. It is also important, after carrying out accurate monitoring of a ...

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The Application of the Automated Transit System to Construction Sites

K. Funatsu, T. Mori, Y. Nakai, S. Iwaoka, K. Kawakami, H. Watabe
Pages 797-804

We introduced the outline of the remote-control type automated transit system in a paper presented at the 11th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, entitled ""The Development of a remote-control transportation system for use in underground space"". This system is used to convey excavated soil, materials and tools ...

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The Development of the Automatic Segment Erection System

M. Onuki, M. Makita, M. Mano, M. Shibuya, M. Takitani
Pages 805-812

An automatic segment erection system for a medium and a small diameter shield has been developed. The erection system consists of a segment automatic conveyance device, a flatcar for temporary storage of a segment and an automatic erector device. This system has automated a series of events until rough positioning ...

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Development of Automatic Segment Assembly Robot for Shield Tunnelling Machine

Y. Hirasawa, H. Hashimoto, Y. Wori, T. Kusaki, T. Kamei
Pages 813-820

The automatic segment assembly robot has been adopted on a shield machine used in a subway construction project for a 600m tunnel construction. The robot was implemented successfully and operated throughout the project without having any practical problems concerning assembly accuracy or the time required for segment assembly. Moreover, the ...

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Development of Effective Segment Erection System for Shield Machine

S. Aoe, T. Sato, K. Murano, S. Nomura
Pages 821-830

Automatic segment assembly technology for use with the shield construction method has, as a result of the recent increase in the diameters of shield tunnels, become increasingly important as a way to improve safety and cut labor requirements at shield construction sites, and the development process has now passed from ...

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Development of an Automatic Direction Control System for TBM

S. Uematsu, T. Nakanishi, S. Takamizawa, K. Matsueda, T. Nanbu, S. Fukuhara
Pages 831-840

It is said that the TBM technique will be applied more extensively in Japan. Such prediction refers to these facts: tunnel boring machines applicable to various geological conditions in our country have been developed, and a practice using a TBM is now being studied, for cutting a drift of an ...

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Total Automatic Excavation System for TBMs

T. Nakayama, S. Inoue, Y. Seno
Pages 841-850

A fuzzy logic excavation system for tunnel boring machines, which automates the excavation alignment control and discharging of the excavated materials, has been developed. By constantly monitoring boring machine behavior, geological conditions and roller cutter wear, this system achieves high precision and efficient excavation of both hard rock and soil. ...

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New Rock-Fracturing Excavation Method for Hard Rock Tunneling by FON Drill and FASE Method

T. Noma, M. Hada, T. Tsuchiya, S. Nakayama
Pages 851-858

A new rock-fracturing excavation method for hard rock tunnelling is developed using a slot made by continuous hole drilling and fracturing toward the slot using a rubber-tube-type fracturing machine. This paper gives an outline of the method of making a slot by continuous hole drilling, the fracturing machine and its ...

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The Integrated Rock Tunnel Data Logging and Decision-Aid System

S. Leu, C. Dai
Pages 859-866

The construction process of a NATM tunnel consists of geological data logging and rock mass classification, monitoring of the changes of rock strain and stress, as well as blasting and excavation. Nevertheless, the disadvantages of traditional manual recording of tunnel-related information are: 1) it is difficult to record data in ...

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Development of a New Dimension and Computer-Aided Construction System for Shotcreting Robot

M. Cheng, Y. Liang, C. Wey, J. Chou, J. Chen
Pages 867-876

This paper addresses the improvement of the semi-automated shotcreting robot. The arm of the robot has six degree of freedoms and is remotely controlled by the operator using a control box with six sticks and three buttons on the board. However, based on the results of utilization, the concurrent model ...

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Development of Board Placing Robot

H. Yoshinada, T. Sawano, I. Takahashi, H. Suzuki, E. Muro, H. Hosino, J. Hakamazuka, M. Iichi
Pages 877-886

The development of the board placing robot for interior finishing works is described. The featured concept is entirely new and the structure of the system is almost different from the former board installation robots. The robot is developed as a personal use one for a board installation worker and the ...

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Development and Application of the Light Weight Manipulator for Interior Finish Work

K. Nanba, M. Takasu, T. Sato, S. Kojima
Pages 887-894

Interior finish work of a building under construction, which is work in a closed space, is behind the times in labor saving by mechanization. This made us develop a light weight multi-purpose manipulator applicable to different places and types of construction work as well as to various types of interior ...

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Practical Sensor Strategies for On-Site Positioning of a Mobile Bricklaying Robot

G. Pritschow, J. Kurz, S. E. McCormac, M. Dalacker
Pages 895-904

The authors describe practical sensor systems suitable for a mobile bricklaying robot for automated masonry construction on a building site. The major sources of error encountered during the automated masonry construction process as well as the required tolerances for the masonry process are described. Based on these considerations, two sensor ...

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Development of a High Accuracy Harmonious Control Method for Push-Up Jack System for Building Construction

T. Tomita, S. Ueda, Y. Ogihara, T. Miyamoto
Pages 905-914

These days in Japan there are a lot of demands for middle- or high-story buildings, ranging from 9 to 15 stories. When constructing these buildings, various kinds of improvements have been accomplished so far ; adoption of pre-cast concrete components, optimized combination of steel, concrete and other materials, development of ...

