1992 Proceedings of the 9th ISARC, Tokyo, Japan

Constructability and Automation

Richard Tucker
Pages 1-8

This paper discusses the goals and major components of constructability. Results from several projects that had formal constructability programs are reviewed. The link between constructability and automation is examined.

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Technological Innovation

M. M. Cusack
Pages 9-16

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Current Status of Construction Automation and Robotics in the United States of America

Miroslaw J. Skibiniewski
Pages 17-24

Constructability automation and robotics research and development in the United States is more than a decade old. A number of research institutions, universities, construction equipment manufacturers and construction engineering firms have been involved in these efforts. This paper summarizes the recent American accomplishments and current efforts in several representative areas. ...

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Current Status of Automation and Robotics in Construction in Germany

M. C. Wanner
Pages 25-28

This paper gives a brief overview of current developments and trends in automation and robotics in construction. Specific machines are outlined. An overview of national and international R&D – projects is given.

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Automation of the Building Process - Research and Development in Israel

Abraham Warszawski
Pages 29-34

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Current Status of Automation and Robotics in Construction in Sweden

Pär Åhman
Pages 35-41

This paper gives a comprehensive description of the construction industry in Sweden, such as its magnitude, sectors and activity level. It also describes the development in the construction trade during the last decades both in general terms and in an R&D perspective. This background is furnished to put the ...

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Current Status on Automation and Robotics in Construction: Situation in France

Jean-Luc Salagnac
Pages 43-43

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Automation and Robotics in Construction an Overview of R&D in the United Kingdom

Fikry K Garas
Pages 45-49

In facing demands for higher productivity and improved quality the U.K. Construction Industry has been active in R&D in the area of automation and computer integrated construction . Attention has been given to the application of Information Technology to the construction process and in particular in integrating the functions of ...

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Automation and Robotics in Construction: State of the Art in Finland

Penti Vaha
Pages 51-53

The thrust area of Finnish construction automation is concrete technology and the related construction business. Also heavy duty manipulators and mobile on site robotics are developed. National projects aiming at better productivity in construction business are underway.

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Robotics and Intelligent Machines in Australia - A State of the Art Report

J. O'Brien
Pages 55-62

In this paper the current state-of-the-art in advanced automation and robotics in Australia is reviewed. The paper briefly documents the history of robotics research in Australia and identifies the stage in the technology development cycle that has been attained.it is thought that the end of the start phase has ...

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Problems and Effects of Automation and Robotization

Shigetuki Obayashi
Pages 63-72

This paper deals with major tasks to be carried out in promoting the automation and robotization of construction works and with the effects of these advanced technologies when commercialized. The two subjects were derived from a detailed analysis of each category of diverse construction works with respect to : (1) ...

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Diffusion of Construction Technology: A Communicative Approach

Julie Wald, C. B. Tatum
Pages 73-82

It is widely recognized that more technologies are created than implemented.to better reap the benefits of development, we should look into the dynamics of the diffusion process. Interpersonal communication fundamentally impacts diffusion, the process by which people become aware of and decide to use new technologies. Communication network techniques can ...

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Study on Method Improvement for Construction Work in Civil Engineering

Tomoji Takatsu, Masashi Nomura, Atushi Sugiyama
Pages 83-88

Facilitating streamlined and efficient construction works requires the introduction of sophisticated work practices and robotization to what are existing complicated construction processes so as to improve productivity, ensure safety, and further reduce the hard nature of the work by a quantitative method. In other industry, as a part of industrial ...

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The Study of the Building Construction Robots through the New Movement

Fumio Shintani, Fuyuki Ishizuka
Pages 89-97

In this paper, the author presents the new concept of the development of the building construction robots and the activity based on the new concept. Although the experiment is now still under processing, it is the trial with about 30 general contractors and 10 manufactures. Finally the author proposes the ...

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Development of Models and Methods for Research on Robotics in the Construction Process and Design

Maurizio Costantini, Roberto Vinci
Pages 99-104

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Process Improvement and Automation in Construction: Opposing or Complementing Approaches?

Lauri Koskela
Pages 105-112

It is widely recognized that there must be wide-ranging changes in construction before automation can be implemented in practice. On the other hand, the innovation rate of construction is rather low, and thus it is unclear, how the steps necessary for automation could be realized.it is argued, that an insufficient ...

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Module Robot Application for Flexible Building Construction

Yukio Hasegawa, Takumi Onoda, Kinya Tamaki
Pages 113-122

The biggest barrier to obstruct successful introduction of robots into building construction sites is complexity of the construction system.in the building construction sites is complexity of the construction system.in the building construction sites, many types of technicians have to work in parallel. Therefore, in the case of introducing conventional and ...

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Robot Oriented Modular Construction System

Takehito Tezuka, Hiroo Takada
Pages 123-132

The tasks that the construction industry should be accomplished at construction sites today and in the future are the saving labor and the reduction of the construction period.to accomplish these challenging objectives, automatic and robotic construction systems of construction work have been actively by construction industry Japan. However, a basic ...

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Identification of Human Barriers to the Successful Implementation of Construction Automation

Ronie Navon, Paul W. Kelly, David W. Johnston
Pages 133-140

Many construction experts claim that the construction industry must implement automation and robotics as part of an overall program to increase productivity, safety, and quality, and to remain competitive in the face of growing global competition. The limited experience of applying robots to construction, together with conclusions drawn on ...

