1994 Proceedings of the 11th ISARC, Brighton, United Kingdom

Safety of Programmable Machinery and the EC Directive

S. P. Gaskill
Pages 1-12

This paper discusses the application of European standards to automated machinery. It aims to guide compliance with the council Directive of 14 June 1989 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to machinery. This Directive is commonly known as the Machinery Directive. It is enacted in ...

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Safety Problems in On-Site Construction Work Processes

S. Nishigaki, K. H. Law
Pages 13-18

Although automation/robotization have been and are being implemented in the Japanese construction industry, a combination of human operated and semi – or automated methods are still a common practice and safety in construction sites remain a problem of significant concerns. Of particular concern here are inflicted by the workers themselves. ...

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Ergonomics, Health, and Safety in Construction: Opportunities for Automation and Robotics

John Everett
Pages 19-26

Automation and robotics have often been mentioned as possible solutions to health and safety problems in construction. Several studies have prioritized automation and robotics opportunities based in part on health and safety considerations. These and other studies conclude that automation and robotics will be most cost effective in tasks that ...

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Alarm System to Prevent the Overturning of Truck Cranes Considering Possible Ground Failure

R. Fukagawa, T. Muro
Pages 27-34

The aim of this paper is to design an alarm system to prevent the overturning of truck cranes under condition of ground failure. The conditions under which truck cranes tip are first formulated against the cases in which the ground is rigid enough and in which the ground might possibly ...

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Hazard Analysis Techniques for Mobile Construction Robots

D W Seward, D A Bradley, F W Margrave
Pages 35-42

This paper introduces the problem of safety for mobile construction robots and explains the concept of a “hazard” in safety analysis. The well known Safety Lifecycle Model is described. This model is then expanded to illustrate the hazard analysis are detailed, and three well known hazard analysis techniques reviewed- HAZOP, ...

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Generic Health and Safety – EC Directives and Technical Policy Implications

B. S. Neale
Pages 43-46

This paper describes the need for automation and robotics developments to take effective cogniscence of relevant occupational health and safety requirements and guidance. The latter includes existing and developing standards, together with recent and proposed legislation. It looks at how automation and robotics techniques should be developed to help those ...

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Development of Three Dimensional Positioning Automatic Control Asphalt Paver

T. Nakamura, T. Kiriyama, M. Fukuda, Y. Takagi, T. Maeda, M. Fukukawa, S. Nagasaki, Y. Fujiwara, K. Sugano, F. Goto, T. Namekawa, K. Denda, Y. Ageishi
Pages 47-54

This is a system that performs travel course control (automatic steering) of construction machines and three dimensional positioning control of working equipment simultaneously and with high accuracy, according to the design plan of the road. This system consists of two blocks – a fixed station and a movable station (construction machine). ...

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Automatic Control System of Temporary Traffic Signals at Pipeline Laying Work Site

K. Yamamoto, K. Wada
Pages 55-62

Where pipe laying is carried out in urban areas, the disturbance to traffic can be substantial. However, by suitable sensing provisions coupled to an intelligent traffic light manage system, this can be greatly eased.

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The Development and Testing of a Mobile Drilling Robot

Ruud P. W. J. Kloek, Jan Bos, M. S. v. d. Marck
Pages 63-70

A mobile drilling robot has been developed by TNO Building and Construction Research in cooperation with Dutch industries. This robot will be used for drilling holes for, among others, anchor bolts for fastening railway tracks to a concrete foundation or holes for starter bars. One of the design criteria was ...

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Providing a Drilling Robot with the Right Instructions

Ronald P. Krom
Pages 71-78

This paper presents the concept and implementation of a task- level instruction system for an autonomous drilling robot used in railway installation work. The research objectives are: to reduce the required programming effort, make more intelligent robot behaviour possible and bring the programming abstraction level to a task- instruction level. ...

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Robotization of Road Construction Current Technologies and Economic Analysis

Ossama M. Salem, James D. Lutz
Pages 79-86

Recent advances in the development of automation technologies suitable for use in road construction and maintenance provide opportunities to improve work productivity and quality, to reduce labor costs, to decrease worker exposure to road hazards, to minimise impending traffic, and to comply with current environmental regulations. The purpose of this ...