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Development of Automated Exterior Curtain Wall Installation System

I. Seo, H. Oda, N. Tasaki, H. Tanijiri
Pages 915-924

The development of automated construction has been promoted in the construction industry in recent years, and this paper based on the project entitled ""Automated Construction of Exterior Finish Panel"", which was awarded the top prize in the Practical Application Section at the 10th International Construction Robot Symposium, furthers that development. ...

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Framework of Production Information Management System for Automated Construction - WASCOR IV Research Project Report (Part IV)-

K. Tamaki, Y. Hasegawa, H. Matsuda
Pages 925-932

For automatizing building construction systems with robots, the WASCOR (WASeda COnstruction Robot) IV research project has been organized since 1992 by System Science Institute, Waseda University. This multi-client research project includes nine general constructors and one construction machinery manufacturer. The purpose of this paper is to report a part ...

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Application of High Perfomance Concrete on a 85-Story High Rise Building in Taiwan

Sy-Jye Guo, Tung-Ho Tsai
Pages 933-940

High Performance Concrete (HPC) has become a potential research topic of construction automation due to its cost effectiveness, laborer reduction, productivity improvement and high quality of concrete pouring on construction fields. HPC not only has the characteristics of traditional high strength concrete, but also high flowability, workability , durability, as ...

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Concept of a Robot for Interior Building Trades by the Example of Wall Slits in Masonry

D. Spath, J. Andres
Pages 941-948

This article deals with the automation of interior building trades by the use of robots. Therefore, the specifications of a robot system for the manufacturing of wall slits, as a preliminary step of wiring and electrical installations in masonry construction, will be defined. The main motivation to reduce the manual ...

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Development of Wall Painting Robot

T. Gokyu, M. Takasu, S. Fukuda
Pages 949-956

Wall painting as well as inspection works for structures, so far, have been performed manually through use of scaffolds or gondolas provisionally built all around the subject wall, which, therefore, having raised many problems such as high personal risks, unclean work environments, etc.. The wall painting robot developed this time ...

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Development of a Gondola Type External Wall Painting Robot

T. Miyajima, S. Terauchi, K. Arai, T. Miyamoto
Pages 957-962

The painting of building external walls is usually performed using a gondola or scaffolding, involves working at considerable heights, and is an unclean job due to windblown paint spray. Recently too, there have been problems involving quality due to lack of skilled painters. As a solution to such problems, painting ...

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Development of a Fireproof Insulation Spray Robot System

Y. Watanabe, H. Tanijir, M. Matuo,R. Yoshitake, M. Kato
Pages 963-972

This report describes the summary of the development of the fireproof insulation spray robot No.1 system in 1991, as an example of promoting the automation of architectural work by taking advantage of a wide-use type industrial robot. This was reported at the 9th International Construction Robot Symposium in 1992. The ...

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Development and Implementation of Troweling Robot for Concrete Floor Finishing

M. Kobayashi, M. Soma, T. Shigihara
Pages 973-980

In the construction industry, concrete floor finishing is hard and laborious' and the number of skilled plasterers has dropped sharply. Due to these circumstances, several types of robots were developed to meet the need. But they have not spread too wideIy. Understanding the problems of these robots, we developed a ...

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Vision Based Navigation System of Air Conditioning Equipment Inspection Robot

Y. Abe, T. Fukuda, Y. Yokoyama, F. Arai, K. Shimojima, S. Ito, K. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka
Pages 981-990

A template matching is a popular method for visual recognition. It costs much time to detect target objects. We have applied a Fuzzy and Neural Network algorithm to solve this problem. However, the problem to mistake recognizing the target object is not solved. Hence, in this paper, we propose a ...

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A Flexible Manufacturing Approach to Wood Frame Housing Construction

M. A. Mullens
Pages 991-998

This paper describes the first installation of advanced CAD/CAM and flexible manufacturing technologies available to U.S. industrialized homebuilders. The production system can produce both interior and exterior wood frame wall panels in an infinite variety of configurations to meet virtually any architectural design need. The paper describes how this production ...

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Planning and Execution of Lift-Up Construction for Roof of Large-Scale Single-Layer Latticed Dome

T. Miyazaki, N. Okazaki, S. Iinuma, A. Ichikawa
Pages 999-1008

The Nagoya Dome currently under construction is a ball park featuring the world's largest single-layer latticed dome roof with a daylight admitting-and-cutting facility in its center. Because of the roofs iron frame having all of its splices connected by welding, the erection of the roof required highly sophisticated technology and ...

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Development of Automated Weather-Unaffected Building Construction System

H. Tanijiri, B. Ishiguro, T. Arai, R. Yoshitake, M. Kato, Y. Morishima, N. Takasaki
Pages 1009-1018

An automated weather-unaffected building system has been developed which is aimed at creating a system for producing an attractive building system for the next generation. This system makes improvements with regards to problems pertaining to labour productivity, and creates a comfortable production environment for the new type of engineers of ...

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Mechanization and Automation by the Manufacturing of Removable Modular Buildings

Frans van Gassel
Pages 1019-1026

During the last ten years Removable Modular Building Systems in the Netherlands have made remarkable progress by using mechanization and automation. These are not the only techniques, as logistic techniques, design according to a modular system and standardization of joints, are also used. An interesting question is what designers of permanent ...

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