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Initial Task Selection for Detailed Robotic Evaluation

Stephen F. Bashford, W. H. Askew, M. J. Mawdesley, A. E. Aldridge
Pages 141-150

This paper provides a methodology for pre-selecting a limited number of activities for detailed investigation using existing robotic feasibility analysis techniques, such as that proposed by Kangari & Halpin. The QCF Delphi method has been employed to survey a significant portion of a company’s site management, in order to determine ...

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A Proposed Language, Syntax and Structure for Communication between the Robotics and Construction Communities

J. M. Jones, M. M. Cusack, W. H. Askew
Pages 151-160

Robotics and construction have at least one common characteristic, both are manifestly fragmented and subject to high levels of specialisation.as such, the sources of information and knowledge necessary to bridge the interface between the two communities is difficult to identify, and effecting comprehension of their technologies and cultures is problematic. ...

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Construction Robotics and Standardization

Jean-Luc Salagnac
Pages 161-164

After a ten year period of development, construction robotics is now more mature than at the very early beginning. Many research have been carried out both in hardware (HW) (design and tests of experimental robots for instance) and in software (SW) (management of robotized construction process for instance).These research works ...

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Prospects for Applying Automation/Robotization in Concrete Dam Construction

Koi Matsugaki
Pages 165-170

There is a need to introduce the application of automation and robotization for excavation and concrete pouring to improve the working environment and to compensate for the labor shortage. Therefore, as an example, we have decided to study on concrete dam construction using the RCD (Roller Compacted concrete for Dam) ...

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Prospects for Applying Automation/Robotization of Life-Line Piping Construction Work

Kentaro Yoshida
Pages 171-180

In this report, the present condition of life-line piping construction work has been analyzed. Life-line piping includes water supply, sewerage, electric power, city gas and communication and need of Automation and Robotization in construction work has also been studied. The group arranged the technical problems attended for automated construction system ...

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A Quantitative Method to Evaluate Automated Constructability

Thomas M. Gatton
Pages 181-190

Before many construction activities may be automated, operations must be designed that are within the capabilities of the machinery. This can be accomplished by modification of either the construction operations or the actual design. There are several qualitative methods to evaluate automated constructability, or the amenability that construction tasks have ...

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Economic Evaluation of Robotized Interior Finishing Works Based on Full-Scale Experiments

Yehiel Rosenfeld, Abraham Warszawski, Uri Zajicek
Pages 191-200

The paper examines the economic implications of performing interior building tasks with the aid of specially adapted robots. The analysis is based on full-scale experiments with TAMIR – Technion Autonomous Multi-purpose Interior Robot – in recent years. Three interior finishing tasks are included in the economic evaluation: (a) painting or ...

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Economic Evaluation of Robots in Construction

Fazil T.Najafi, Xiaoyu Fu
Pages 201-206

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the potential application of robotics in the field of construction. Recent applications of robotic technology have been explored in light of its economic viability. The decision to introduce a robot into the construction work place must be carefully analyzed since the potential ...

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Evaluation of Robotics in the Application of PUF Roofing

Dean T.Kashiwagi, William C. Moor, J. Pablo Nuno, William W.Badger
Pages 207-214

The purpose of this paper is twofold: 1) to introduce a new methodology to evaluate facility systems and the application of robotics in facility management operation; 2) to use the methodology to analyze the viability of the application of robotics ins installing polyurethane foam (PUF) roof systems. The “Romer” is ...

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Development of an Advanced Way of Improvement of the Maneuverability of a Backhoe Machine

Eiji Nakano, Koutaro Kayaba, Naozumi Tsuda, Hiroshi Kimura, Sumio Okuda, Kenichi Inoue, Takuji Matsukawa
Pages 215-222

The operation of a backhoe machine requires great skill. Construction industries have a lot of problems because of the shortage of skilled workers, and the backhoe operator shortage is typical and most severe example. A new method to operate a backhoe is proposed in this paper. A new type of ...

Keywords: Robotized backhoe; new operational master unit; bilateral master-slave control; electoro-hydraulic mechanism
Fulltext not available

Technical Solutions of Hydraulic Force Reflection at Master-Slave Manipulators

Attila Bencsik
Pages 223-232

In this paper the author presents the basic structure of a hydraulic force reflecting master-slave system which is applicable for industrial robot control. The methods of force reflection is analyzed, the new universal master-slave is prescribed from technical and from economic point of view.

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Gravity Center Control for Manipulator/Vehicle System for Man-Robot Cooperation

Toshio Fukuda, Yoshio Fujisawa, Kazuhiro Kosuge, Fumihito Arai, Eiji Muro, Haruo Hoshino, Takashi Miyazaki, Kazuhiko Ohisubo, Kazuo Uehara
Pages 233-242

In this paper, we propose a “center of gravity control (CGC)” method to apply the manipulator/vehicle system, so that the system cannot fall down by controlling the center of gravity of the system. Different from the manipulator fixed on the floor/ground tightly, it is a very serious problem for the ...