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First Results of the Development of the Masonry Robot System ROCCO: A Fault Tolerant Assembly Tool

Jurgen Andres, Thomas Bock, Friedrich Gebhart, Werner Steck
Pages 87-93

In this article a concept and first prototype realisations will be presented for a fault tolerant assembly tool and the effects to the other subsystems of the ROCCO robotic system. The tool integrates active and passive compliment elements, gripping devices and sensor systems. The features of the other subsystems such ...

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Application Specific Realisation of a Mobile Robot for On-Site Construction of Masonry

G. Pritschow, M. Dalacker, J. Kurz, M. Gaenssle, J. Haller
Pages 95-102

This paper reports the progress in research and development of a mobile bricklaying robot for use on the construction site. Its practical and market orientated design has been a key aspect of the project from the start.

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Computer-Aided Planning in Masonry Construction

H. Abdul-Sater, A. Delchambre
Pages 103-110

Nowadays, robotic systems are considered as key technologies for construction automation and a way to increase the productivity of the building process. The efficiency of the robot work could be increased by a suitable high level planning system, whereby the sequence of robot working points, the wall’s sequence and the ...

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PC-Controlled Flexible Production of Brickwork

Bernd Bley, Franz Anliker
Pages 111-116

The pre-fabrication of ready-made building elements – in particular of brick wall –has been practised successfully in the Federal Republic of Germany for some 20 years. The rapidly increasing demand for building material requires the decision from the manufacturers either to increase their manufacturing capacities or to build new plants. ...

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Concplanner: An Automated Process Planning System for Concrete Construction

Raghavan Kunigahalli, Jeffrey S. Russell
Pages 117-123

This paper presents Concplanner, a Computer Aided Process Planning system capable of generating pictorial construction process plans for automated concrete construction. Concplanner provides an efficient user- interface by adopting interactive computer graphic programming techniques. International Standards Organisation Computer graphic functional interface standard – PHIGS has been employed to: (1) obtain ...

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Computer Simulation of Concrete Slab-on-Grade Construction

Osama Moselhi, Stanley Hanson
Pages 125-132

This paper presents a decision support system for contractors specialized in concrete floor finishing, making optimal use of available technology in automation. The paper presents a computer simulation model for concrete slab-on-grade construction considering different levels of automation that integrate conventional manual, semi- automated, and robotic work processes. The data ...

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Development of a Multi-Purpose Mobile Robot for Concrete Surface Processing

Rolf Berlin
Pages 133-140

This paper reports on the design and evaluation of an autonomous multipurpose mobile robot for concrete finishing, grinding, and cleaning at construction sites. The common characteristics of those three applications are rotating tools in contact with the floor. Combined in one machine, they can perform recurrent tasks on a construction site. In ...

Keywords: Autonomous Mobile Robot; Concrete Surface Processing; Path Planning; Location Measurement; Laser Navigation; Path Following; Vehicle-Surface Interaction

Visibility Graph Approach to Detailed Path Planning in CNC Concrete Placement

Raghavan Kunigahalli, Jeffrey S. Russell
Pages 141-147

An algorithm that employs visibility graph approach to generate a minimal L¬¬1-metric obstacle avoidance path in CNC concrete placement is presented. A set of pseudo-obstacles that represent nodes in a relational structure called Rectangle Adjacency Graph (RAG) is introduced during construction of visibility graph. Shrinking of pseudo-obstacles and growing of ...

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Robotized Mould Milling and Precast Concrete Polishing

A. Nurminen
Pages 149-154

A robotized cell consisting of a standard industrial robot, track motions, necessary tools and power sources, is applied to precast Architectural Concrete in mould milling and polishing of façade elements. Test performed in an industrial environment, clearly show that, milling and polishing with a standard industrial robot is possible, robotization ...

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Rebar Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing

R. Navon, Y. Rubinovitz, M. Coffler
Pages 155-162

Reinforcement manufacturing received very little attention from the research community (Bernold 1991). Until a few decades ago, the manufacturing of Reinforcement bars was done on site. This process was labor-intensive and consequently expensive. As the construction industry started to move towards more industrialized methods, the reinforcement manufacturing also began to ...

