2021 Proceedings of the 38th ISARC, Dubai, UAE
Abstract: ISARC is the premiere global conference in the domain of automation and robotics in construction. Specifically, ISARC 2021 is situated in an extremely interesting and important time in history: interest in digitising, automating, and robotising construction is rising in an unprecedented scale on a global level and cross all actors. ...
Keywords: No keywords
Abstract: Due to their unstructured and dynamic nature, construction sites present many challenges for robotic automation of tasks. Integrating human-robot collaboration (HRC) is critical for task success and implementation feasibility. This is particularly important for contact-rich tasks and other complex scenarios which require a level of reasoning that cannot be accomplished ...
Keywords: Robotics; Construction; Haptics; Human-Robot Collaboration; Robotic Manipulation; Tactile Feedback
Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) is no longer a new technology and is already being used profitably in many sectors of the economy. AM is also becoming increasingly popular in the construction industry, and more and more research is focused on unlocking new building materials for AM. As a digital fabrication method, ...
Keywords: Building Information Modeling (BIM); Fabrication Information Modeling (FIM); Additive Manufacturing (AM); Automated Construction
Abstract: Construction inspection is an important part of the construction management process to ensure that the project is compliant with the requirements, regulations, and standards. Due to time and cost constraints, inspectors representing owners, as well as architects, designers, and other stakeholders might not be able to visit and inspect the ...
Keywords: legged robot; construction inspection; virtual environment; reality capture
Abstract: The research presented in this paper introduces a novel method for Augmented Reality informed human-machine collaboration in the context of timber prefabrication. The concept is based on the craftsman controlled instructive interaction between a High Level of Automation (robotic) fabrication setup and a human co-worker. It argues that by enabling ...
Keywords: Augmented reality;
instructive Human-robot collaboration;
Abstract: Efficient project monitoring is a key to a project's success. Linear construction projects span across large distances and require similar activities to be carried out repeatedly over multiple small segments for project completion. Thus, monitoring their progress becomes challenging. This is a matter of concern since proper progress monitoring can ...
Keywords: Progress Monitoring;
Linear Infrastructure Projects;
Geographic Information System;
Open Data Kit (ODK);
Abstract: Population aging is one of the major challenges facing the world. In particular, the advent of China's aging society caused by various factors will be a major threat to its future development. Therefore, serious measures need to be taken to achieve its demographic sustainability. Smart furniture can be considered as ...
Keywords: Chinese older adults;
Distributed intelligent home;
Abstract: In this paper, we propose an excavator activity analysis and safety monitoring system, leveraging recent advancements in deep learning and computer vision. Our proposed system detects the surrounding environment and the excavators while estimating the poses and actions of the excavators. Compared to previous systems, our method achieves higher accuracy ...
Keywords: Computer Vision; Deep Learning; Action Recognition; Object Detection; Pose Estimation; Activity Analysis; Safety Monitor
Abstract: With the growth in automated data collection of construction projects, the need for semantic navigation of mobile robots is increasing. In this paper, we propose an infrastructure to leverage building-related information for smarter, safer and more precise robot navigation during construction phase. Our use of Building Information Models (BIM) in ...
Keywords: BIM; IFC; Optimal Navigation; Semantic; Autonomous Robot; Path Planning
Abstract: A view is among the critical criteria in an architectural design process. Presently, it is assessed by conventional site observation, labour-intensive data collection, and manual data analysis before designing a building mass, plan, façade, openings, and interior space. City Information Model (CIM), with its capabilities to store, visualize, and analyze ...
Keywords: Architectural design; Generative design; Space planning;
City information model;
Abstract: Cities worldwide are experiencing increasing temperatures due to the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon. UHI is caused by the replacement of natural land surfaces with man-made dark surfaces. Among others, it causes a number of public health problems associated with heat events, particularly in the construction sector, where construction workers ...
Keywords: Urban Heat Island; Data-driven Modeling; Urban Design Decision Making; Decision trees
Abstract: Blockchain is a disruptive technology that has great potential in securing BIM data immutability and traceability. However, integrating BIM management with blockchain still faces a risk of sensitive information leaking because blockchain is such a transparent network that BIM data are disclosed to every member. Therefore, this paper proposes a ...
Keywords: BIM-based design; Blockchain; Asymmetric encryption; Greatest common zone (GCZ) method; IPFS
Abstract: Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a type of critical civil infrastructure that play an integral role in maintaining the standard of living and protecting the environment. The sustainable operation of WWTPs requires maintaining the optimal performance of their critical assets (e.g., pumps) at minimum cost. Effective maintenance of critical assets ...
Keywords: Digital twin; Building information modelling; Deep learning; Predictive maintenance; Wastewater treatment plants
Abstract: Interoperability is an ever-present challenge for the construction industry despite the intensive research and standardisation efforts, including Building Information Modelling (BIM), and Common Data Environments (CDEs). This paper presents the BIMERR Interoperability Framework (BIF), a cloud-based platform aiming to facilitate seamless data integration, leveraging flexible ontology and data model management ...
Keywords: BIM; Semantic Interoperability; Data Integration; CDE; Construction Tech; BIMERR; BIF
Abstract: The application of Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology allows a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of places, which is particularly beneficial to civil engineering. The present article proposes to evaluate the utilization of BIM technology to quantify the damage caused to concrete structures, based on a systematic review ...
Keywords: BIM; Civil engineering; Damage; Concrete structure
Abstract: The operation of automated construction equipment and autonomous construction robots depends on contextual information regarding the job to be carried out. Therefore, robots as well as equipment require a task-based construction site control system. Such a system also provides some advantages for construction managers. However, some prerequisites must be met ...
Keywords: Construction Site; Control System; Task Management; Construction Robotics
Abstract: Tendering & Bidding generally involve many construction units participating in a project bidding. The purchaser selects the best bidder with a short construction period, low cost, high quality, and good reputation. There are huge economic benefits and points of concern behind it. Tendering suffers an increased risk of data tampering ...
Keywords: E-Tendering & Bidding; Blockchain; Smart contract; Tender transaction
Abstract: Half of the global population lives in cities, and it is still increasing as people are moving to cities in search of better education, job opportunities, and so on. The existing infrastructures of the cities are being stretched beyond their capacity and requirements for well-organized urban environment and efficient urban ...
