2003 Proceedings of the 20th ISARC, Eindhoven, Holland

Automation at the Westerscheldt Tunnel

R.de Leeuw, E. Oele
Pages 1-7

Terneuzen- On the 14th of March 2003, the Westerschelde Tunnel was opened after a construction phase of five and a half years. The tunnel was constructed using modern technologies which were partially supported by software and other automated equipment. It?s uncommon to use highly automated technologies in construction projects because the unique character ...

Keywords: No keywords

The Future Site, Report on a Quest for the Drivers of Change

Frits Scheublin
Pages 3-8

When speaking about The Future Site we presume that in future a site will be different from the present building site. We take it for granted that almost every thing in our modern world is subject to permanent change. But to develop a vision on how that future site will look like ...

Keywords: Building Site, Drivers for Change, Industrialisation, Mass Customisation, Trends

Open Building as a Condition for Industrial Construction

N. John Habraken
Pages 37-42

Open Building advocates the direct relation between industrial manufacturing and the user / inhabitant. To make the industry-consumer relationship possible, base-buildings must offer space available for user controlled fit-out. To date, a fairly large number of experimental projects have been executed on a global scale. They demonstrate the potential of the approach. A ...

Keywords: Housing, systematization, industrialization, user control, design distribution

Robotics Construction in the 21st Century in Japan- IF7II

Junichi Yagi
Pages 43-48

In construction production field, since various type of disturbance factor is existed, it is difficult to manage related information by using conventional model. In this paper, a new concept of ?Parts and Packets unified architecture? is proposed. Data or information related to a product are carried by product itself and can be handled ...

Keywords: Glue Logic, Parts and Packets, Active Data Base, RFID, Automated Handling, Dynamic Scheduling

EU FutureHome Project Results

Carlos Balaguer
Pages 49-54

The EU FutureHome project is focusing in the development of new modular building construction with several important features: high quality, variety of designs, mass production, reasonable cost, and etc. To reach this objective three main points can be study: a) integration approach during all the stages of the building design (from architectural design ...

Keywords: Modular construction, integration, automatic design and planning, automatic assembly, robotized construction

IFD Building in Europe

Geert-Jan van den Brand, Hans van Gurchom, Ton Damen
Pages 55-60

This paper discusses the advanced concept of Industrial, Flexible and Demountable (IFD) building. The IFD concept aims to balance the interests of all construction industry stakeholders. The use of industrial building methods for offices, schools and factories has gained broad popularity in the practice. However, the building clients conventional view does not give ...

Keywords: building process innovation, industrial, flexible, demountable, customer satisfaction, collaborative engineering, comakership, product development

Toward Total Automation of On-Site Construction - An Integrated Approach Based on Contour Crafting

Berok Khoshnevis
Pages 61-66

Research at the University of Southern California addresses a new construction automation approach using a layered fabrication process called Contour Crafting (CC). The process aims at automated construction of whole structures as well as sub-components. Using this process, a single house or a colony of houses, each with possibly a different design, may ...

Keywords: automated reinforcement; automated tiling; automated painting; automated plumbing; automated electrical and communication network construction; Contour Crafting; mobile robotics

Demonstration Projects "Industrial, Flexible and Demountable Building" in the Netherlands

H. Westra, H. Vos
Pages 67-70

The programme "Demonstration projects Industrial, Flexible and Demountable Building" (known by its Dutch abbreviation IFD) is a joint initiative of the SEV with the Ministries of Economic Affairs (EZ), and of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM). The ministries are eager to promote the application of IFD building principles by industry and ...

Keywords: No keywords

The Factors of a Successful Industrial Construction Process

Jeroen van der Tas
Pages 71-76

In the late ?80s and early ?90s, people at HBG Woningbouw came up with the idea of changing the way the construction of housing projects was organised in order to respond to the market demand for cheaper rented and owner-occupied accommodation.

Keywords: No keywords

Automated Project Performance Control (APPC) of Construction Resources

Ronie Navon
Pages 78-81

Real-time control of on-site construction is a growing field still in its infancy. A model for automated control was developed, implemented and validated in the field, to verify if Project Performance Indicators (PPI) can be automatically measured and controlled. The concept behind this development is that indirect data ? locations measured automatically at ...

Keywords: Automated Data Collection; Control; Manpower; Monitoring; Performance Measurement

The Development of a Robot for Paving Floors with Ceramic Tiles

Jos Lichtenberg
Pages 85-88

In 1997 a development project was started aiming on mechanisation of the process of paving floors with ceramic tiles. Together with a number of companies from The Netherlands, Germany and Belgium and with additional funding from the European Commission the project was carried out by A+ innovations in cooperation with the Eindhoven University ...

Keywords: Automation, Ceramic tiles, Development, Robot, Success factors

A Multi-Element System of Surrounding Recognition And Objects' Localization for Unmanned Ground Vehicles

Franciszek Kuczmarski, Barbara Siemiatkowska, Andrzej Typiak
Pages 89-94

Equipping engineering machines and trajectory vehicles with automatic and remote control systems is necessary in case there is any environmental hazard for an operator i.e. environment conditions, an impact from fire field etc. It is particularly crucial when there is no possibility for any person to be in a machine or in its ...

Keywords: Unmanned Ground Vehicle, Surrounding Recognition Systems, Laser Scanner, Visual Unit

Research of the Snaking Phenomenon to Improve Directional Stability of Remote Controlled Articulated Wheel Tool-Carrier

Marian Lopatka, Tomasz Muszynski
Pages 95-101

Articulated wheel tool-carriers manufactured up to 20-25 tons of total weights are wide available on the construction equipment market and have a lot of unique advantages not accessible on Ackerman steering or truck-mounted equipment such as : - for weight up to 20 t high cross-country mobility ? comparable to heavy military tracked ...