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Control of Manipulator/Vehicle System for Man-Robot Cooperation Using Fuzzy Logic

Yoshio Fujisawa, Toshio Fukuda, Kazuhiro Kosuge, Fumihito Arai, Eiji Muro, Haruo Hoshino, Takashi Miyazaki, Kazuhiko Ohisubo, Kazuo Uehara
Pages 243-250

This paper proposed a control algorithm of the “Manipulator/Vehicle system for Man-Robot Cooperation”. The manipulator/vehicle system has the redundant degrees of freedom. When the desired motion of the manipulator’s end effector in the inertial coordinate system is given, the motion has to be decomposed into the motion of the manipulator ...

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A Rebar Detection Robot

Denis A. Chamberlain
Pages 251-260

Automation experiments are described which are part of a research programme aimed at the production of an Automated Inspection Facility (AIF) for tall buildings.one of the important tasks for such a facility, the subject of this paper, is rebar detection. The position and orientation sensing requirements of this task, which ...

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A Vision System for Rock Surface Using Ultrasonic Range Finder and Image Processing

H. Takahashi, K. Kobayashi, H. Ito, T. Masuyama, S. Sarata
Pages 261-270

This paper deals with a simple vision system using an ultrasonic range finder and image processing. First, the image of the rock surface was taken by only one video camera. Then, the three dimensional shape measuring of rock surface was carried out by using the ultrasonic range finder.in this case, ...

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Development of Robot for Surveying and Investigating Output of Harbor Structures

Masami Onizawa, Masashi Itamura, Yoshiaki Ikeda
Pages 271-280

In this paper,the development of the three-dimensional survey robot system using a helicopter by radio-control or a semisubmerged low rolling type survey boat for the purpose of mainly labor saving in the management of the output of construction works among the construction of the structures for harbor works and for ...

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Multi-Arm Manipulation Planning

Yoshihito Koga, Thibaud Lastennet, Jean-Claude Latombe, Tsai-Yen Li
Pages 281-288

Construction requires manipulating objects of various sizes and weights, including long and heavy pipes and beams. to address this need we investigate automatic multi-arm manipulation from two complementary perspectives : control and planning. This paper, which only presents one aspect of our research, focuses on the planning issues underlying multi-arm ...

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Full Scale Trials of a Large General Purpose Construction Manipulator with Precise Motion Capabilities

J. O'Brien
Pages 289-294

Large reach, large capacity ,versatile and precise construction manipulators wth computer control capability have recently been proposed as potentially very useful construction industry tools. But none has yet been economically realized. This paper describes the development of a such a machine .the manipulator described has a lift capacity of more ...

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System of Automated Design of Control Mechanism for Manipulators Having High Dynamic Accuracy

Vladimir F. Filaretov, Pavel T. Mimohod
Pages 295-304

The computer-aided automated design (CAD) system with some new original methods of synthesis of adaptive control system and formulated regulations for choosing these methods in dependence on the features and requirements to the manipulator to be designed are considered in this paper. The peculiarity is that with the help of ...

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Grippers for Adaptive Robotic Assembly

Z. Kolibal, P. Holec
Pages 305-312

In the preparation for robotic assembly variety of experiments was performed, examining relation between the gripper stiffness and its passive adaptivity. The basic couples nut-bolt, pin-hole and spline-keyseat are supposed to be elementary operations in assembly technology and are dealed separately. The conclusions are drawn for the gripper construction and ...

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A Field Prototype of a Robotic Pavement Crack Sealing System

Carl Haas, Chris Hendrickson, Sue McNeil, Darcy Bullock
Pages 313-322

Highway maintenance automation presents substantial opportunities to reduce labor costs, improve work quality, and decrease worker exposure to roadway hazards. A research project at Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Texas at Austin has demonstrated an automated method for filling pavement cracks that is a cost effective application of ...

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Development of Advanced Asphalt Finisher

Fumio Goto, Tohru Saitoh
Pages 323-332

More than half a century has passed since the asphalt finisher was developed. Over the years since that time, this machine has been made larger and the performance of its various parts has been improved, but its image as a complicated machine requiring many special skilled operators has not changed. ...

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Automation of Snowplow

Nobuhiro Fukuda, Hiroshi Kamimura, Takeshi Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi Sasaki
Pages 333-340

With the increase in traffic volume in recent years, the snowplow operators have to constantly monitor the surrounding conditions and passing vehicles, and take extreme care and precautions during work. For using the rotary snowplow, which has various operating levers, technique and experience of a high level are required .in ...

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RCCP Travelling Continuous Measurement System - Concrete Quality Control System of Using Scattered RI method

Tomonori Takada, Yoshifumi Nakagawa, Masaru Uchida
Pages 341-346

In order to raise the standard of RCCP compaction control while streamlined the control process.it is necessary to monitor the state of compaction quickly and continuously, and feedback compaction data speedily. Unlike conventional transmission-type gauges, this gauge allows the measurement of density without making holes in objects of measurement. This ...

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Robotic Soil Sampler for Hazardous Waste Clean Up

Edward J. Jaselskis, Marvin S. Anderson
Pages 347-356

An innovative field sampling system using LA-ICP-AES (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry) technology is currently being developed through an integrated team approach at Ames Laboratory to provide in-situ, real time analysis of inorganic hazardous waste. This sampling approach is conducted through a mobile testing facility which consists of an ...