Keywords: Urban simulation platforms; Urban complexity; Interdisciplinary simulation
Abstract: Due to the increasing global population, the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry is placed in front of a significant challenge to provide and maintain the necessary urban development and solid infrastructure systems to support this increase. Infrastructure systems must be resilient and sustainable, especially being critical to the nation's ...
Keywords: Building Information Modeling (BIM); Geographic Information System (GIS);
Horizontal Construction; Digitized Infrastructure
Abstract: Prefabrication is regarded as the first level of industrialization in the construction industry. A unified 4D information model with good interoperability is the key issue to realize effective project management of prefabricated buildings. This paper intends to promote prefabricated buildings' management by developing an IFC-based framework to institute a unified ...
Keywords: IFC standard; prefabricated buildings; construction management information; graph database
Abstract: Digital 3D environments are already integral parts of construction and are on the critical path of end-to-end site autonomy. They currently provide human users at all levels of an organisation, access to relevant digital representations of job-critical information at various lifecycle modes, from asset design through to asset maintenance. However, ...
Keywords: 3D Environments;
Terrain Deformation Photogrammetry;
Connected Autonomous Plant;
Abstract: Numerous modelling and structural analysis workflows reflect the heterogeneity and vague standardization in the construction industry; hence their automation is not straightforward. Procedures like redefining geometry from scratch or assigning loads one-by-one, are mostly performed manually, are time-consuming and error-prone, reflecting traditional workflows in digital BIM environments. BIM tools for ...
Keywords: BIM; Structural analysis; Preprocessing; Automation
Abstract: It is inevitable that a decrease in the working population will lead to a shortage of skilled infrastructure inspectors due to the declining population, low birth rate and aging population. It is important to improve and equalize the quality of inspection data, which is the basis for understanding the condition ...
Keywords: Bridge Inspections; Three-dimensional Point-cloud Data; Heat Map; Digital Transformation
Abstract: In construction cost estimation, building information modelling (BIM) has been commonly utilized to support automatic quantity take-off (QTO). However, conventional BIM models do not contain all the necessary information for QTO, and the calculation does not follow the descriptive rules in standard method of measurement (SMM), which impact the cost ...
Keywords: Building information modeling (BIM); Quantity take-off (QTO); Knowledge model; Model auditing; SMM-compliance
Abstract: Identifying hazardous zones is one of the priorities and duties of construction safety monitoring. With the emergence of vision intelligence technology, hazardous zones detected by AI algorithms can support safety managers in predicting potential hazards as well as making decisions. However, the risky area in images/videos continues to suffer from ...
Keywords: Hazardous zone; BIM application;Image stitching
Abstract: IFC-based building energy performance and life cycle analysis require structured data about thermal, ecological, and financial building material properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, global warming potential, construction cost). Dedicated databases to these domains exist, but share no common property sets, making the mapping process of all required properties to the materials ...
Keywords: Building Energy Performance and Renovation; IFC; Property sets; Ontology; Building material databases; Building product matching
Abstract: In recent years, increasing number of unprecedented rainfall events around the world brought about devastating floods that have been a challenge for urban planners and decision makers. Numerous studies addressed these floods to climate change and investigated its trends at different time scales. In face of many uncertainties caused by ...
Keywords: Satellite Images; Remote Sensing; Flood; Dam Sustainability; Volume Estimation; Infrastructure Monitoring
Abstract: As a product of commercialization in prefabricated buildings, the information of the whole life cycle of Precast Concrete (PC) is an important basis for product quality traceability and progress control. During the stage of production, transportation, storage and installation, some quality problems inevitably appear on PC, and according to the ...
Keywords: Precast Concrete; Off-site Construction; Status Information; Tracking Information Management
Abstract: Energy retrofitting is paramount to reduce the use of energy in existing buildings, with benefits to the environment and people's economy. The increasing use of novel technologies and innovative methodologies, such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Building Information Modelling (BIM), is contributing to optimise retrofit processes. In the context ...
Keywords: BIM; Energy; Retrofit; Scan-to-BIM; TLS; Photogrammetry; HVAC
Abstract: Construction is among the most dangerous industries for the safety of workers. Due to the dynamism typical of construction sites, where labor, materials and equipment resources are often in motion, collisions and contact with moving construction machineries and heavy equipment represents one of the main safety problems. The study described ...
Keywords: Construction safety; Proximity hazards; Sensing technologies; Ultra Wide Band; General Data Protection Regulation
Abstract: Building Information Model (BIM) with rich geometric and semantic information of facilities has increasingly been used to establish the City Information Model (CIM). Although BIMs for new buildings are becoming more available, BIMs for most existing buildings can only be modelled from 2D drawings and specifications. Manual BIM modelling is ...
Keywords: Building Information Model (BIM); Existing building; 2D drawings; City information model (CIM)
Abstract: A critical aspect of BIM is the capability to embody semantic information about its element constituents. To be interoperable, such information needs to conform to the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) standards and protocols. Artificial intelligence approaches have been explored as a way to verify the semantic integrity of BIM to ...
Keywords: BIM; IFC; Semantic integrity; MVCNN; CRF-RNN
Abstract: Building design processes usually follow similar workflows with different stakeholders and interdisciplinary design teams incorporating their individual domain knowledge. To improve the holistic performance of building designs considering economic and environmental qualities, design decisions based on simulations and analysis in early phases have a significant impact on the resultant design.
Keywords: BIM; early design; design decision support; LCA; multicriterial optimization
Abstract: The customer has the opportunity to participate in the space planning of the house when the customer purchases a pre-sold house, which is called a custom modification.
The advantage of providing custom modification is that the design of the house can be customized based on the client's living habits. Because the ...
Keywords: Building Information Modeling; Virtual Reality; Cost Estimation; Pre-Sold Home Customization
Abstract: 4D simulation can be used in the planning phase of a project for constructability analysis, which aims to optimize construction processes and improve safety management. The same 4D simulation can be used as a digital twin in the construction phase for progress monitoring and identifying potential safety issues based on ...
Keywords: Digital Twins; 4D Simulation; Computer Vision; RTLS
Abstract: This study was aimed at developing a building information modeling (BIM) process logger that can capture modeling process information as an event log file. BIM log mining is a research area that focuses on utilizing a massive amount of data created from BIM software usage. Several studies have monitored, analyzed, ...