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Development of an Automated Design Aid (ADA) for Improved Buildability and Accelerated Learning

D.R Moore, A. Tunnicliffe
Pages 163-170

This research is targeted towards the provision of support for designers in achieving, and measuring, Buildability whilst allowing for design Creativity and learning. This paper deals with development of Skill Models as an approach to measuring Buildability in a CAD produced design. A Skill Model is specific to one construction ...

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The Role of Object Oriented CAD in a Generic Simulator for the Industrialized Housing Industry

R. Armacost, M. Mullens, W. Swart
Pages 171-178

This paper describes a simulator- based decision support tool for manufactures of prefabricated homebuilding components. The Generic Industrialized Housing Manufacturing Simulator (GIHMS) serves as an experimental factory, capable of simulating factory performance under various product design, factory design, and operations management scenarios. GIHMS’ unique strength lies in its user-friendly WINDOWS-based ...

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Automated Case-Based Scheduling for Power Plant Boiler Erection: Use of Annotated Schedules

I.D. Tommelein, R. J. Dzeng
Pages 179-186

Contractors who repeatedly build the same kind of facilities accumulate experience in scheduling the needed construction work. When parts of a facility’s design are copied from one project to the next, the previously developed schedules could be refused to schedule future work. The aim of the presented research is to ...

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Soil Machine Interaction in Digging and Earthmoving Automation

Fiorenzo Malaguti
Pages 187-191

The purpose of this work is to present a physical description of soil-tool interaction according to a few basic principles. Usually in such work, many angles of earthwork are described by experimentally fitted models. These are of limited use and are not suitable for the description of a complex process. In ...

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Automation of Working Unit on a Bucket Loader

P. Dudzinski, K. Pieczonka, Z. Wyslouch
Pages 193-198

For bucket loaders, the anticipated benefits of advanced machine control are increased capacity, decreased energy-consumption and improved safety. However, where dual automatic and manual modes of operation are to be maintained, it is important that the operator needs are taken into account. His level of attention must be above the ...

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TRUST Method - Thin Slurry Walls

M. Ariyama, T. Naito, H. Ohya, M. Arai
Pages 199-206

TRUST is a construction method developed to build high-quality ultra-thin slurry walls mainly used to prevent water infiltration. TRUST 21 is a high-performance excavator which has been developed specifically for the TRUST method. The machine can install walls to a depth of 200m with a thickness of 20 cm and ...

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Development of a Remote-Control Transportation System for Use in Underground Spaces

Satoshi Iwaoka, Toshio Mori, Yasutaka Nakai, Kazuhiro Funatsu, Hiroyoshi Watabe
Pages 207-214

Subway underground excavation work with cut-and cover method, particularly the transportation of construction material, equipment, and muck, is greatly affected by construction conditions aboveground. The appropriateness of the method used for this work is a major factor in the progressing of construction. Traffic in urban areas has become increasingly heavy, ...

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Driving Forces and Status of Automation and Robotics in Construction in Europe

W. Poppy
Pages 215-222

Automation and robotics in Europe are concentrated on concrete and asphalt mixing, concrete block and pipe making, precast concrete units and masonry prefabrication, control of mobile construction machinery, tunnelling, and renewing of buildings and sewers. The development has been going at a slow pace, because not all prerequisites to the ...

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Automation and Robotics in Construction: Social and Cultural Differences between Japan and the United States

John G. Everett, Hiroshi Saito
Pages 223-229

In the past ten to fifteen years, many prototype robots have been developed, but few practical examples can be found on construction sites today. Nevertheless, several large Japanese contractors are aggressively pursuing R&D programs to introduce robots on construction sites. United States contractors exhibit little interest. This paper evaluates construction automation ...

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Prior-Use Evaluation of the Impact on Company Work Procedures of Using Robots on Construction Sites

C. C. Neil, G. D. Salomonsson
Pages 231-238

This paper demonstrates the application of a prior-use evaluation model developed to assist management to evaluate the probable impact of introducing automated equipment on construction sites. Two case studies have been used to illustrate the importance of not only considering the particular project characteristics, when assessing the potential benefits associated ...