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Advanced Information Technology and Management in Construction

Thomas Bock, Friedrich Gebhart, Werner Steck
Pages 357-366

The industrialization of the building industry has opened a new dimension by the introduction of advanced information technologies offering new possibilities for the building process. Due to the increasing market requirements and nowadays available technological potentials, traditional building production will be replaced by one-of-a-kind computer integrated construction systems, the use ...

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A Construction System with Standard Connections

Ari Adini
Pages 367-373

Automation of construction, by means of robots, is not limited to any particular design. Yet from the cost effectiveness stand point some designs are more suitable for automation than others, in particular when social-economic aspects are also taken into consideration. This paper describes the design features of a general purpose ...

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Optimization of Service Routes in a Restricted Environment

Stephen F. Bashford, William H. Askew
Pages 375-384

This paper presents a method which is presently being developed for planning mechanical and electrical service routes within a confined space. The method uses a modified Lees’ algorithm which allows horizontal, vertical and diagonal (450) routings within the space/each service is initially routed individually and then a system based ...

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Automating and Integrating the Management Function

William H. Askew, Michael J. Mawdesley, Jonathan A. N. Booth
Pages 385-392

Today’s construction robots are largely machines which simply carry out a construction task. Fully robotized construction must include automation and integration of the numerous management functions together with robotization of the construction task. Important management functions, including planning, scheduling and budgeting, are discussed with a view to their automation using ...

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Management of Spatial Information for Construction Planning and Design Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

Min-Yuan Cheng, Koshy Varghese, James T. O'Connor
Pages 393-402

Geographic information systems (GIS),a technology for spatial data analysis which is widely used in geology, appears to have significant potential in construction applications. GIS as well as computer-aided design (CAD) are two computerized systems widely used in engineering design and spatial management. Currently, CAD is the most popular tool in ...

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Artificial Reality in Robotics and A/E/C Firms

Roozbeh Kangari, Manabu Akimoto
Pages 403-410

Artificial Reality (AR) in a new computer interface technology which is expected to have a major impact on A/E/C firms. The system works as an interactive animation system which allows advance simulation modeling in 3-d.Artificial Reality is a display and control technology that can surround a person in an interactive ...

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Activity-Level Space Scheduling

Iris D. Tommelein, Pierrette P. Zouein
Pages 411-420

Activity – level space scheduling involves allocating site space over time to static and dynamic construction resources such as robots. The resulting coarse layouts pertaining to activity-related time intervals serve to coordinate the motion planning tools of multiple robots; this cannot be done with existing motion planning tools, as computational ...

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Construction Robotics Management with a Personal Computer

Miroslaw J. Skibiniewski, Kinya Tamaki, Jose E. Thomaz
Pages 421-430

The Construction Robotic Equipment Management System (CREMS) has been developed as a response to the need by one of the best known Japanese construction and engineering firms to effectively manage diverse robots on future construction sites. This paper outlines a generic decision logic for comparison of conventional work methods and ...

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Automated Decision Making - Examples from Practice

Axel Gaarslev
Pages 431-440

Full automation and real robotization require some kind of built-in intelligence. Automation requires in this way automatic decision-making, based on some kind of artificial intelligence tool. The Department of Construction Management at the Technical University of Denmark has for a number of years been heavily involved in developing this kind ...

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Time-Dependent Evolution of Work Packages

Yu-Lin Huang, C.William Ibbs, Yusuke Yamazaki
Pages 441-450

We are working on a common information model called UNIWBS which uses the work breakdown structure concept .UNIWBS is intended to support project information integration and project planning and control as well. By using the UNIWBS, we are also developing a conceptual knowledge-based expert system called DYNAPACK for generating planning, ...

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Simulation of a Panel Positioning Robot

Javier Ibanez-Guzman, Brian Atkin, Peter Atkinson
Pages 451-458

This paper describes the work and results of a feasibility study into the simulation of a panel positioning robot. A kinematic model was built, using GRASP and ROBCAD software, to simulate robot motion and to determine optimal configuration, cycle times and work envelopes. A dynamic model was then built, using ...

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COOPS - Construction Object-Oriented Process Simulation System

Photios G. Ioannou, Liang Y. Liu
Pages 459-468

This paper describes the modeling concepts and design of COOP, a new general purpose discrete-event simulation system for construction process modeling. COOPS simulation models are represented by graphical networks that are constructed interactively on the screen using primitive objects, such as activities, queues, consolidation nodes, routers, links, flags, resources, and ...

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An Object-Oriented Simulation System for Construction Operations

Naruo Kano, Norihiro Minami
Pages 469-478

This paper presents the methodology for simulating the process of construction operations by using object-oriented approach. Authors developed a prototype system to model construction operations and to simulate their behaviour at site, which included the random effects of weather and productivity in operations. Through the implementations of this prototype system, ...

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Visual Simulation Programming for Construction Operations

Amr A. Oloufa
Pages 479-486

Discrete event simulation is an extremely valuable tool for construction operations. The application of simulation in construction has been limited due to the extreme hardship in developing valid simulation models and coding them in a simulation language. With the advent of object-oriented modeling and programming, simulation entities may be described ...