Keywords: Building Information Modeling (BIM); BIM Log Mining; Modeling Process; Representation; Data Enhancement
Abstract: The accurate modeling of critical infrastructure systems (CISs) and their interdependencies is essential to assessing and predicting the behavior of interdependent CISs under various operation scenarios. Existing modeling approaches have limited ability to incorporate CIS domain knowledge and capture the systemic heterogeneity among the CISs, and thus cannot simulate the ...
Keywords: Critical infrastructure system (CIS); High level architecture (HLA); Distributed simulation; Interdependencies; Domain knowledge; Systemic heterogeneity
Abstract: With the growing popularity of blockchain technology in the construction industry, smart contracts are becoming increasingly common. A smart contract is a self-executing contract, which contains if-then rules that automatically execute certain processes when certain conditions are met. Such smart contracts serve as programmable blockchain applications. Using blockchain-enabled smart contracts, ...
Keywords: process modeling; smart contract; blockchain; construction industry
Abstract: To help project managers better understand non-conformance in prefabrication projects, this research presents a probabilistic empirical study on non-conformance reports (NCRs), their root cause and frequency of occurrence, as well as their impact on the project cost and time. Data from a completed nuclear project were collected and analyzed, where ...
Keywords: Non-conformance; Nuclear; Prefabrication; Rework; Root cause; Quality control
Abstract: It is widely considered that the problem of extensive emissions from construction equipment is one of the main threats to human health. Thus, owners of construction equipment must formulate proper replacing and retrofitting strategies to reduce emissions with resource constraints. Therefore, this study proposes an optimization model to help owners ...
Keywords: Construction equipment emissions; Replacing and retrofitting; Optimization model; Emissions reduction; Cost-effectiveness
Abstract: Designing a reasonable and efficient transportation system of temporary elevators from the perspective of spatio-temporal planning is beneficial for the successful completion of construction projects. Specifically, the determination of the service period and floor of temporary elevators and the consideration of the limited availability of time and space should be ...
Keywords: Spatio-temporal planning; Temporary elevator; BIM; Game engine; Virtual reality
Abstract: The traditional method of burying underground utilities (e.g., water, sewer, gas pipes, and electrical cables) has been used for many decades. Repeated excavations related to this method cause many problems, such as traffic congestion and business disruption, which can significantly increase the social costs. Multi-purpose Utility Tunnels (MUTs) are a ...
Keywords: Discrete Event Simulation; Multi-purpose Utility Tunne; Construction Method; Trenchless Technologies; Microtunneling
Abstract: As part of the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry, heavy civil engineering with its equipment-intensive processes is a current focus of discussion concerning emission reduction. Adopting Industry 4.0 technologies for resource scheduling can significantly increase the savings potential significantly. One of these digital technologies is the Discrete Event Simulation ...
Keywords: Discrete Event Simulation (DES); Agent Based Modelling (ABM); Hybrid simulation; Modeling of manufacturing operations; Production planning and control; Job and activity scheduling; Project schedule optimization
Abstract: Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is used as the primary structural element for high-rise mass timber buildings. The mass timber buildings that are under construction are largely unprotected as they are not yet equipped with active or passive fire protection systems. With the addition of Types IVA, B, and C, the 2021 ...
Keywords: Cross-laminated timber (CLT); Building information modeling (BIM); Fire dynamics simulator (FDS); Benchmarking of numerical models
Abstract: Modular construction aims at overcoming challenges faced by the traditional construction process such as the shortage of skilled workers, fast-track project requirements, and cost associated with on-site productivity losses and recurrent rework. Since manufacturing is done off-site in controlled factory settings, modular construction is associated with increased productivity and better ...
Keywords: Scene understanding; Virtual Environment; MV-CNN; Computer Vision
Abstract: Roofing systems are considered one of the items that in most need of frequent inspection and rehabilitation due to its ongoing exposure to the elements. Manual roof inspections are time-consuming and subjective. This study uses Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), an image-processing technique, to classify roofs according to their damage level. ...
Keywords: Facility Management; Capital Renewal; Rehabilitation; Inspection; Roofing; Image-based Analysis; Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)
Abstract: In monitoring disaster sites, mobile robots represent a fast, reliable, and practical option to remotely inspect active areas in disaster management for applications such as risk management, search and rescue, and structural assessment purposes. Mobile robots can efficiently collect laser scan data and reconstruct the state of ongoing disaster relief ...
Keywords: point cloud segmentation; laser scanning; robotics; disaster site; deep learning
Abstract: Progress quantification of construction projects is critical for project managers to manage projects effectively. The trade-off between computation time and accuracy is a key aspect while selecting the quantification method. Though accuracy is essential, project managers require real-time information about quantities of work completed on various building components to make ...
Keywords: Automated Progress Monitoring; Point-Intensity; Scan-vs-BIM; Progress Quantification; Visual Programming; Single-Click Report Generation; BIM-Based Tracking; Point Clouds; Automation in Construction Management
Abstract: Progress monitoring is key to any successful project. Often this is a hectic task that involves manpower in preparing Daily Project Reports (DPRs) to physically monitor the activities on site. Recent developments in the fields of photogrammetry and point cloud processing techniques have laid a new path in using point ...
Keywords: Point-cloud; Quantity estimation; Progress monitoring; Mesh; STL file; Dynamo; Revit
Abstract: This paper aims to propose an approach to establishing an intelligent interior design reference image database using 360-degree panorama picture sources. Building interior design reference images are usually taken by people in an ad-hoc way and stored/used for various purposes as non-standardized design communication resources. As several web/apps provide such ...
Keywords: 360-dgree panorama picture; Data Archiving; Interior Design Reference Image; Auto-classification; Deep Learning
Abstract: Efficient progress monitoring and reporting require detailed and accurate reports from construction sites in a timely manner. These reports include important information to assist decision-making through comparison of as-built information to as-planned state. Manual reporting is time-consuming, error-prone, costly and is highly dependent on site personnel expertise. Advances recently made ...
Keywords: Deep Learning; Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN); Mask R-CNN; Progress Monitoring
Abstract: Obtaining accurate information of defective areas of infrastructures helps to perform repair actions more efficiently. Recently, LiDAR scanners are used for the inspection of surface defects. Moreover, machine learning methods have attracted the attention of researchers for semantic segmentation and classification based on point cloud data. Although much work has ...