Keywords: articulated tractor, high speed, identification, remote control, snaking phenomenon, steering System

Automatic Control of Road Construction Machinery ? Feasibility and Requirements

Rauno Heikkilä, Mika Jaakkola
Pages 103-110

A wide range of construction machines are used in the course of road building. Automation offers a number of benefits and improvements to the control of the work processes. A total of 16 different work procedures involving 13 construction machines were evaluated using the measurement criteria developed for this purpose. Total points scored ...

Keywords: automation, road construction, heavy machinery, feasibility evaluation, measurement criteria

Procedure Design for Experiments Towards Modeling of the Cutting Force in Excavation of Bulk Media

A. Hemami, F. Hassani
Pages 111-117

The work discussed in this paper concerns automation of excavation or automation of loading particulate media by an excavating machine. Based on the analysis of the process, knowledge of the force of cutting/digging is required for feedback purposes. The lack of a reliable and well established model for the force in question dictates ...

Keywords: Cutting/digging force, bulk media, model formulation, experiment

Remote Control and Automatic Monitoring of Earth-Moving Machines in Road Construction

Marco Gatti, Fiorenzo Malaguti
Pages 119-124

We report a system for remote control and automatic management of a fleet of earth-moving and construction machines with assisted guidance in earthworks and road construction. The system can be divided into three segments: control segment, positioning segment, data transmission segment. The positioning segment is based on WAAS or classical DGPS techniques. The ...

Keywords: Earth-moving Machines; GPS; Internet; Remote Control; Total Station; WAAS/EGNOS

Motion Planning of Mounting Robots with Intelligent Control

Thomas Bock, Alexej Bulgakow, Dimitry Parshin
Pages 127-130

high efficiency of mounting robotized complexes is achievable by means of adaptive control algorithms that provide motion planning and forming of control actions, taking into account conditions of manipulator, object and environment. Incomplete and unclear body of data on the object and operating space does not allow to obtain the desired control using traditional ...

Keywords: robotization, construction, control algorithms, visual sensor, mobile robots, planning of the robot’s movement, kinematics.

Grab Bucet with Straight Linear Progressive Movement of Jaws

Thomas Bock, Alexander Drovnikov, Vladimir Bogdanov, Irina Bulgakova
Pages 131-134

Special rowing up grab buckets are used in construction for performing clearing, loading and unloading functions; when mining thin layers of soil and basic materials. The efficiency of grab buckets with large opening of the jaws can be sufficiently increased by providing straight linear progressive movement of the jaws when the angle ...

Keywords: excavating machines, construction, grab working, kinematic scheme, control algorithms, visual sensor, mobile robots, planning of the robot’s movement, kinematics

Trajectory Arrangement of Bucket Motion of Wheel Loader

Sarata Shigeru, Osumi Hisashi, Hirai Yusuke, Matshushima Gen
Pages 135-140

For autonomous scooping operation by wheel loader, a method for adequate arrangement of bucket trajectory will be proposed. In scooping operation of wheel loader by human operator, bucket motion includes several cycles of arm lift and bucket tilt alternately. Consequently, the tip of bucket moves on alternate short path of horizontal and vertical ...

Keywords: Wheel Loader, Scooping, Bucket Control, Trajectory, Resistance force, Pile

Anti-Sway Control of Suspended Loads on Shipboard Robotic Cranes

Jackrit Suthakorn, Gordon G. Parker
Pages 141-146

Currently, the speed at which constructing materials can be transferred from a transport ship to an offshore construction site is limited by sea conditions. Rough sea conditions cause the payload to sway making load transfer difficult and time-consuming. The objective of this research is to develop a real-time, command compensating control for reducing ...

Keywords: Shipboard crane controls, Offshore construction, Inverse kinematics, Sliding mode control strategy

Variable Priority in Maze-Solving Algorithms for Robot's Movement (Specially Useful for Low Quality Mechanic Robots)

Babak Hosseini Kazerouni, Mona Behnam Moradi and Pooya Hosseini Kazerouni
Pages 147-152

Most existing Maze-Solving algorithms assume a constant priority for the robot's movement. Thus, each moment, the robot will determine next movement only by the assumed constant priority. As turning would take a lot of time the fastest path and the easiest to go through is the one that has less turns. Because ...

Keywords: Maze-Solving Algorithms, Open Path's Length, Less Turns, Variable Movement Priority

A Mechatronics Security System for the Construction Site

M. Abderrahim, E. Garcia, R. Diez, C. Balaguer
Pages 155-160

As part of the Future Home project, research was conducted to look into ways of improving the security and develop methods and reliable systems to detect possible failures and to avoid any harm to the machinery and installations and, above all, to the workers in the construction site. The work described in this ...

Keywords: Construction Site Safety, Automatic Construction System, Positioning in Construction, IT in construction

The Use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) in the Construction Industry

Amaury A. Caballero, Kang K. Yen
Pages 161-165

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have been identified as one of the most promising technologies and will continue to revolutionize the industry as well as the industrial and consumer products by combining silicon-based microelectronics with micro-machining technology. All the spheres of industrial application including robots conception and development will be impacted by this new technology. ...

Keywords: MEMS, Electronics, Construction, Sensors, Automation

Design and Analysis of a New 7-DOF Parallel Type Haptic Device : PATHOS-II

Keehoon Kim, Wan Kyun
Pages 167-172

Most tele-operation to manipulate an object consists of gripping and manipulation and two or more 6-DOF haptic devices in master side are usually used. In this article, a new simply designed 7-DOF haptic device, PATHOS II is proposed for 1-DOF gripping and 6-DOF manipulation. The merits of a parallel type ...

Keywords: Haptic Device, Parallel type, 7 DOF Robot

Algorithms for Fitting Cylindrical Objects to Sparse Range Point Clouds for Rapid Workspace Modeling

Soon-Wook Kwon, Katharine A. Liapi, Carl T. Haas, Frederic Bosche
Pages 173-178

Current methods for construction site modeling employ large, expensive laser range scanners that produce dense range point clouds of a scene from different perspectives. While useful for many purposes, this approach is not feasible for real-time applications, which would enable automated obstacle avoidance and semiautomated equipment control, and could improve both safety and ...