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A Study on Application of Site Work Simulation System for Civil Construction Planning Using Object Oriented Three-Dimensional CAD/CAM System

Satoshi Goto, Ichiro Marui
Pages 487-496

Civil Design Project vary in complexity in recent years. Big Civil Project have been already started for 21st century. It is possible to design structures, which have been difficult to design before, using some high-technology computer methods, e.g. , FEM Analysis System, CAD/CAM system, etc. We are sometimes able to ...

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Automation of Robot Operation Planning Based on Product Modelling, a Case Study for Suspended Ceiling Installation Robots

Ronald Krom; Frits Tolman
Pages 497-506

This paper describes how product model information together with building knowledge is used to generate robot operation plans. This approach is explained using a case of the design and installation of a suspended ceiling system. In this case study an information reference model for suspended ceiling product models is discussed. ...

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Development of the Ceiling Board Installation Machine

Seigo Tokioka, Seigo Nakamura, Katsumi Kebayashi, Sachio Sakai, Tadarshi Nagao
Pages 507-516

At present, most of the ceiling finish work depends upon manual labor by skilled workers, which is poor in workability and requires strenuous labor. Considering such condition, we have worked on mechanization and automatization of the ceiling finish work and developed the ceiling board installation machine. Furthermore, we have applied ...

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A Material-Handling System in the Building Site

T. Honda, T. Okano, H. Nomura, H. Takano, T. Matsumoto, H. Wada, Y. Yuzaki, N. Minami
Pages 517-524

This paper describes the development of a material-handling (carrying) system for interior finishes and the results of its operation at a building site. The system consists of automated guide vehicles (AGVs) which carry construction materials raised by a elevator (for material) to a designated place on a designated floor, control ...

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Development of a Desk/Chair Arrangement Robot

Yoshinori Kumita, Takashi Takimoto, Akira Nozue, Kazuya Murakoshi
Pages 525-534

Unmanned transport technology for applications in ongoing construction sites would become prerequisite in order to carry out construction work with less labor as well as to promote the unmanned construction work which is anticipated to be established in the future. This paper will report on the position recognition technology employed ...

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Development of a Multipurpose Mobile Robot for Concrete Surface Processing

Rolf Berlin; Ferwnc Weiczer
Pages 535-544

This paper reports on the continuing design of an autonomous multipurpose mobile robot intended for concrete slab finishing, grinding, and cleaning during construction. Common to these three applications are rotating tools in contact with the floor. Selectively adaptable to one machine, these tools will perform recurrent tasks on a construction ...

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Essential Factors in the Automation of Tall Building Inspection

Thomas C. K. Wong; Denis A. Chamberlain
Pages 545-554

The accumulation of the repair and maintenance requirement in Great Britain’s tall housing stock has become a matter of great concern. For limited resources to be wisely allocated to this, dependable priorities based on reliable building inspection processes must be achieved. The potential role of automation has been clearly established ...

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Wall Climbing Robot for the Inspection and Maintenance of Buildings

M M Cusack, J G Thomas
Pages 555-564

The inspection and maintenance of buildings and other structures constitutes a significant proportion of the workload of the construction industry. Difficulties associated with access, risk of injury and costs, point to the need to reduce human involvement and look for means of automating these activities. In this paper conceptual requirements ...

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Development of Wall Coating Removal Robot

M. Ashikawa, T. Adachi, H. Katano, T. Miyashita, S. Matsui, M. Kakikura
Pages 565-572

We have developed a wall coating removal robot for refurbishing exterior walls of buildings. This robot consists of a base machine, capable of adhering to and travelling freely along walls surfaces by means of suction pad and four wheels, and a rotating water jet nozzle built into the ...

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Masonry Construction by an Experimantal Robot

Denis Chamberlain, Seshagiri Ala, James Watson, John Reilly and Philip Speare
Pages 573-582

Masonry is an important, traditional and conservative aspect of UK building activity. This mainly involves the use of bonded brick and block units which have significant dimensional tolerances and are easily damaged. Taking these factors into account, automation of masonry construction cannot be interpreted as being a simple pick and ...

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An Automated Construction Erection System

B. Vincent Viscomi, N. Duke Perreira
Pages 583-592

A series of new beam-to-column connections known as ATLSS connections are currently under development with an emphasis on cost-efficient fabrication as well as geometric configurations which provide an automatic self-guided erection feature to greatly facilitate initial placement. This feature will minimize human assistance during construction and will result in quicker, ...

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Development of System Capable of Spraying Fireproof Covering Materials

Hitoshi Miyamoto, Yukihiro Watanabe, Shoichi Morimoto, Tokio Sawada, Ryoji yoshitake, Junichi limori
Pages 593-602

As one of the approaches to promote further unmanned construction work using industrial robots for general application, we have developed a robot system capable of spraying fireproof covering materials. The proposed robot system consists of a robot, a control panel, an automatic carriage with a lift, and a gang control ...

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Development of the Automatic Screeding Machine Mounted on a Girder for Concrete Placing Work

Kenji Okuda, Yutaka Yanagawa, Tateo Kawamura, Minoru Ochiai, Hayao Aoyagi
Pages 603-610

Takenaka has developed a girder-mounted automatic screeding machine (SCREED ROBO) to improve concrete screeding work, and to solve problems such as the shortage of skilled workers and variations of accuracy.This machine makes it possible to screed concrete on the large span automatically with high quality, by traversing the screeding part ...