Keywords: Concrete Surface Defect; Semantic Segmentation; 3D Point Cloud; Dynamic Graph CNN
Abstract: In the construction industry, contractors require precise knowledge of design restrictions originating from regulatory documents and contract specifications. For the automatic compliance checking of the building design regarding these rules, they have to be converted from the representation in natural language to a machine-readable format. This task, if carried out ...
Keywords: Automatic Compliance Checking (ACC); Building Information Modeling (BIM); Natural Language Processing (NLP); Named Entity Recognition (NER); Machine Learning
Abstract: The construction site is prone to a considerable number of accidents due to its dense and complex nature. Accidents due to falling from opening at the construction site are leading reasons for severe injuries and sometimes fatalities. Openings and Holes are made on floors and roofs during the building construction ...
Keywords: Edge Computing; Worker Driven Approach; Construction Hazards; Trade Worker Safety; Safety Monitoring
Abstract: Snowplowing is critical to winter road operation and maintenance since it can improve driver's safety and mobility. The goal of this study is to generate optimal routes for snowplowing that can reduce travel distance and improve efficiency by considering operational constraints. To achieve this goal, we first adopted the Chinese ...
Keywords: Snowplow optimization; Chinese Postman Problem; Tabu search algorithm; MMS; Dijkstra's algorithm
Abstract: In civil infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, and tunnels, cracks are initial signs of degradation, which affect the structure's current and future performance adversely. Optimum maintenance plans in terms of cost and safety are important to evaluate the degree of deterioration of a structure. Manual inspection is usually performed, and ...
Keywords: Crack Detection; Computer Vision; Automatic inspection; Convolutional Neural Networks; Ensemble Modeling; Concrete Cracks
Abstract: As construction projects resume worldwide and workers return to the job site, the possibility of transmitting the Covid-19 could be added to the extensive list of risks confronting workers in the construction sites; thus, the workers need to work alone in an assigned activity. Many workers are already working alone ...
Keywords: Deep Learning; Covid-19; Construction Hazards; Worker Safety; Lone Person Falls
Abstract: Building consume a large amount of energy and a plenty of methods to mine into energy consumption data to aid intelligent management are proposed. However, the data quality issues are inevitable and the influence is lack of discussion. This paper proposed a data cleaning method combing threshold and cluster method. ...
Keywords: Data Cleaning; Building Energy; Prediction
Abstract: Architects today still very often create traditional 2d plans in the early planning phase, which form the basis for discussions with investors, clients and engineers. The designs are often difficult to understand for non-experts and design variants can only be compared with great effort. The use of BIM models simplifies ...
Keywords: Building information Modeling (BIM); Case based reasoning (CBR); Early Design Phases; Industry Foundation Classes (IFC); Pattern Matching; Variant Retrieval; Similarity
Abstract: Computer vision technologies, including 2D/3D perceptions, have grasped more and more attentions in construction industry, which can be employed for providing effective support in many industry tasks, including autonomous excavators, autonomous trucks. etc, and excavators and dump trucks are the most common assets used in the construction industry. However, dusts ...
Keywords: Computer Vision; Dedust; Deep Learning; Closed-Loop
Abstract: The use of robots in construction has increased the safety and productivity in the construction site. Robots execute complex programmed codes to complete construction related tasks. Unfortunately, there are limitations on project management to monitor the execution process of robot due to undeveloped human-robot collaboration interfaces. Digital Twin (DT) is ...
Keywords: Robotics; Mixed Reality; Digital Twin; Human-Robot Collaboration; Real-time visualisation
Abstract: Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing (MEP) play a crucial role in civil construction projects. MEP is characterized by various interdisciplinary and interconnected activities of multiple trades. Traditionally, not updated design information and communication problems are very common in this industry. Thus, schedule delays and cost overruns are frequent in MEP construction ...
Keywords: Augmented Reality; MEP; construction; SWOT; performance; BIM
Abstract: On-demand and real-time building information is of great value to support facility management. Such information can be easily retrieved from an up-to-date building information model (BIM), and then intuitively presented to facility managers or inspectors by augmented reality (AR). However, effective spatial registration into BIM so as to align the ...
Keywords: Augmented reality; Facility management; Markerless spatial registration; Building information model (BIM); Generative adversarial network (GAN)
Abstract: The increased use of construction machinery in the industry poses challenges of safety and regulation for the site workers. A remote monitoring system for the construction machinery can help in avoiding fatal accidents whilst providing continuous sensor information to the user. The present remote controller has shortcomings of accessibility, less ...
Keywords: Digital Twin; Smart Glasses; Cyber-Physical System; Augmented Reality; Construction Machinery
Abstract: Energy-efficient buildings have gained an increasing attention in the construction industry thanks to their significant contribution to saving world's energy consumption. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides an opportunity to improving energy performance of buildings through a holistic assessment of their lifecycle. Previous studies have mainly applied Building Information Modeling (BIM) ...
Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment; Building Information Modeling; Energy Efficiency; Modular Construction; Embodied Energy
Abstract: As robots are envisioned to be deployed in construction job sites to work with humans, there is an increasing need for developing intuitive and natural communication between robots and humans. In particular, spatial information exchange is critical to navigating or delegating tasks to collaborative robots. However, such deictic gestures are ...
Keywords: Deictic Gestures; Spatial Referencing; Human-Robot Interaction
Abstract: Maintaining good communication is important for keeping the construction site safe and the project running smoothly and on schedule. Hand gestures, as one of the common ways to communicate, are widely used on construction sites due to their simple but effective nature. However, the meaning of these hand gestures was ...
Keywords: Hand Gesture Recognition; Wearable Sensor; Dataset Creation; Performance Comparison
Abstract: Construction environments are often densely populated with multiple resources (e.g., workers, equipment, and materials). As an increasing number of mobile robots are expected to coexist and interact with humans at close proximity, it is necessary that these robots are capable of not only avoiding collisions during navigation but also navigating ...
Keywords: Construction mobile robots; Socially/Contextually-aware Navigation; Human-Robot Interaction; Reinforcement Learning
Abstract: Highway construction and maintenance projects have been witnessing a significant expansion across the United States. This expansion, coupled with the ongoing problem of labor shortages, adds pressure on state Departments of Transportation (DOTs) to complete more complex projects under more strict cost and schedule constraints. In recent years, construction inspection ...