Keywords: construction automation; laser range finder; object fitting; object matching; workspace modeling

Multimodular Complex Riding on Air Cushion Used for Internal Fitting and Finishing Work

Alexej Bulgakow, Marina Bondarenko, Dimitry Krapivin, Sergej Pritchin
Pages 179-182

Self-Propelled manipulation system which is a mobile robot uses for its movement a chassis, a device on aerostatics supports. The catch of the manipulation system takes its positions at the point of support on the indoors floor and clutches with it. By means of its drives the manipulation system moves chassis into ...

Keywords: manipulation system, mobile robots, aerostatics supports, construction, kinematics

Development of Frontward Sensing Radar Using Electromagnetic Waves for the Microtunneling Method

Shinobu Tsutsumi, Kyoichi Miyazaki, Shigeru Yamaguchi, Hidenori Hino
Pages 183-188

For safe and efficient execution using the microtunneling method, it is necessary to understand both buried objects and ground information. The authors adopted an electromagnetic wave sensing system, devised an antenna that can be installed in a microtunneling driving machine with a diameter of approximately ø350 mm, and incorporated an original analysis algorithm ...

Keywords: frontward sensing, radar, utility detection, electromagnetic wave, microtunneling

Development of Hybrid Robot for Construction Works with Pneumatic Actuator

Hyeun-Seok Choi, Chang-Soo Han, Kye-young Lee, Sang-heon Lee
Pages 191-196

This paper presents a construction robot that is a hybrid type robot using pneumatic actuator. The hybrid type robot can be used in a window glass mounting, panel fixing, engine installing by gripper changing and so on. We proposed a mechanism of hybrid type robot for construction works, derived a kinematic modeling and ...

Keywords: Construction robot, Hybrid robot, Parallel mechanism , Pneumatic Actuator, Sliding control

Integral Automatic Control System for Premixed Concrete Production Companies (Dosat_H04)

Darién Jerez Sánchez
Pages 197-201

DOSAT H04 is an integral automatic control system for the production and sales management of premixed concrete in cyclical operation gravimetric plants. This system is a tool that guarantees to obtain an stable quality in the production of premixed concrete, and also to control the material resources and invoicing issues of ...

Keywords: DOSAT_H04

Towards an Intelligent Job Site: Status of the NIST Automated Steel Construction Test Bed

Alan M. Lytle, Kamel S. Saidi, William C. Stone, Nicholas A. Scott
Pages 203-208

The NIST Construction Metrology and Automation Group, in cooperation with the NIST Intelligent Systems Division, is researching robotic structural steel placement through an ongoing program entitled “Performance of Innovative Technologies for Automated Steel Construction.” This program, initiated in response to an American Institute of Steel Construction request for a 25 % reduction in ...

Keywords: construction automation, path planning, robotics, steel, VRML, 3-D coordinate measurement systems

Experiences with the Design and Production of an Industrial, Flexible and Demountable (IFD) Building System

Frans van Gassel
Pages 209-214

The Dutch government encourages innovative construction by subsidizing cohesive industrial, flexible and demountable building (IFD) pilot projects. Industrial building concerns the process-related aspects of production, robotization, mechanization, automation, prefabrication, communication, etc. Flexible building involves products that are made in accordance with customer’s wishes and the possibility to make adjustments when the ...

Keywords: Building Site, Building System, Industrial Construction , Multidisciplinary Design

Business Development Opportunities for Robotics in Dutch Construction Industry

Koos Johannes
Pages 215-218

This paper describes a research project of the Dutch foundation for building research, aimed at identifying and describing the key technologies for robotics and automated production systems in the building & construction industry. The project focusses on the dutch building & construction industry (housing & utility buildings excluding civil engineering ...

Keywords: Off-site construction, product/market/technology mapping, business development, SME’s

A Distributed Object Model for CSCW in the Construction Industry

Jos P. van Leeuwen, A. van der Zee
Pages 221-228

Information about products for the construction industry is increasingly often provided to designers in digital ways that enable them to apply the information directly in the design process. Digital product catalogues are provided using various media and formats and several initiatives are taken by the industry and by CAD developers to integrate this ...

Keywords: Collaborative Design, Product Data Modelling, Concept Modelling, Distributed Object Model, Semantic Web.

Open Architecture for Site Layout Modeling

Farnaz Sadeghpour, Osama Moselhi, Sabah Alkass
Pages 229-234

This paper presents an overview of a computer-based site layout model and focuses primarily on the project setup phase. The developed model has four modules: user interface, database, project module, and layout module. Setting up the project in the proposed model is carried out by the project module, utilizing open architecture concept. The ...

Keywords: CAD tools, Construction sites, Model design, Open architecture, Site layout planning

Preparing Design to Support Automation and Robotisation in Construction

Yuhua Luo
Pages 235-240

To support automation and robotisation for construction, there are many requirements. A very basic one is the availability of the information about the building or structure to be constructed. The information may include the design of all the specialties in the building. The format of the geometry of the building elements should be ...

Keywords: Multidisciplinary design; design integration; design for automation

Automatic Acquisition of Rules for 3D Reconstruction of Construction Components

Heng Li, Ling Yu
Pages 241-248

Aiming at the rule-based recognition system for architectural structure drawings, this paper presents a sample-based method that will automatically extract the geometric features of architectural objects and convert the features into recognition rules. When users designate the first sample of one type of objects, this method automatically analyzes and extracts the features useful ...

Keywords: Rule acquisition, architectural structure drawing, self-adapting recognition, construction component

Emergent Coherent Behavior of Complex Configurations Through Automated Maintenance of Dominance Relations

N. John Habraken, J. Willem R. Langelaan
Pages 249-255

When we change a configuration by displacing or removing one object in it, desired adjustment of related objects usually follows established relational conventions. If, for instance, we displace a wall in which a window is found, we will expect the window to remain in the wall. At the same time we expect ...