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A 'Virtual Reality' Type Simulation System for Construction Automation System Development

R. R. Wakefield, J. B. O’Brien
Pages 239-247

This paper discusses the creation of virtual reality tools for the detailed planning of construction activities. The development and operation of a prototype interactive construction machine simulator is detailed. A description is then given to the extensions being made to the prototype system to create a generalised construction simulator with ...

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Use of Virtual Reality in Scheduling and Design of Construction Projects

C. Bridgewater, M. Griffin, A. Retik
Pages 249-256

This paper outlines some of the potential applications of Virtual Reality to a variety of construction problems. It is envisaged that the main role of VR will be to provide a more natural interface to the data being manipulated by computer software. For example, the ability to visualise the state ...

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The Communication within Heavy Machine Operator Assistant System (HMOAS)

D. Dabrowski, H. Dobrowolski, M. Poncyliusz, A. Selenta, J. Szlagowski
Pages 257-262

The scope and structure of communication between a heavy machine’s operator and the computerised systems HMOAS (in Polish WORM) implemented to a backhoe excavator are presented. The system user interface employed enables a selected choice of information to pass on to the operator. The interface concept is based on a ...

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Variable Structure Control in Excavator Robot

Fiorenzo Malaguti
Pages 263-268

This work evaluates the use of Variable Structure Control or Sliding Mode techniques to control excavator robot. The VSC techniques have been studied with success to control robots, this depends on characteristics of stability and robustness of VS controller has usually a large cost and consuming time for calculus, while ...

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Development of a Tele-Earthwork System

Masahiko Minamoto, Kiyoshi Nakayama, Hiramasa Aokage, Shinichi Sako
Pages 269-275

The tele-earthwork system we have developed is able to remotely control unmanned power shovels and unmanned crawler dump trucks, and a series of unmanned operations ranging from excavation to transportation. The results of our demonstration tests proved that the tele-earthwork system is capable of performing remote control operations at a ...

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Technical Note: Statistical Estimates of Soil Cutting Resistances for Excavating Robots

Igor Nedorezov
Pages 277-280

The paper deals with the problems of forecasting specific forces, acting on operating devices (blades and buckets) of excavating robots in the course of soil cutting resistance and soil strength have been obtained by statistical processing of the author’s experimental data. On the basis of these, a single scale of ...

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Flow Process Analysis in Construction

Lauri Koskela, Ron Sharpe
Pages 281-288

It is argued that the flow process analysis essentially provides two new options for improvement of production: elimination or reduction of non value adding activities (also called waste) in flow processes and increase of output value from the customer point of view. The typical categories of waste and value loss ...

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Results Using PRT-Nets for Controlling Complex Building Processes

P. D. P. Boettcher, H. Koerner
Pages 289-296

The optimum control of a building project is the aim of the supervision of construction in a construction company. In order to get a real optimum control of the cooperation between man, machinery and material at the construction site it is necessary to plan the construction process. A rough planning without ...

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Materials Handling and Site Layout Control

I. D. Tommelein
Pages 297-304

Construction field operations are markedly inefficient in terms of where and how materials get stored and handled. This is often due uncertainty at the time of advance planning, the difficulties associated with achieving real-time coordination, and lack of control in the field, as materials get delivered and used by many ...

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An Intelligent Task-Planning System for Autonomous Interior-Robots

Igal M. Shohet, Yehiel Rosenfeld, Abraham Warszawski
Pages 305-312

Autonomous task-planning is a major phase within the systemic approach towards robotized performance of interior-finishing building tasks. This paper presents mathematical formulations and offers near optional solutions for three hierarchical levels of the task planning procedure. The macro-level deals with the robot’s travelling among multiple rooms on a building floor. ...

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Automatic Laser-Controlled Erection Management System for High-Rise Buildings

Tadashi Kanzaki, Koichi Nakano, Michio Matsumoto
Pages 313-318

Various new techniques, such as the multi-layer, block, unit, and lift-up methods, have recently been introduced for the construction of high-rise buildings. The aim of bringing in these new methods is labor-saving and reducing the construction period, and the trend is likely to continue in the future. Little progress, however, ...