Keywords: Inspectors; Staffing; Resource Allocation; Highway Construction Projects; Department of Transportation
Abstract: Spatial conflicts affect crews' productivity and workers' safety. The idea of considering workspaces as a limited resource has brought a remarkable contribution to the effectiveness of traditional scheduling techniques that generally do not consider the spatial-temporal dimension of construction activities. In previous studies, the detection of spatial interferences among main ...
Keywords: Construction Management; Workspace Scheduling; Spatial Conflicts; BIM; Game Engine; COVID-19
Abstract: Different factors combined invariably cause construction fatalities at any time, most of which could be avoided if workers followed the on-site regulatory rules. However, compliance of regulatory rules is not strictly enforced among workers due to all kinds of reasons, even after prior education and training. To address the difficulties ...
Keywords: Construction Safety; Occupational hazards identification; Deep Learning; Graph; Time series analysis
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to compare the safety climate by project size and construction activity with different risk levels. Accidents tend to occur more frequently at smaller sites. As safety climate has been regarded as one important leading indicator preventing accidents, this study hypothesized that larger project tend ...
Keywords: Safety climate; Construction safety; Project size; activities with different levels of risk
Abstract: This study proposes an experiment to find the most effective alarm sound for controlling alert fatigue. Alert fatigue is the phenomenon that an individual is constantly exposed to frequent alarms and becomes desensitized or loses his attention or focus on the alarm. One of the major causes of struck-by accidents ...
Keywords: Alert fatigue; Physiological signal; Electroencephalography; Electrodermal activity; Construction equipment safety
Abstract: Zoom camera is essential for detecting objects from the top-view.
The deep learning detection algorithm can fail to handle scale invariance, especially for detectors whose input size is changed in an extremely wide range.
The adaptive zoom feature can enhance the quality of the deep learning worker detection.
In this paper, we introduce ...
Keywords: Construction safety; Worker detection; Safety monitoring; Visibility assistance; Adaptive zoom control; Automatic zoom adjustment; Zoom tracking
Abstract: The construction industry is known to have one of the most hazardous work environments leading to a high number of accidents and both serious and fatal injuries. One way to mitigate these accidents is by implementing proper safety training for construction workers. Traditionally, safety training is implemented using passive methods ...
Keywords: Game Engines; Construction Safety; Safety Training; Simulation
Abstract: Predicting the outcomes of safety incidents on construction projects is of a great value to various project stakeholders. Accurate estimates allow construction managers to take appropriate preventive measures based on the severity of the outcomes. Such estimates can be predicted using machine learning algorithms, although the quality of these estimates ...
Keywords: Construction; Safety; Machine Learning Algorithms; Prediction; Performance; Data Unbalance
Abstract: Tower cranes play an essential role in the execution of most construction projects. Unfortunately, they are also a major source of fatalities and injuries in the industry, owing to their great mass and large footprint on the site. Aiming to proactively identify and mitigate safety hazards in the design and ...
Keywords: Tower crane; lift safety; hazard exposure; path planning; building information modeling
Abstract: Construction workers are required to wear a safety harness while working at height, and safety managers need to ensure that a safety hook is attached to proper anchorage points to prevent falls from height. However, it is difficult for the managers to monitor all the worker's hook attachments continuously and ...
Keywords: construction safety; safety harness; hook attachment detection; wearable computing
Abstract: The construction industry accounts for a considerable portion of work-related accidents annually. Taking appropriate pre-construction measures can significantly lessen the probability of these accidents occurring. An essential step toward achieving this goal is identifying the unsafe attributes before construction begins. This research introduces a semi-automatic method for identifying and reporting ...
Keywords: Safety; Hazard Identification; Building Information Modeling; 4D BIM; Automation
Abstract: One of the problems with unmanned construction is the lack of visual information, which reduces work efficiency to less than half of that in onboard operation. Therefore, methods to provide visual information using drones and image processing were studied in the past. However, the addition of information causes the operator ...
Keywords: Unmanned construction; Remote operation; Cognitive tunneling; Visual momentum; Visual saliency; Visual support
Abstract: A construction site is a dynamic and complex place where multiple activities, process and elements take place. In an era of digitalization revolution, construction safety management on site faces significant challenges, in particular, there is a lack of understanding about how to raise situation awareness (SA) using digital solutions. Against ...
Construction safety; Digital technology (DT); Situation awareness (SA)
Abstract: Construction still has high numbers of nonfatal
and fatal occupational injuries. Works in highly
dynamic and continuously changing environments
involving heavy equipment pose numerous types of
hazards. Potential struck-by incidents for pedestrian
workers from overhead crane loads are a concern to
many practitioners. Safety best practices suggest to
avoid unsafe acts by early implementation of
appropriate safety training. ...
Keywords: Asymmetrical virtual reality; construction safety training; crane load hazards; multiplayer serious game; unsafe acts; vibrotactile haptic feedback
Abstract: The construction industry is suffering from a high
rate of accidents that significantly affect the overall
performance of projects. Compared to the
conventional safety training methods, Virtual Reality
(VR) games offer a more immersive and interactive
learning experience for the participants. However,
training scenarios in most of the existing VR games
lack complex tasks and the realistic ...
Keywords: Digital Twins; Virtual Reality; Construction Safety; Safety Training; Human-Computer Interaction
Abstract: Construction sites are dynamic, and the environment is changing fast, which means the collective safety equipment, such as fall protection barriers, should also be changed to keep it compliant with the construction codes. However, the safety equipment can become non-compliant for several reasons, e.g., temporal removal in combination with incorrect ...
Keywords: Automation;Inspection; Safety; Cloud point; Unmanned aerial systems; Object detection and pose estimation; Augmented reality (AR); Human robot collaboration (HRI)
Abstract: Inspecting the exteriors of buildings is a slow and risky task for workers, especially in high-rise buildings. Moreover, some areas are difficult to reach for large buildings, and in some cases, the inspections cannot be adequately done. In recent years, there has been an increase in open-source artificial intelligence (AI) ...
Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs); Building Inspection; Drone; Deep Learning; Artificial Intelligence; Crack Detection; Buildings Defects
Abstract: The Unmanned Aerial System (UAS), Aerial Robot or Drone has been a multi-purpose tool for professionals, especially for its unknown versatile applications and regardless of its challenges in adoption. In the built environment and the current global situation, the topic of disaster management has grabbed attention from the scientific community, ...