Keywords: Design, Emergent behavior, Dominance relations, bi-directional editing

Connecting 3-D Concrete Bridge Design to 3-D Site Measurements

Rauno Heikkilä, Mika Jaakkola, Pekka Pulkkinen
Pages 259-264

This paper describes the first results of an R&D project “Intelligent Bridge” carried out in Finland. The aim of the project is to develop new methods for 3-D design of concrete bridges and further connect and bring the design models to the source information of site measurements. A new design concept ...

Keywords: Concrete Bridge Design, 3-D CAD, 3-D Measurements, 3-D Laser Scanners

Intelligent Road Construction Site - Development of Automation into Total Working Process of Finnish Road Construction

Rauno Heikkilä, Mika Jaakkola
Pages 265-269

Numeric road construction processes and their parts are today developed worldwide. This paper describes research in Finland, which is conducted with companies using national technology funding in a research and development project entitled ”Intelligent Road Construction Site”. In its entirety, four public research projects and two product development projects are today ongoing. One ...

Keywords: road construction, automation, 3-D CAD, 3-D measurements, 3-D machine control systems

Applicability of Laser Scanning to the Measurement of 3-D Terrain Model for Street Design

Mika Jaakkola, Rauno Heikkilä
Pages 271-275

This paper describes the first results of R&D project "Intelligent Street" carried out in Finland. The aim of the project is to develop new measuring and design methods and tools for street design and construction. Usability and accuracy of laser scanning technology was tested in field-tests done in Itäreimarintie street pilot in Helsinki ...

Keywords: Street Design, Street Construction, Laser Scanning, Accuracy, Reliability

A Computer Aided System to Improve Dimensional Control of on-Site Construction

Rui Wu, Ger Maas
Pages 277-283

The increased use of prefabricated components, the complexity of new building shapes, and the speeding up of production in construction, demand an efficient and precise dimensional control. Meanwhile Information and Communication Technology (ICT) increasingly supports construction, among others, CAD systems and Total Stations, are being used for the purpose of dimensional control. In ...

Keywords: CAD Systems, Dimensional Control, Prefabricated Concrete, Total Stations, UML

Automation with or without 'humanization'? Dilemma in a Developing Construction Environment

Wilco Tijhuis
Pages 287-293

In the present modern construction industry there is a growing acceptance for automation. Not only while the human need for it is growing or whatsoever, but also while the living environment in general is increasingly involved with automation-processes and equipment. See e.g. ICT-developments like mobile phones, internet, computers, household-appliances, etc. These daily ‘tools’ ...

Keywords: Automation, Construction business, Environment, Humanization, Technology

A Multiple Criteria Decision Support Web-Based System for Sustainable Urban Development

E.K. Zavadskas, A. Kaklauskas, P. Vainiunas, J. Saparauskas, S. Raslanas, M. Gikys
Pages 295-300

The best sustainable urban development strategy of another country cannot just be copied. Strategies can only be adapted into a real economic, social, political, legislation/regulation and provision situation of the existing state. There is no such thing as a single sustainable urban development strategy to suit all societies and that could be applied ...

Keywords: Decision Support Web-Based Systems, Multiple Criteria Analysis, Sustainable Urban Development

IFD Building Systems: a Model Simulating Advantages of Collaboration in the Case of Prefabrication in Concrete

Frank De Troyer
Pages 301-306

A characteristic of the building sector is that different actors (responsible for design, production, construction, use) are separated by markets. Those markets hide a lot of information. As an example the production costs of prefabricated concrete elements are considered. One market strategy of a production unit of those components can be to search ...

Keywords: Industrial, Flexible and Demountable (IFD), Building System, Activity Based Costing, Life cycle costing

Dynamic Schedule Management Architecture Based on Parts and Packets Unified Product System

Eiji Arai, Akira Tsumaya, Hirokazu Watanabe, Hidefumi Wakamatsu, Keiichi Shirase
Pages 307-312

In a construction project, although the completion day of the project is clearly decided, construction schedule is often changed by the weather or the actual progress situation of the project. Therefore, when a difference arises between present state and the master schedule, it is necessary to adjust the construction schedule ...

Keywords: Distributed System, Dynamic Scheduling, Parts and Packets Unified System Architecture, Production Process

Virtual Video-Sensitive Interface Used in Robotic Control

George Mahalu, Adrian Graur, Calin Ciufudean
Pages 313-318

The paper presents a video-sensitive virtual interface used in technological process controlling. The control panels are substituted by this graphical system, with all advantages that can be focused from there. In robotic control are involved many controlling instruments and whole this set can be implemented with some virtual controls such as below description. ...

Keywords: Robotics, Interface, Programming Language, Image, Virtual, Microcontroller, Sensitive

Performance Evaluation of Construction Business Process Reengineering

Min-Yuan Cheng, Chi-En Chang
Pages 321-326

This study endeavors to focus on developing an evaluation method for comparative analysis of process performance before and after reengineering. Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is a relatively recent concept that has stemmed from management and computer science roots. Process performance evaluations are crucial to managers in identifying the benefit of new process after ...

Keywords: Business Process Reengineering, Performance Evaluation, Queueing Theory, Process Value

Automation of the Design Process

Peter John Gardner
Pages 327-332

Over the last 40 years ever more sophisticated computer hardware and commensurate developments in software have enabled much design to be computerised. More recently systems integration has allowed software to automatically pass data from package to package. This has effectively automated elements of the design process. As with all developments there have ...

Keywords: automation, computerised design, de-skilling, education, IT, process integration, training, skills

Industrialized Building Systems: Reproduction before Automation and Robotics

Roger-Bruno Richard
Pages 333-338

Industrialization is the aggregation of a large market to divide into infinitesimal fractions the investment in a technology capable of simplifying the production of complex goods and therefore reducing the costs. Simplification is the goal. Whenever the first four degrees of Industrialization, Prefabrication / Mechanization / Automation / Robotics, transfer the tasks from ...