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A Three-Dimensional Positioning System Using Laser Beams and its Application to the Undulation Measurement of a Golf Course Green

Tatsuyuki Ochi, Yasuo Higuchi, Toshikazu Satta
Pages 319-325

We have developed a 3D positioning system and have applied it to undulation measurement on the green during the construction of a golf course. This positioning system can quickly and precisely position and control mobile objects. It is particularly suitable for positioning construction robots over a wide area. This paper ...

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The Laserguide System of Automatic Machine Guidance

B. J. Gorham
Pages 327-332

In this paper a new system for machine guidance (LASERGUIDE) is introduced which exploits the spatial properties of laser beams in combination with arrays of either passive or electrically-active targets. The principle of measurements is explained and this is extended into above and below ground. The paper concludes with a ...

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A Critical Appraisal into Criteria Concerning the Application of Automation and Robotics in Construction

S. G. Naoum
Pages 333-340

Before arriving at any decision regarding the use of automated devices to perform specific tasks, it is necessary to consider a variety of factors including, health and safety, the building design, quality standard, labour cost, productivity, the project environment, mobility, available sensors and the like. In short there are three ...

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SIMBASE I &II: Project-Based Simulation for Economic Justification and Sensitivity Analysis of Automated Technology

Jae-Jeung Rho, Deborah J. Fisher
Pages 341-348

One of the main reasons for the slow pace of implementation of automation technology in the construction industry, including construction robots, can be found in the fact that the construction industry has been following the automation development strategy of its predecessor, the manufacturing industry. The economic justification method developed for ...

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Unstable Market Forecasting and Management Techniques for a Precast Component Fabricator

Naruo Kano, Masanori Kaku
Pages 349-356

This paper discusses that it is necessary to develop proper methodologies to ensure the stable production rate in a prefabrication factory under the fluctuation of the demand, in order to succeed in the implementation of automation and robotization in the factory. Authors applied the fuzzy theory to estimate the forthcoming ...

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Productivity Analysis of Bridge Inspection Robots

Anna McCrea
Pages 357-365

Major objectives in the automation of bridge inspection are the reduction of manpower costs, increase productivity and elimination of risk to human life. This paper relates a productivity study of two different robot configurations for different types of load, bridge geometry, probe specifications, task definition and motors powering (acceleration and ...

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Control Architectures and Operational Strategies for Intelligent, High-Powered Manipulators

D. A. Bradley, D. W. Seward, T. Heikkila, P. Vaha
Pages 367-372

Construction robots are typically required to move large loads at reaches of several and metres to provide and apply significant forces.. In addition, they are required to interact in a safe manner with what is many cases a highly unstructured environment. The paper describes two approaches to this problem and ...

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Time Optimal Collision Free Motion Planning for Multi-Robot Systems

C. A. Czarnecki
Pages 373-380

A collision-free motion planning method for two robots operating in a three dimensional workspace is presented. The strategy for collision avoidance is based on the concept of a collision map which predicts potential collisions between robots moving along predetermined time optimal trajectories. The collision map is easily constructed, can cater ...

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Energy Storage for Construction Robots

P. Claiden
Pages 381-390

In the construction and nuclear industries the typical robotic tasks, such as tearing, shearing and pushing are repetitive and require intermittently applied high strengths. Control of machine activity is often by machine operator via thin wire umbilical or telemetry link. In these cases, robot autonomy depends on powerful actuators and ...

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Planning of Integrated Interior Finishing Work system - WASCOR IV Research Project Report (Part I)

Kinya Tamaki, Hisashi Matsuda, Yukio Hasegawa
Pages 391-397

For automatizing building construction systems with robots,, the WASCOR (WASeda Construction Robot) research project has been organized since 1982 by the System Science Institute, Waseda University. This multi-client research project includes nine general constructors and one construction machinery manufacturer. The purpose of this paper is to report the research ...