Keywords: UAS; GIS; Disaster Management; Urban Planning; Landslide; Santa Maria; Communities
Abstract: Building air leakage and moisture issues can result in significant energy loss, shorten the building envelope life cycle and require additional maintenance costs. While these issues present risks to a building and its occupants, they could be difficult to detect during building maintenance and early stages of retrofit projects. Currently, ...
Keywords: Building Envelope Inspection; Remote Inspection System; Building Moisture; Thermal Leak Detection
Abstract: The use of robots has typically improved workers' health and safety and increased productivity and quality in manufacturing. Current advances in robotic and computer technology, combined with BIM, have led to new applications in construction. However, there is no general framework to guide the implementation of robots under current construction ...
Keywords: Project Management Framework; Productivity; Semi-autonomous Drilling Operations
Abstract: Quality inspection of existing buildings is a task currently performed by human inspectors. In general, these inspections consist of assessing the different elements of a building as they are being constructed, checking that they are within acceptable tolerances, and meeting industry standards. Typically, this process is carried out by doing ...
Keywords: Maintenance management; Quality assessment; Autonomous robot; Master-slave robotic system
Abstract: There has been a growing interest in adopting autonomous robots to perform routine tasks in facilities management. The goal of facility management is to ensure that the facility performs to design standards. Currently, the cost of maintenance and operations of a facility over its life cycle is oftentimes more than ...
Keywords: Robotics; Facility Management; Routine Operator Task
Abstract: The mechatronic sliding formwork complex is a compound dynamic system, the quality of the structure being erected depends on the correct coordinated operation of its elements. The determining factor of the structure vertically is to ensure a constant formwork movement speed and compliance of its working floor horizontalness. To fulfill ...
Keywords: Mechatronic sliding formwork complex; Operating mode optimization; Technical condition monitoring; Predictive diagnostics system
Abstract: Having smart and autonomous earthmoving in mind, we explore high-performance wheel loading in a simulated environment. This paper introduces a wheel loader simulator that combines contacting 3D multibody dynamics with a hybrid continuum-particle terrain model, supporting realistic digging forces and soil displacements at real-time performance. A total of 270,000 simulations ...
Keywords: Wheel loader; Autonomous; Simulation-Based Optimization; Multibody and soil dynamics
Abstract: In the autonomous excavation task, the real-time estimation of the bucket filling rate and the volume of the excavated mass are essential feedbacks to measure the excavation quality. In this work, facilitated by the LiDAR and inclination sensors mounted on an autonomous excavator, we introduce an online method to calculate ...
Keywords: Autonomous excavation; Volume estimation; Height map
Abstract: Although a shield tunneling machine should excavate a tunnel along its planned alignment, deviations occur between the planned alignment and the actual result. In this case, the deviating shield machine should return to the planned alignment gradually. However, because controlling the shield machine is difficult and time-consuming, and excavation managers ...
Keywords: Shield tunneling; Shield machine; Automation; Machine learning
Abstract: The advent of reinforced concrete (RC) at the beginning of the XXth century fostered the industrialisation of construction. Indeed, for the first time machines such as mixers appeared on the worksites. Strangely, RC construction is now probably more artisanal than steel or wood construction. Current technics raise questions about the ...
Keywords: Digital fabrication; Clay printing; Reinforced concrete; Structural optimisation
Abstract: Timber construction and prefabrication are increasingly important. So far, the degree of automation is low. Due to the great variability of construction projects and the building components, automation systems that can adapt flexibly to different construction projects are required. However, a system that fulfills these conditions does not yet exist. ...
Keywords: Timber Prefabrication; Digital Twin; Cyber-Physical System; Software Defined; Manufacturing
Abstract: This paper introduces a new approach for extending the geometrical freedom of shotcrete 3D printing. Up to now, the printing process has been performed with a continuous material flow to avoid nozzle clogging, which is caused by the solidification of the fresh material within the printing system. However, this requires ...
Keywords: shotcrete 3D printing (SC3DP); concrete construction; robotic fabrication; automation; process control; surface scanning
Abstract: The latest technological developments, especially in software, have made it possible to democratize the use of robotics in several sectors. The incursion of robotics in the construction industry is not recent, but the acceleration is observable in the last 10 years. This article presents the latest evolution of the HAL ...
Keywords: robotics; software; construction; onsite; offsite
Abstract: Thinned wood, which is removed by pruning and thinning, is not widely used because of its small size and small diameter. Conventional processing tools for building materials cannot be used for thinned wood with small cross-sections because they make the cross-section rectangle. However, using computer vision technology to measure the ...
Keywords: Raw wood; AR Marker; Robotic Fabrication; Photogrammetry; Computer Vision; Thinnings
Abstract: Safely waking up a robot at an unknown location and subsequent autonomous operation are key requirements for on-site construction robots. In this regard, single-shot global localization in a known map is a challenging problem due to incomplete observations of the environment and sensor obstructions by unmapped clutter. In this work, ...
Keywords: Construction Robotics; Plane Extraction/Matching; Global Localization
Abstract: This paper presents a localization system for mobile robots enabling precise localization in inaccurate building models. The approach leverages local referencing to counteract inherent deviations between as-planned and as-built data for locally accurate registration. We further fuse a novel camera-based robust outlier detector with LiDAR data to reject a wide ...
Keywords: Construction Robotics; Localisation; On-Site Robotic Construction
Abstract: Following a static path, pre-calculated as the tool trajectory, cannot reflect potential changing states during the machining process. Therefore, adjusting to environmental differences between the assumed and actual conditions, such as variations in the physical properties of the material, is not possible. In this study, the tool path was dynamically ...
Keywords: Robot processing; Dynamic path; Wood carving; Force sensor
Abstract: As-built modeling using advanced visual sensing technologies (i.e., photogrammetry and laser scanning) provides an opportunity for a rapid assessment of construction performance, identifying deviations from 3D CAD/Building Information Modeling (BIM) models (i.e., as-planned model). For reliable decision-making, the accuracy and quality of the as-built model are critical. In particular, data ...