Keywords: Industrialization, Reproduction, Performance criteria, Technology matrix, Process-Product Interaction

Automated Handling of Construction Components Based on Parts and Packets Unification

Tomohiro Umetani, Yasushi Mae, Kenji Inoue, Tatsuo Arai, Jun-ichi Yagi
Pages 339-344

This paper proposes a method of pose (position and orientation) fitting of construction components in a construction site for automated handling based on the relation between components (parts) and their information (packets). Robots can acquire the required information of the component via the environmentattached storages, such as RFID devices. When an ID reader ...

Keywords: Automated Handling, Pose Fitting, ID devices, Radio Frequency Identification

Real-Time Planning for Construction Robots

B. Kahane, Y. Rosenfeld
Pages 345-350

Most past attempts to deal with the unique challenges facing mobile construction robots have involved tasks such as position finding, local mapping, and automatic calibration. It was found that the combination of numerous small errors, such as incorrect positioning of the robot’s carriage or inaccuracy in interpreting the environment, with minor ...

Keywords: CCD, Construction-robot, Laser, Real-time, Sense-and-act, Tile-setting.

Web-Based an Emotion-Responsive Color Adaptation Process for Interactive Virtual Building Model

JuYeon Kim, HyunSoo Lee
Pages 353-362

The primary objective of this research is to realize an adaptable online architectural virtual reality (VR) model whose color attributes can be changed dynamically according to the identified emotional state of the user. We believe that the current approach to developing electronic based design environments is fundamentally defective with regard to support for ...

Keywords: Emotion-Response, Virtual Reality Model, Color Adaptation

3D Simulator of Modular Building Assembly by Automated Cranes

R. Diez, V. M. Padrón, M. Abderrahim, C. Balaguer
Pages 363-368

This paper presents a new construction method based of modular buildings. In this new method, the buildings are to be assembled from their modules using automatic means such as robots or/and automated cranes. A Computer Integrated Construction (CIC) architecture has been proposed to achieve the modular construction covering all aspects from the design ...

Keywords: 3D animation, crane simulation, robot programming language, modular building, CI

A Concept Study on Wearable Cockpit for Construction Work

Thomas Bock, Shigeki Ashida
Pages 369-373

Construction work needs in many cases human sense and decision, and consist in combination of every task and machine. In this aspect it must be effective that an operator can proceed a project while she/he is managing and operating tasks and several machines at a site with just-in-time accurate decision by means ...

Keywords: Wearable Cockpit, Augmented Reality (AR), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Embedded System, Wearable Computer, Project Control

The Application of an Auto-Stereoscopic Display in Design and Construction

Naai-Jung Shih
Pages 377-382

This study explores the application patterns of an auto-stereoscopic display (ASD) in architecture. An ASD set-up is exemplified to serve computer supported collaborative works (CSCW) and construction needs. The system is applied to both geometry- and image-based VR contents. A DTi 18.1” ASD is used for content illustration of still images and videos.

Keywords: auto-stereoscopic display (ASD), 3D display, VR

A Management Game for Evaluating the Selection of Project Plans in Construction

S.H. Al-Jibouri, M.J. Mawdesley
Pages 383-388

Project planning is an essential task of project management that is taught in most undergraduate and postgraduate programmes within universities. However unlike in engineering or other technological areas, students in the management of engineering projects will probably not have the opportunity during their study to test and employ the concepts they have learned ...

Keywords: Construction, Management Game, Planning, Simulation

Primitives Merging For Rapid 3D Modeling

Frédéric Bosché, Changwan Kim, Soon-Wook Kwon, Carl T. Haas, Katherine A. Liapi
Pages 389-392

Developing three dimensional models of infrastructure and construction in progress can be useful for designing modifications, for tracking work completed, and for facilitating advanced equipment control and safety functions. An emerging 3D modeling method involves scanning scenes with laser ranging devices. The resulting dense or sparse point clouds are converted to primitive geometric ...

Keywords: rapid, 3D modeling, primitives, merging

Implementation Scenarios for 4D CAD in Practice

Marcel Broekmaat, Bauke de Vries
Pages 393-398

The application of 3D and 4D CAD software is considered to be able to offer possibilities for more consistent project documentation and visualisation, which should eventually enable fail cost reduction. 4D software is seen as a tool for project organisers and project team members to better communicate and analyse schedule information.. In this ...

Keywords: 4D CAD, construction, simulation

Towards a Comprehensive Feasibility Analysis for the Use of Robots in the Construction Industry

Derek Seward, Khaled Zied
Pages 399-405

Feasibility studies must cover different disciplines such as need-based feasibility, technological feasibility and economical feasibility. In the present work a comprehensive feasibility analysis model for the use of robots in performing construction tasks is presented. This model is mainly focussed on the need analysis in order to present criteria for decision making. The ...

Keywords: Robots, Automation, Feasibility analysis, The AHP Process, Safety, Risk Assessment, Simulation

Criteria for Selection of Software Development Environment for Construction Robotic Systems

Khaled Zied, Derek Seward
Pages 407-412

The selection process for a suitable programming environment for construction robotic systems should satisfy a range of requirements identified from both a users and systems point of view. In the present work two different object-oriented programming environments are chosen for comparison, namely MATLAB as an example of text-based programming and LabVIEW as iconic-based ...

Keywords: Robotics, Software, AHP, Decision-making

Monitoring Roller Vibration During Compaction of Crushed Rock

Patrick B. Gorman, Michael A. Mooney
Pages 415-419

Real-time monitoring during soil compaction can be made possible by utilizing the vibration signature of a vibratory roller compactor. The compactor and soil constitute a coupled dynamic system, albeit complex and nonlinear. As the soil density increases and its mechanical properties change, the dynamic response of the compactor will change. Developing a thorough ...

Keywords: Soil Compaction, Health Monitoring, Soil Vibration, Soil-Machine Interaction

A Risk Model for Pile Foundations

Thomas Bles, Saad Al-Jibouri, Jeroen van den Adel
Pages 421-426

This paper describes a model which has been developed for the purpose of assessing major risks associated with various pile foundation types and their resulting financial consequences. The work is based on a review of possible geotechnical sources of risks encountered during the placing of pile foundations. Both literature and experts are used ...