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Design for Automation - A Generic System Architecture for Civil Engineering Applications

A Middlebrook
Pages 399-407

The objective of ESPIRIT III project n. 6660 – RoadRobot – Operator Assisted Mobile Road Robot for Heavy Duty Civil Engineering Applications, is the development of a Generic Multipurpose Control Architecture which will be applied to an outdoor construction site consisting of several heavy duty platforms. One of the ...

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Automating Dynamic Layout Construction

P. P. Zouein, I. D. Tommelein
Pages 409-416

A critical problem in dynamic environments and especially on construction sites is coordinating the use of limited space to accommodate resources and their changing demand for space over time. This paper presents a heuristic model that allocates site space to resources associated with an activity schedule so that no ...

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Remote Concrete Spraying in Shafts and Tunnels

B Mason, M Bishop, E Appleton
Pages 417-424

The lining of shafts and tunnels with spray concrete is well established. The health hazards associated with spraying in confined areas, as well as the dangers of rockfalls make the remote operation of this process highly desirable. This paper describes an established system for remotely spraying concrete in shafts, which ...

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Measurement of the Earth Pressure Acting on a Shield Machine and its Application to Automatic Advancing Control of the Shield

K. Tateyama, R. Fukugawa, K. Tsuchiya, S. Nishitake, Y. Ooishi
Pages 425-432

The earth pressure acting on a shield machine was measured during construction to investigate the relationship between the earth pressure and the movement of the shield machine. From the results of the measurements, a coefficient of subgrade reaction was defined as an index of the ground properties that are closely ...

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Fuzzy-Controlled Tunnel Ventilation System

S. Kohno, Y. Kikuchi
Pages 433-439

The working condition inside the tunnel under construction is badly affected by the occurrences of dust, CO and NOX due to the blasting, shotcreting and moving vehicles. Also, hot and humid conditions may be found at the excavation phase being caused from the machines and ground. The authors have developed ...

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Development of a Fully Automatic Robotic System for Small Diameter Tunnel Construction: "Development of the ACE MOLE 1200-M2 Construction Method"

Y. Kimura, T. Saito, T. Sakurada
Pages 441-448

The ACE MOLE 1200-M2 is a robot system for constructing small diameter-long distance tunnels with one man control. This is achieved by automating all the construction works from tunnel excavation to lining finish. All aspects of mechatronics utilised in this. This robot system can select free alignment, over a curvature ...

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An Invert Concrete Screeding Machine for Shield Tunneling

Minoru Suzuki, Hirosi Sakurai, Tsuneyasu Ohnishi, Masanori Kanno, Kimio Kikuchi, Tadao Mikami
Pages 449-456

The invert concrete screeding machine was developed to improve screeding accuracy, free workers from hard lab or, reduce any workers and rationalize work. The screeding machine consists of two guide rails, a moving device to run forth and back between guide rails, a blade with a vibration motor ...

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Development and Application of the SMART System

J. Maeda
Pages 457-464

The SMART system is an integrated automated construction system which automates a wide range of construction procedures, including the erection and welding of steel frames, laying of concrete floor planks, installation of exterior and interior wall panels, and the installation of various other units under its all weather protection ...

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Totally Mechanized Construction System for High-Rise Buildings (T-UP System)

S. Sakamoto, H. Mitsuoka
Pages 465-472

To totally mechanize construction work in building production, particularly through the introduction of robots, construction methods that can be carried out by machines must be developed. In developing new construction methods, the characteristics of construction machinery must be carefully considered, and new machines and materials must be developed. Mechanized construction ...

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Assembly Techniques for Large Construction Components

B. L. Atkin, P. Atkinson, C. Bridgewater, B. L. Davies, R. D. Wing
Pages 473-480

This paper discusses some of the problems associated with positioning large components and shows how different joint designs may alleviate these problems. It will be necessary to define assembly methods and strategies for ensuring that the components can be joined successfully once they have been presented to each other by ...

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Unmanned Vehicle Enabling Technology for the Construction Industry

P J Bateman
Pages 481-486

Research on unmanned ground vehicles has generated a number of techniques which may have application in the construction industry. Examples of improved mobility over rough terrain, teleoperation, and automatic guidance are described, together with a device for handling a range of projects independent of shape, size and fragility. Results of ...