Keywords: image-based 3D reconstruction; image data collection; robotic arm; as-built modeling
Abstract: Featuring manual-intensive labour as the primary source of productivity, the construction industry is plagued with low efficiencies and high safety risks. Increasing ground robots have the potential to address these shorting comings. However, the complicated indoor sites result in many barriers for adopting unmanned ground robots (UGR), especially in path ...
Keywords: Building information modelling; ground robot mobility; layer mapping; improved A* path planning
Abstract: Many of the fatalities and injuries in the construction industry occur in scaffolding accidents, and monitoring the scaffolding process and checking compliance are critical. However, monitoring scaffolds is labor-intensive and inefficient because it is done manually. To address this issue, we propose an advanced 3D reconstruction method for detecting and ...
Keywords: Scaffold; Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS); Robot Dog; 3D Semantic Segmentation; Transfer Learning
Abstract: Robotic solutions for the construction industry are attracting the attention of researchers and of the market. Among the various technologies, robotic bricklaying promises to become a disruptive technology. However, most of the solutions proposed so far resulted to be inefficient and did not pass the prototype status. One of the ...
Keywords: Cooperative control; Robotics; Multi-Robot Systems; Lyapunov methods; Holonomic Constraints
Abstract: Broad research concepts are usually developed in different phases where advances are carried out separately. That is the case of the automated and robotic façade renovation with modules. In this case, solutions were developed independently in the context of two research projects. In order to offer a holistic vision, analyze ...
Keywords: renovation; evaluation; time; accuracy
Abstract: The paper is devoted to robotic in the construction field based on industrial robotics. The main focus is made on a proper modelling of a robotic system stiffness and identification of their parameters for work on vertical walls. The robotic system is composed of a vertical lift system that can ...
Keywords: Robotic System; Construction robotics; Stiffness model
Abstract: Additive Manufacturing allows for high geometric freedom and the fabrication of non-standard building components. This new-found flexibility results from the fact that no formwork is required with additive manufacturing and thus each part can be different at no additional cost. One drawback however is that the geometric freedom comes at ...
Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Construction; Prefabrication; Lean Construction; SC3DP; Quality Control
Abstract: Evolving machine control systems for excavators are getting
more capable every year in civil engineering, now they
are usually equipped with hydraulic motion control, localization,
and design models in form of building information modelling
(BIM). Machine control systems are advancing side by
side with the adoption of fast wireless connections like 5G
and growing trends of ...
Keywords: construction engineering; mining; excavation; smart excavation; artificial intelligence; data collection; machine learning; excavator
Abstract: Autonomous excavator develops rapidly in recent years as a result of the shortage of labor and hazardous working environments for operating excavators. We present a novel hierarchical planning system for autonomous excavators. The overall planning system consists of a high-level task planner for task division and base movement planning, and ...
Keywords: Task planning; Autonomous excavator; Planning architecture; Material loading
Abstract: Modular integrated construction (MiC) is a most advanced off-site technology. In a MiC project, it is critical but challenging to install prefabricated volumetric modules efficiently and safely, as they are much heavier and larger than conventional construction components and materials. However, the current crane-lift executions are heavily reliant on operators' ...
Keywords: Tower crane; Path planning; Particle swarm optimizer (PSO); Modular integrated construction (MiC)
Abstract: To evaluate the safety of construction site workers, deep learning models recognizing workers and safety equipment in construction site images are widely used. However, it is frequently observed that deep learning models based on supervised learning methods do not work well for unseen data in other domains having different visual ...
Keywords: Semantic segmentation; Domain adaptation; Self-supervised learning; Copy-paste data augmentation
Abstract: Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DfMA) is an emerging concept introduced from the manufacturing sector to transform the construction industry and accelerating "off-site" capabilities. Enhancing the sustainability of DfMA is challenging and requires accounting for various environmental and managerial impacts on the process of manufacture and assembly, especially for the ...
Keywords: DfMA; Parametric design; BIM; Decision making; Sustainability
Abstract: Delays and cost overruns are frequent in infrastructure construction projects. Deviations are often identified late, and their causes cannot be traced back. Traditionally, decisions are made by experience and not with the support of data directly coming from the site. Moreover, schedules are often static and thus not able to ...
Keywords: Real-Time Data; Construction; Lean Construction Management; Data Analysis; Production Control
Abstract: The construction industry is increasingly using information technologies (IT) and operational technologies (OT) to enhance processes and operations through digitization. Creating, editing, storing, and sharing information in digital environments is only one side of the coin; the other involves monitoring and controlling physical processes on construction sites. Given the nature ...
Keywords: Construction 4.0; Cybersecurity; Cyber-Physical Systems; Cybersecurity Frameworks; Vulnerability Assessment; Autonomous Earthmoving Equipment
Abstract: Construction management can be grouped into two different levels: strategic early planning, that provides the baseline for project monitoring, and short time initiatives, based on objectives and self-organization from actors who are involved in on-site processes. The latter can be considered as a complex system management issue since it presents ...
Keywords: Smart contracts; Process modeling; Process management; BPMN Choreographies
Abstract: Construction automation helps to improve productivity and project performance. This study demonstrates a methodology for evaluating project performance improvement through appropriate automation of construction processes. This quantitative evaluation approach involves a compositional modeling driven case-based reasoning methodology. Potential processes for executing the activities in a project can be explored by ...
Keywords: Case Based-Reasoning; Compositional Modeling; Discrete Event Simulation; Automated Construction; Level of Automation; Therbligs; Project Performance Improvement
Abstract: Despite the significant benefits of Building Information Modeling (BIM) that can be potentially achieved during the operation and maintenance (O&M) phase, industry has so far mainly focused on its implementation in the design and construction phases. As-built BIM models cannot be efficiently used mainly due to a lack of expertise ...
Keywords: BIM; Quality Management; BIM Execution Plan; IFC; Facility Management
Abstract: This work examines the potential of process mining in the Architecture, Engineering, Construction, and Operation (AECO) industry, where process mining is rarely applied. The main reason is that standardised processes are hardly ever performed due to the complexity of projects. To address this application gap, the software-supported cost estimation process ...
Keywords: Process Mining; Process Discovery; AECO Industry; Civil Engineering; Building Construction; Cost Estimation
Abstract: To ensure public safety, major cities in the U.S. have façade ordinances that require periodic façade inspections and reporting of façade conditions. Our shadowing works show that the current inspection processes are based on inspectors' experience rather than systematic inspection guidance. Besides, façade inspectors have different preferences to group their ...