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Development of the Automatic Reinforcing Steel Placing Robot

Kiyoshi Kubo, Susumu Nemoto, Takezo Miyamoto
Pages 611-618

The work of placing the reinforcing steel had been carried out manually in the past because automation of this process was extremely difficult. We have developed an automatic reinforcing steel placing robot this time.The objectives of this robot are eliminations of labor and increase in work efficiency. These objectives have ...

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Development of Automatic Exterior Precast Concrete Wall Panel Construction System

Hideo Tanijiri, Kohei Sato
Pages 619-628

This automatic exterior precast concrete wall panel installation system performs a series of in-situ construction work, from spraying paint on exterior precast concrete wall panels, to transporting and installing them. The system consists of an automatic exterior precast concrete wall panel paint spraying system, an automatic transportation system and an ...

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Development of Tunnel Face Marking System

Ryousei Murakami, Kuniaki Yamazaki
Pages 629-634

We have developed face marking system (named tunnel marker) using for tunnel construction. This system is composed with laser projector, total station, tripod, controller and surveying mirror.It can intermittently project following items to the appointed place from optical located position in the tunnel. This operation is by wireless.(1) Center point ...

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The Three-Dimensional Marking Robot for Tunnel Driving

Koichi Nakano, Makoto Sasaki, Aketo Suzuki, Tadashi Kanzaki
Pages 635-644

This robot has been designed to support marking of the designed section and surveying operations, which take place daily at the tunneling cut face. When using NATM, a peripheral line marking the designed section of the tunnel is drawn after appropriate survey work in order to allow accurate excavation. This ...

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A New System for Marking off on the Face in a Tunnel

Tsutomu Kaneda; Hiroyuki Fukuda
Pages 645-650

Amid the pressing need for automation and labor-saving due to the shortage of construction laborers and skilled workers, we developed a new tunnel face marking system, which automatically computed the coordinates of tunnel face center and marks the excavating plofile. Consisting of a survey instrument incorporating the latest electronics technology ...

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Total Control System for Shotcreting

Takara Terada, Ryousei Murakami
Pages 651-658

This system offers automated and labor-effectiveness environment in the site control of shotcreting on NATM method tunnel work; and also reduces QSCA (quick setting cement additive).The total control of ‘Spraying robot’; ‘Conveyer-pump of concrete’ and ‘Supply-system of quick setting cement additive’ enables automatic shotcreting by setting the proper quantity of ...

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Prospects for Applying Automation/Robotization of Shield Method Work

Shinkichi Hashiba
Pages 659-668

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Development of Automatic Bolt Supply and Tightening Robot for Automatic Segment Assembly System

Katsurni Nakashima, Nobuhiro Kondou, Toshi Nomoto, Yoshitaka Kuwabara
Pages 669-674

We have developed an automatic bolt supply and tightening robot for an automatic segment assembly system that can support work in small-diameter tunnels. The segments are hex-head types, and the prototype handles segments with an inside diameter of 4.8 meters. The automatic bolt supply and tightening robot is separate from ...

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Automatic Control System for the Shield Tunnelling Machine

Tsutomu Nakanishi, Mamoru Hirabayashi
Pages 675-682

In the recent shield tunnelling, various requirements are sing led out as targets to overcome for the purpose of meeting the varied social needs; as such requirements, there are lengthening of tunnels, boring at deeper levels, construction of tunnels of larger section, etc. But, for solving these problems, the works ...

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Total Shield Construction Control System

Kenichi Takemura, Tsutomu Nemoto
Pages 683-692

We have connected the various automatic construction systems for shield construction by a high speed network. We have developed a “Total Shield Construction Control System” (KSGS – Kajima Shield General Control System) that controls all the systems in a centralized control room. This control system has already been installed on ...

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Automatization in Expansion of Slurry Feed and Outflow Pipes in Shield Tunnelling Construction

Yoshiyuki Ohara, Yuichi Kikuchi and Kazuo Miyazawa
Pages 693-700

With the increase of underground developments in the cities, shield method became important and widely used as one of the tunnelling methods. However, the labour shortage problem of the construction industry lead its introduction of high technologies of unmanned construction work. The recent developments in the shield technologies have advanced ...

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Automatic Extension Robot for Slurry Transport Pipes

Tomoo Miura, Shigeki Abe, Masafumi Wada
Pages 701-708

In promoting effective utilization of underground space now attracting attention, the shield method has gained greater significance, and construction of the tunnel is expected to speed up, because the services of the underground facilities are required to start earlier than before. On the other hand, one of the problems in ...

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Development of an Unmanned Prelining Machine Using the Pre-Arch Shell Support (PASS) Method

Akihiko Nagaoka, Toshio Mori, Hirokazu Ue, Yoichi Mimura, Tsuyoshi Kanda
Pages 709-716

Since the NATM method was introduced to Japan some 15 years ago, the technologies and techniques involving tunnelling and the construction of underground caverns have seen some noticeable developments, and their applications have been extended not only to mountain areas, but also, more recently, to urban areas. However, the application ...