Keywords: Risk model, Geotechnical design, Pile foundations

Dynamics and Monitoring of Vibratory Piling Process

Erno Keskinen, Juha-Matti Kivinen, Juha Miettinen, Michel Cotsaftis, Robert Hildebrand, Yrjö Raunisto
Pages 427-432

The foundations of buildings in urban environments are very often piled ones. During earth moving works the sides of digging area have to be supported by sheet pile walls to maintain constant earth pressure conditions against existing foundations. The piles and sheet piles are very often driven by vibratory methods, in which case ...

Keywords: Vibratory pile driving, ground vibrations, fluid power systems

High-Speed Visual Measurement System of Pile Penetration and Rebound Movement for Construction

Bum-Jae You, Sang-Rok Oh, Song-Soo Han, Sang Heon Lee
Pages 435-441

A number of piles should be driven into the ground by a hammering process in order to make the ground under the structure safe and strong when construction companies build a high structure such as building and bridges. It is essential to determine whether piles are penetrated into the ground enough to ...

Keywords: No keywords

Video Compression Method for On-Board Systems of Construction Robots

Andrei Petukhov, Michael Rachkov
Pages 443-447

This paper describes the experiences relating to transmission of digital video information from an on-board video camera of inspection wall climbing robots. The decoder is modified in the proposed transmission scheme. The main difference with the conventional scheme is an interaction of the reference frame with the post-processing. If video coding and post-processing ...

Keywords: Mobile Construction Robot, Building Inspection, Digital Video Information, Post-Processing Algorithm

Robot Assisted Wall Inspection for Improved Maintenance of High-Rise Buildings

S.K. Tso, Tong Feng
Pages 449-455

A robotic system is designed for the express purpose of facilitating timely maintenance of the external walls of high-rise buildings, including inspection and cleaning. This paper addresses the application of a selected method of non-destructive inspection (NDI) to assess the quality of bonding of the tile-wall in such buildings. The basis for checking ...

Keywords: High-rise buildings, Nondestructive inspection, Robotic maintenance

Development of an Inspection System for Cracks on the Lining of Concrete Tunnels

Bongsoo Ko, Young-Kap Son, Dongik Shin, Chang-soo Han
Pages 457-463

Over the last several decades, many concrete tunnels have been constructed on roads, highways, and railways. For safety in concrete tunnels, periodic inspections have been conducted using nondestructive testing technologies and techniques. However, non-destructive test cannot replace the visual inspection due to their slow and complicated procedures. For this reason, they have been ...

Keywords: Crack, Inspection System, Tunnel Lining, Tunnel Safety

Determining Internal Local Corrosion of Screwed Pipes Through Ultrasonic Testing

Toshio Fukuda, Shintaro Sakamoto, Fumihito Arai, Yasuhisa Hasegawa, Futoshi Kobayashi, Hironori Yui, Yasunori Abe
Pages 465-470

In diagnosing air-conditioning pipe deterioration, it is especially important to inspect screwed parts because their original thickness is thinner than that of straight parts and it is comparatively easy for leakage to occur if there is local internal corrosion. Usually, a radiographic test is used, but this method requires a licensed person ...

Keywords: Surface SH Wave, Screwed Part of Pipes, Ultrasonic Test, Estimation of Corrosion States

Explorer: Untethered Real-Time Gas Main Assessment Robot System

Hagen Schempf, George Vradis
Pages 471-476

With funding from the NorthEast Gas Association (NGA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) and NASA, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) has developed Explorer, a long range, un-tethered, modular inspection robot for the visual inspection of 6” and 8” natural gas distribution system pipelines. The robot can be launched into the pipeline under live ...

Keywords: gas pipeline, robot, inspection, wireless, untethered, segmented, modular, live operation.

The Application of Personal Digital Assistants as Mobile Computing Device on Construction Site

Kenji Kimoto, Kazuyoshi Endo, Satoru Iwashita, Mitsuhiro Fujiwara
Pages 479-485

Construction managers need to access the real construction site to manage the construction project. They have recently handled various types of digital information such as drawings, specification, checklists and daily reports. They usually use sheets of paper and/or field notes. As a result, a gap in time and space between the outdoor construction ...

Keywords: mobile computer, personal digital assistants, input and output device, construction site, inspection, monitoring

Efficient Support for Mobile Computing on Construction Site

A. Magdic, N. Suman
Pages 487-491

Today’s information exchange in managing projects are to a great extent supported by information technology. Especially mobile computing potencials can significantly improve the information exchange in construction. This paper addresses some important mobile computing potencials which can help tackle project collaboration and information dissemination problems. Special attention is given to the organizational and mobility ...

Keywords: construction site, mobile computing, project communication

Development of a Universal Position Interface, Applied for Reliable and Interactive Access from Distant Locations to Central Database Information Through Unambiguous Position Key in the Construction Industry. (UPIA)

Hans ten Brinke
Pages 493-496

To improve the availability of reliable information on an arbitrary location in or outside a construction project and to exchange information faster, more efficient and in an interactive way HBG developed the UPIA-device. With this handheld device location based information can be generated on site and can be used interactive by reliable and ...

Keywords: GPS, information management, location related data, portable computers, position interface, product model database, support systems for monitoring

E-Portal for Construction Engineering Managers: Framework and 4-Tier Archtecture

Boong-yeol Ryoo, Miroslaw J. Skibniewski
Pages 497-508

Electronic construction information portals have become popular in recent years but most portals are intended for business transaction processing. This paper describes a web-based construction information portal (e-Portal) intended for use by construction engineers. A functional framework for the portal is presented along with a 4-Tier architecture including the Presentation Layer, Application Layer, ...