Keywords: Façade Inspection; Building Information Modelling (BIM); Industry Foundation Classes (IFC); Ontology
Abstract: Embedments (embeds) are used extensively in construction for the attachment of dissimilar construction materials, such as, concrete to steel and wood to concrete. Coordinating the layout, delivery, and placement of these embeds is a sensitive construction chore, one that if not done properly, can lead to considerable lost productivity, delayed ...
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Productivity; Inspections; Construction Quality
Abstract: Construction projects are often suffered from time delay and cost overrun, unavoidably leading to underperformance and low productivity of the construction industry. Inadequate monitoring of construction progress is one of the key factors behind this scenario that has a detrimental effect on subsequent construction activities. Recent development in 3D Building ...
Keywords: Construction progress monitoring; Laser scanning; SLAM; Scan-to-BIM; Hausdorff distance
Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a branch of additive manufacturing (AM) that works by slicing a 3D computer aided design (CAD) model into 2D layers and sequentially printing each layer additively until the entire object is obtained. There has been a growing interest in 3D printing in the architecture, engineering, and ...
Keywords: 3D printer; robotics; classification; AEC industry
Abstract: The Jade University of Applied Sciences organized the digital business game "PING PONG", a BIM Game, to teach students in the Department of Architecture the networked and digital planning methodology BIM. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is to become the planning standard for construction projects and thus a fixed component of ...
Keywords: BIM Game; Building Information Modeling; BIM; HOAI; game design elements; business game; integrated planning; decision-oriented planning
Abstract: Circular economy (CE) strategies have been considered to help reduce global sustainability pressures in different sectors; however, there is a gap about how they could be used to contribute to the Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC) domain. Past research used lifecycle assessment (LCA) methods or experts' opinions to partially identify ...
Keywords: Circular economy; Construction circularity; Sustainability; Digital enablers; Reuse and recycle
Abstract: Offsite construction (OSC) has demonstrated various benefits, but its wide adoption is constrained by complex and dynamic supply chains. It is important to establish a comprehensive performance measurement system for OSC supply chains, which however has seldom been explored in detail. This paper aims to identify the key performance indicators ...
Keywords: Offsite Construction; Supply Chain; Key Performance Indicators; Performance Measurement
Abstract: Typical construction project management and production management courses teach the critical path method, in which only the precedence constraint is considered while scheduling activities. By contrast, the tri-constraint method is an object-based scheduling method that considers activity precedence, resource constraints, and spatial availability. However, the tri-constraint method is only taught ...
Keywords: Education; Generative construction scheduling; Tri-constraint method; Critical path method; Automation
Abstract: The increased complexity of construction projects coupled with the increase in customer expectations has fueled electrical contractors' interest in innovation as a source of competitive advantage. Emerging technologies such as Augmented Reality and Digital Twins have recently gained momentum in the electrical construction industry. While these emerging technologies provide a ...
Keywords: Building Information Modeling; Electrical Contractors; BIM Effort Factors; Best Practices
Abstract: Lean construction and Construction 4.0 are two prominent concepts challenging traditional practices in the construction industry. The continuous increase in competition and the demand for more efficient project delivery with less waste is pressuring construction companies to adopt these concepts. Body of literature have discussed the benefits of each separately, ...
Keywords: Lean construction; Construction 4.0; Industry 4.0; Construction Waste; Construction Technologies
Abstract: Digital twin technologies have been widely used among different industries, for which different conceptual models and system architectures have been proposed. However, exactly what processes are required for establishing a digital twin for intended use cases has not been fully studied. This study adopts the systematic literature review analysis focusing ...
Keywords: Digital twin technologies; Use cases; Information integration; Stakeholder collaboration; Sustainability
Abstract: Unlike what South Korea have accomplished in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry, current situation of Building Information Modeling (BIM) adoption in South Korea is still challenging. To identify the impact of government-driven manners on BIM adoption, this study presented the status of BIM application in South Korea. First, ...
Keywords: BIM; BIM Adoption; BIM Implementation; South Korea
Abstract: The development of new visualization technologies, such as Mixed Reality (MR) and Augmented Reality (AR), has enabled many applications to improve our daily life. For example, AR has been used in landscape assessment by overlaying virtual objects on a real-world scene to enhance the user's experience. For many advanced visualization ...
Keywords: Diminished Reality; Augmented Reality; Construction Visualization; See-through vision; AEC industry; interior design; landscape simulation
Abstract: Adoption of digital fabrication (dfab) in AEC promises great advantages in productivity, sustainability, and new design and delivery opportunities. Companies are interested in adopting dfab, but lack an overview of emerging dfab technologies and their use potential, as well as tools to evaluate their match with the own needs and ...
Keywords: Digital fabrication; Additive manufacturing; Technology transfer; Technology adoption
Abstract: The freedom of shape offered by 3D concrete printing (3Dcp) is often mentioned when considering productivity, technology progress, material optimization, and others. Printed structures are described using qualitative terms such as "complex", "double-curved," and "geometric freedom" due to difficulties in quantifying the design's complexity. Such descriptions depend on the aesthetics ...
Keywords: 3D concrete printing; Digital Fabrication; Freedom of Shape; Quantification of Geometric Complexity
Abstract: A significant advancement has been contributed by the break-through technologies like smart contracts and blockchain in banking industry, healthcare industry, and construction industry (Zhang 2020). Blockchain can be defined as the distributed public ledger that records all data transaction that is exchanged and shared between the parties within the systems ...
Keywords: Smart Contract; Blockchain technology; COVID-19; Civil Transaction Code
Abstract: The availability of inspection robots in the construction and operation phases of buildings has led to expanding the scope of applications and increasing technological challenges. Furthermore, the Building Information Modeling (BIM) based approach for robotic inspection is expected to improve the inspection process as the BIM models contain accurate geometry ...
Keywords: Ontology; BIM; Robotics; Navigation; Inspection
Abstract: With the aim of shifting from the traditional linear flow of resources in the construction industry into a circular model, several studies have focused on the reuse and recycling of construction and demolition waste. The present study focuses on the End-of-Life (EoL) decision-making for built facilities, including buildings and infrastructure, ...
Keywords: Construction Supply Chain; Circular Economy; Digital Transformation of Construction; Value Stream Mapping; Digital Twins