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Development of Discharged Soil Measuring Device for Shield Tunneling Machines

Yoshihiro Ooishi, Shinichi Murakawa, Akira Hatakoshi, Teruyuki Mori
Pages 717-724

It is very important to know the volume of discharged soil for more adequate excavating control of the shield tunneling machines. In confined soil shields and mechanical shields, excavated soil is discharged by belt conveyors and muck cars, so it has been difficult to evaluate the discharged soil volume. In ...

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Development of an Automatic Shield Excavation System

Tatsuo Sato
Pages 725-734

The posture of the shield machine must be accurately controlled for constructing a tunnel on the planned line in shield constructions. This posture control consists of the “Linear Excavation Alignment Control” that decides the progress of excavation and the “Directional Correction” that decides the mode of operation. We have developed ...

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An Automatic Vibrating Roller Operation System

Koichi Utsuka, Yoshio Kurihara, Masao Fujiwara
Pages 735-742

Compacting the spread concrete with a self-powered vibrating roller is an essential feature of the RCD (Roller Compacted Dam-concrete) method of constructing a concrete gravity dam. It is an arduous task for the roller operator to remain seated on the roller not only because the working area is unusually extensive ...

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Controlling an Intelligent Excavator for Autonomous Digging in Difficult Ground

Derek Seward, David Bradley, Jim Mann, Mark Goodwin
Pages 743-750

This paper reports on the recent advances made in developing an autonomous robot excavator. Previous work on a fifth-scale model was reported at earlier symposia, but the technology has now been transferred to a real excavator – LUCIE – Lancaster University Computerised Intelligent Excavator. The paper concentrates on the architecture ...

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Study on Underground Space Excavating Machine

Hironori Adachi, Tatsuo Arai, Keiko Homma, Tatsuya Nakamura, Hiroshi Yoshinada
Pages 751-758

A National Research and Development Program on Underground Space Development Technology has started in 1989. In this program, an automated excavating machine will be developed to construct an underground dome. This paper describes three basic studies, locomotion system, manipulation system, and task planning system, which are required for the excavating ...

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Forces Prediction of Underwater Soil Cutting by Excavating Robots

Igor Nedorezov
Pages 759-765

The paper deals with the problem of forecasting forces, acting on operating devices (blades) of underwater excavating robots in the course of soil cutting, by means of mathematical simulation methods. To this end, the structure of soil underwater cutting process has been represented as three interacting subsystems: operating device, soil ...

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Development of a Measuring System for the Underground Pipelines

Tomoji Takatsu, Hideyuki Takeda, Satoshi Ohsumi, Junichi Nishio
Pages 767-775

In this paper, we develop a measuring system for underground pipelines. There are some measuring system for underground pipelines. Most of them are inspection device by television camera. The measuring system is developed in order to measure the linearity of underground pipelines.The system does not use any laser emitter because ...

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Research on Control Method of Planning Level for Excavating-Robot

Feng pei-en, Yang Yi, Qi Zhong-wei, Sun Shou-qian
Pages 777-787

Based on reference, a further analysis on the planning system for excavating-robot is proposed, in which the respective function of task planning, path planning and trajectory planning, is made clear. In order to increase the flexibility in planning and implement the part autonomy of excavating-robot, rules and their corresponding methods ...

Keywords: Excavating-robot, planning,path planning,rule, flexibility,part autonomy

Stability of Mobile Manipulators

M.C. Wanner, K.D. Rupp
Pages 787-792

Mobile manipulators with very large reaches and high payloads like telescopic cranes or concrete booms are important machines for the construction industry. Those systems have to be very safe. One important item is to ensure stability under any condition.This paper describes an approach to control the stability considering ground conditions. ...

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Automatic Level Control of Bulldozer Blade Based on Fuzzy Theory

Ryoichi Fukagawa, Tatsuro Muro
Pages 793-802

Ground leveling by bulldozer blade should be automatically controlled since the operation is an exhausting work for the bulldozer operator. In this paper, fuzzy control is used for the blade operation in the ground leveling. A series of tests using model bulldozing vehicle are carried out to check the effects ...

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Automatic Wheel-Loader in Asphalt Plant

Tomohiro Gocho, Narimasa Yamabe, Takehisa Hamaguchi, Shin-ichi Hitomi, Toyoichi Ono, Hiroshi Oshima, Masaki Mori, Masao Fukuda
Pages 803-812

Komatsu, Ltd. and Nippon Hodo Co., Ltd. have jointly developed an unmanned automatic operation system for wheel loaders for the execution of routine works in asphalt plants (scooping, transportation and loading). This system was introduced on a wheel loader in the Shimonoseki Plant of Nippon Hodo Co., Ltd. and is ...

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Traffic Performance of Crawler from Viewpoint of Energy Analysis

K. Kogure, N. Moriyama, T. Shogaki
Pages 813-821

In studies concerned with soil crawler interaction, it is known that there exist interdependent relationship between soil and crawler. This paper deals with a method of basic energy analysis for crawler motion on the ground. Six types of motion resistances acting on the running gear of a crawler are considered ...

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Application Height Control System of a Tractor Carrying up Weak Slope at Driving State

Tatsuro Muro
Pages 823-832

When a tractor is carrying up a scraper under transportation of soil on a weak slope, the application height of the effective driving force of the tractor could be controlled to obtain the maximum drawbar pull. Several tractive performances of a 50kN flexible rubber tracked vehicle trailing up a given ...