Keywords: e-Commerce, e-Portal, 4-Tier architecture, Construction Engineering and Management

Construction Sites Communications: A Framework for Enabling the Use of Internet Protocol Telephony in Construction Sites (IPTCS)

Sebastien Beyh, Mike Kagioglou
Pages 511-518

Over the past decades, construction firms have been using several off-the-shelf telecommunications services to provide the communication means necessary to their mobile personnel on the jobsite. Despite this the traditional telecommunication systems are nowadays offering a wider range of services to the construction industry, but they are still considered expensive and inflexible. This ...

Keywords: IP Telephony in construction sites; construction sites communications; mobile computing in construction; ICT; VoIP; IPTCS Framework

Design of an XML-Based Document Flow Management System for Construction Projects Using Web Services

Choung-Houng Wu, Shang-Hsien Hsieh
Pages 519-524

This paper presents the design of an XML-based document flow management system, called XDFM (XML-based Document Flow Management), for increasing efficiency in processing documents in construction projects. X-DFM provides four services via Web Services: the document flow services, content management services, authorization services, and message services. The document flow services are designed based on ...

Keywords: document flow management, content management, system integration, Web services, XML

Analysis of the Most Commonly Used Platforms for the Management of Construction Projects in Spain

Nuria Forcada, Miquel Casals, Xavier Roca
Pages 525-530

The 1990s have seen a technological shift in the construction sector from IT driven solutions to IT enabling ones. Not only IT companies but also construction companies are continually investing, evaluating and focusing on new technologies to create collaborative spaces among different participants geographically dispersed and to share information among partners in the design ...

Keywords: Construction Project Management, Platforms, Web services

The Development of e-Hub Supply Chain Management Portal System for Construction Projects

Yu-Cheng Lin, H. Ping Tserng
Pages 531-536

Construction projects are composed of a large number of contractors, subcontractors, and suppliers that comprise the project supply chain. Construction supply chain management as a field of study concerns itself with improving the coordination of these firms to improve project performance along various metrics such as speed, cost, reliability, quality, etc. In order ...

Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Information Sharing; Construction Industry

A Model for Construction Project Management Extranets

Nuria Forcada, Miquel Casals, Xavier Roca
Pages 537-542

In AEC each participant of a construction project (designer, the constructor, etc) takes part in many other projects and each of these groups of participants are probably working in collaborative spaces. What happens then, when for instance the designer must hold as many collaborative spaces as projects he carries on? In the construction ...

Keywords: guidelines, extranets, document management

E-Business in the Construction Industry: a Search for Practical Applications Using the Internet

Hans Wamelink, Wim Teunissen
Pages 543-547

New technology often drives organisational changes. The influence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on modern business is enormous. ICT not only supports improvements in the primary process but, for example, also enables better planning and much improved logistics. Here communication technology is equally or even more important than information processing itself. In the ...

Keywords: e-Business, e-Procurement, e-Ordering, project webs, document management, workflow management, knowledge management

A Construction Process Model for Implementing Constructability in Construction

Jeroen Langkemper, Saad Al-Jibouri, Isabelle Reymen
Pages 551-556

In construction, failure of design professionals to consider how a builder will implement the design can result in scheduling problems, cost escalation, delays and disputes during the construction process. The integration of construction knowledge and experience during planning and design is termed here as ‘constructability’. Though many design professionals in the Netherlands may ...

Keywords: Constructability, construction planning, construction process, design process, process model, urban construction project

Electronic Checklist of Risk Items on Construction Projects

O. Moselhi, A. Hassanein
Pages 557-562

Risk management in construction encompasses four main phases; risk identification, quantification, mitigation and control. Risk identification has been recognized as the most crucial phase of a successful risk management program. This paper briefly describes a model, designed to automate the risk identification process. The model facilitates the development of an electronic checklist of ...

Keywords: Risk identification, risk management, construction management

The Use of a Simulation Model as a Game for Teaching Project Control in Construction

S.H. Al-Jibouri, M.J. Mawdesley
Pages 563-568

Construction management education, like most education and indeed, most things, is changing rapidly. There is a move towards student centred learning which is intended to allow students to gain knowledge at their own pace and develop transferable skills during the course of their education. In Construction Project control is an essential task of ...

Keywords: Construction; Management Games; Project Control, Simulation

A Methodology to Select Construction Equipment

Miquel Casals, Nuria Forcada, Xavier Roca
Pages 571-576

Planning in the construction industry, as is well known plays an important part in the successful outcome of a project. How a task has to be dealt with and with which tools is part of the engineers work load and it is in their responsibility to assure that this planned work is ...

Keywords: Construction equipment, Performance, Labour risks, Minimal impact, Multi-criteria analysis.

Estimating the Dependability's in Constructions

Calin Ciufudean, Constantin Filote, Adrian Graur, George Mahalu
Pages 577-581

In this paper an approach for the throughput evaluation of the construction manufacturing systems is presented. The throughput is evaluated with a heap-based algorithm for the Petri nets model of the construction systems. The Petri nets model is a stochastic one, and the firing rate of the transitions are calculated with Markov chains ...

Keywords: Stochastic Petri nets, Markov chains, system availability, heaps of pieces

Understanding the Links between Project Success and Technology Usage via Work Function Characteristics

James T. O'Connor, Li-Ren Yang
Pages 583-588

More than 200 capital facility projects from across the U.S. have been assessed on the issue of technology usage at the work function level and overall project cost and schedule success. Work functions (WFs) that may leverage project cost and schedule performance were identified. The analyses suggested that degrees of technology ...

Keywords: Project Success; Technology Utilization; Work Function; Work Function Characteristics

Probabilistic Model Simulation in Cement Process Fabrication at Casial Factory

Susana Arad, Victor Arad
Pages 589-593

This paper will propose to investigate results obtained from automated measuring process control of temperature in cement fabrication with the simulation modeling by probability distribution functions and conducted at yield goodness of fit results. The simulation’s results enable the comparison with the data obtained by automated real-time project process data which ...

Keywords: Distribution, functions, modeling, probability, simulation

Construction Conceptual Cost Estimates Using Evolutionary Fuzzy Neural Inference Model

Min-Yuan Cheng, Chin-Jung Huang
Pages 595-600

The conceptual estimate plays an essential role in project feasibility study. In practice, it is performed based on estimators’ experiences. However, due to the inaccuracy of cost estimate, budgeting and cost control are planned inefficiently. In order to increase the estimate accuracy, this study employed the Evolutionary Fuzzy Neural Inference Model (EFNIM) to ...

Keywords: Conceptual Estimate, Fuzzy Theory (FT), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Neural Network (NN), Order of Magnitude Estimate

Daily Report Module for Construction Management Information System

Yan-Chyuan Shiau, Wen-Chian Wang
Pages 603-609

The profit of Construction Industry has been tremendously reduced for recent years in Taiwan. In order to survive in this difficult environment, “Management” becomes the key issue to achieve company’s target. We need a powerful tool that can help us to handle complicate process such as estimation, bidding, purchasing and site-management in the ...

Keywords: Cash Flow, Construction Management, Daily Report, Object Oriented, Site-Management

Study of Data Exchange for Use by Construction Information Systems

Tadashi Yoshida, Hirohumi Hirashita
Pages 611-616

Information technology (IT) that is achieving astounding progress has been applied to rationalize construction project management and is expanding the potential for the automation and use of robots in construction work. But the development of IT based systems has often resulted in cases where it is difficult for multiple systems to share electronic ...

Keywords: Construction Work, Construction Information System, Data Exchange, Data model, Data Exchange Standards

Report of the NIST Workshop on Data Exchange Standards at the Construction Job Site

Kamel S. Saidi, Alan M. Lytle, William C. Stone
Pages 617-622

The Building and Fire Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, in cooperation with the Fully Integrated and Automated Technology (FIATECH) consortium, sponsored a workshop on data exchange standards at the construction job site in May 2003. The purpose of the workshop was to investigate the problem of exchanging sensor data ...

Keywords: construction automation, intelligent job site, construction sensors, LADAR, data exchange standards

Construction Enterprise Resource Planning Implementation: Critical Success Factors - Lesson Learning in Taiwan

Yu-Cheng Lin, Meng-Hsueh Lee, H. Ping Tserng
Pages 623-628

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is the latest high-end solution information technology has lent to business application. Enterprise resource planning systems are highly complex information systems. The implementation of these systems is a difficult and high cost proposition that places tremendous demands on corporate time and resources. Many ERP implementations have been classified as ...

Keywords: Enterprise resource planning; Construction Industry; Critical success factors

Study of Methods of Sharing Information Handled at the Maintenance and Management Phase

Hirofumi Hirashita, Tadashi Yoshida
Pages 631-636

As a result of the rapid advance of information technology (IT) and development of CALS/EC in recent years, the MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport) and other organizations that order public works projects now deliver the results of survey and design work and completed work drawings as electronic data and can now ...

Keywords: CALS/EC, Maintenance and Management, Sharing Information, Electronic Delivery

Monitoring Lifting Equipment for Automated Progress Control: A Feasibility Study

Rafael Sacks, Ronie Navon, Aviad Shapira, Irina Brodetsky
Pages 637-642

Reliable and timely information describing up-to-date performance is a prerequisite for effective management of construction. Existing methods for on-site data collection are labor-intensive, subjective, and the data are frequently available only after activities have been completed. Monitoring of the main lifting equipment on construction sites can provide real-time, low-cost and objective data for ...

Keywords: Automated data collection; Building project model; Construction cranes; Project control

Intelligent Agent-Based Subcontracting System in Construction

Pao H. Lin, Will Y. Lin
Pages 643-649

Practically, the effective management of subcontracting selection within a construction project has been regarded as one of the critical factors for achieving project success. This study takes advantage of IT initiatives of e-commerce to combine with the use of electronic information exchange standards Java XML (extensible markup language) to propose a “push-strategic” and ...

Keywords: E-Commerce, Intelligent Agent, Subcontract, XML

An Integrated Methodology for Construction BPR and ERP by Using ARIS and UML Tool

Cheng-Hsien Chen, Yu-Cheng Lin,H. Ping Tserng
Pages 649-655

In order to improve the efficiency of construction management, a new methodology-Beauty is presented to develop translatability for construction BPR (Business Process Reengineering) and ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) by using ARIS (Architecture of integrated Information Systems) and UML (Unified Modeling Language) tool. The Beauty method includes four phases that inclusive of business process ...

Keywords: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP); Business Process Reengineering (BPR); ARIS; Unified Modeling Language (UML)

Practitioners Report on Applied Industrial, Flexible and Sustainable Building in the Retail and Office Sector

Dr. Robert Los, Bert van Troost, Marcel Jansen, Brian Delprado, Remco Groot
Pages 659-663

Building projects which are build in the Dutch Industrial, Flexible and Sustainable (IFD) Building programme usually focus on the design of the project and the application of prefabricated parts. Though this is indeed an important factor in IFD-projects, the paper supports the idea that successful IFD projects rely on three aspects: An industrialised ...

Keywords: Industrial Building, Configuration Management, Comakership, Sustainable Building, CAD, Databases

Automated Block-Laying, Using the Master Mason

Amadi Chibuzor Ogbonnah
Pages 665-670

Over the years, the art of block laying has been an important factor in building construction. Different cultures and construction experts have developed various styles, giving values to block laying. The major problem in block laying has been traced to the poor productivity of the masons. This has really hindered the construction time ...

Keywords: Axis; Chucking; Console; Drive; Sensing; Stroke

Innovation of the Dutch Window Frame: The Kapla® Concept

Chris Geurts, Jac de Kroon, Peter Bouma
Pages 671-675

The development of the Kapla® window frame means a breakthrough in the timber window frame market in the Netherlands. This development is a typical example of a combined process and product innovation, a joint project with the relevant branch organizations. The success of the Kapla® window frame proved that the methodology developed works ...

Keywords: Building System, Window Frames, Multidisciplinary Design