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Direction-Controlled Lifting System

Masahiro Nishimura, Shigeyuki Yamashita, Norimitsu Yoshihama
Pages 833-842

In the construction of a high-rise building, structural members can be turned by the wind during lifting, making installation work more difficult and reducing productivity. This paper describes a system for the control of rotation around the vertical axis during the lifting of members. The system consists of three major ...

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Unmanned Surveying System Using Automatic Moving Vehicle

Takahiro Kishishita, Kazuhiro Jo, Shinichi Sako, Shigestosi Koga
Pages 843-848

This paper describes a new automatic survey system developed for saving a shortage of workers in construction sites. This system consists of a three dimensional surveying system, a self-handling system and a personal computer, which are mounted on a fixed station and a moving station separately, being able to survey ...

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An Engineering Approach to Carriage Automation System at Construction Site (The First Report)

Osamu Hatakeyama, Hitoshi Sugiura, Hiroaki Saito, Ken-ichi Nishide, Hiroki Arasawa
Pages 849-857

We proposed a concept of carriage automation system with unmanned dump trucks at construction site four years ago. In this concept, the system is divided into three phases. Further, we have studied to realize the first phase by a prototype car. In this paper, we introduce about the concept and ...

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Towards Computer Integrated Road Construction

Peyret Francois, Philippe Herve
Pages 859-868

Two noticeable events will spend-up the development of road construction robotics: - the recent availability on the market of adapted localization systems, - the increasingly developing utilization of computer aided design in the study of road construction projects.Currently, no links do exist between the design studies and ...

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Planning for Automatic Excavator Operations

A. J. Koivo
Pages 869-878

The operations of an excavator can be automated by making a digital computer control its motion so that the system functions autonomously. In order to realize the automatic operations the nominal (desired) trajectory for the motion of the excavator must be preplanned and stored in the computer. This trajectory should ...

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Construction System of Heavy Parts by the Coordinated Control between a Crane and a Robot

Tamio Arai, Hisashi Osumi
Pages 879-886

Automatic assembly of heavy parts for construction will be the next step of assembly automation. This paper deals with a coordinated control between a crane and an industrial robot for assembling heavy parts. The suspended part by the crane and flexibility of the robot are modeled by stiffness matrices. The ...

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Design and Implementation of Multiple Autonomous Robots' Cooperative Behavior Based on Modest Cooperation

Shin'ichi Yuta, Suparerk Premvuti
Pages 887-896

In this paper, the authors present a concept on cooperation among autonomous mobile robots and describe how to adopt the concept to real robots.At construction site, the use of autonomous mobile robots is very important. Robots are used for conveying materials or assembling. While constructing, several mobile robots have to ...

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Task and Motion Planning Technique for Designing Group Control System in Robotic Construction Work

Kinya Tamaki, Yukio Hasegawa, Miroslaw J. Skibniewski
Pages 897-906

The purpose of this paper is to describe a task and motion planning technique for designing a group control system in robotic construction works. This technique deals with hierarchical control of multiple robots and peripheral machinery in an automated construction work-cell. The technique consists of two phases: the task planning ...

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Automated Construction of Underground Tank

H. Aoki, Y. Tsukahara, Y. Kajioka, T. Odawara, K. Kubota, Y. Tanaka, K. Suzuki, A. Kaiya and M. Sunahara
Pages 907-914

An automated landslide protection wall construction system and an automated concrete placing system were developed and applied in an underground LNG tank construction project at the Negishi plant of Tokyo Gas. The underground LNG tank is a huge vertical shaft storage of liquefied natural gas. This tank is a concrete ...

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Automatic Preassembling System for Reinforcement of Underground LNG tank

H. Sato, Y. Kajioka, Y. Kikuchi, S. Makono, Y. Tsutsumi
Pages 915-920

A new automatic reinforcement preassembling system introduced in a underground LNG tank construction project at the Sodegaura Plant of Tokyo Gas is discussed in this chapter. The system incorporates a curved ...

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Prospects for Applying Automation/Robotization of Underwater Foundation Work

Tadashi Kanzaki
Pages 921-930

In recent years, major marine engineering works have led to be executed in deep waters with severe waves far out at sea, while there has been increased demand for improved construction efficiency, accuracy, safety and economy.In this paper, underwater foundation work at great depths and in soft ground is considered ...

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Development of Riprup Supply Type Mound Levelling Machine

Y. Suzuki, T. Hirakata, K. Onodera, R. Okude
Pages 931-938

In this paper, the authors describe an outline of the riprup mound levelling machine and the results of being used at the construction site of deep-sea break water at Kamaishi Harbor. The top faces of mounds are levelled over supplying with rubbers by the machine. So the machine consists of ...

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Development of a Computer Aided Construction System for Submarine Excavation Works

Motoh Tsunoda, Masaki Hirano, Hiroaki Inoue, Masahiro Harada
Pages 939-948

For the submarine excavation of the anchorage foundation for the Kurushima Bridge connecting Honshu and Shikoku, a computer aided construction system was set up and used to strictly control all the construction processes, including the submarine topography survey prior to excavation, routine excavation, finish and confirmation of the excavated sea ...

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