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Development of Multi-Purpose Mobile Robot Capable of Traveling along Columns and Beams

Ryoji Kamei, Katsura Ogasawara, Ryuta Katamura
Pages 487-493

Steel frameworks are conveniently erected by tradesmen working on scaffolding at heights, and therefore the process is therefore dangerous to a certain extent and is dogged by the problems of a lack of skilled workers and the need for safety improvements. Recognizing such problems, we have been developing a new ...

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Application Height Control System of a Wheeled Vehicle Running on a Loose Sandy Soil

Tatsuro Muro, Ryoichi Fukagawa
Pages 495-502

In earth moving sites, several wheeled vehicles are used to excavate a sandy soil, or to pull another construction machinery. Here, the mechanism of land locomotion of a 5.88 kN weight, two axles and four wheel vehicle running on a loose sandy soil is analysed theoretically. The optimum height of ...

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A Method of Control of Plural Autonomous Dump Trucks in Heavy Construction Sites

H. Sugiura, O. Hatakeyama, S. Yuta
Pages 503-510

It is anticipated that autonomous dump trucks system could reduce approximate 30 % of the workers required at a heavy construction site (i.e., dam constructions, road constructions, etc.) in the future. The technologies required for an automatic dump truck are developed by using the test vehicle. On paved roads, the ...

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Essay: A Macro Machine for Large Scale Construction

A. B. Khawand
Pages 511-514

The KCMM (Khawand Construction Mega Machine) concept is a large, multi-functional and robotized, one hundred and fifty foot long construction machine. It is envisaged as the offspring of the technologies of the last quarter of the twentieth century. At a global level, the human population explosion has created the need ...

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AEC Collaborative Information Systems: From Requirements to Architecture

Hossam El-Bibany
Pages 515-522

A collaborative information system must fit the market, organization, culture and norms of the group it support. In the Architecture/Engineering/Construction (AEC) industry, a computer-based framework for collaboration needs to consider issues such as its application suitability in various project organizations, and the ability to operate under partial knowledge. This paper ...

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Construction Automation Research Database (CARD)

L. A. Ochoa-Franco, C. T. Haas, C. M. Dailey, A. E. Traver
Pages 523-530

A wealth of information is contained in the proceedings of the ten International Symposiums on Automation and Robotics in Construction [Ref. 1 – 10]. To date, a catalogued index of this material has not been available, making navigation through these volumes and studies of construction automation trends very difficult. ...

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Information Technology in Support of Construction Site Automation and Robotics

J. N. Scott, D. A. Bradley, R. M. Adelson, M. Pengelly, D. W. Seward
Pages 531-537

Information technology and information management structures are now well established at all levels within the manufacturing industry and supports the use of automated and robotic tools within the manufacturing process. Though the construction industry has adopted the elements of IT, there remains a little penetration at the site level. This ...

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The Fujita Integrated Environment for Automation

Amr A. Oloufa, Masaaki Ikeda
Pages 539-546

Due to increased complexity of projects, an integrated information environment is needed. To demonstrate the capabilities of such a system, we choose an implementation in automated shield tunnelling. Automated shield tunnelling applications have increased in popularity due to the increased flexibility and construction safety. These automation machines have proven to ...

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Managing Construction Drawing Documents with an Automatic Index System

Naai-Jung Shih
Pages 547-554

The effective management of construction drawings is an important provision in the design and construction process, particularly where they amount to many hundreds or thousands. Whilst nowadays the majority of drawings are CAD based and therefore compatible for computer based management systems, there is still little evidence of this being ...

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Comparison between Industrial Robotic Manipulators, Agricultural and Construction Plant and Equipment

J. Ibanez-Guzman
Pages 555-562

The use of robotics and automation technology in the manufacturing industry has become very much accepted. In recent years, interest on the use of robotics technology in agriculture and on-site construction has been on the increase with several working prototypes actually deployed in farms and on construction sites. This paper ...

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Concepts for a Sensor-Guided Redundant Heavy Manipulator

B. Fink, M. Hiller
Pages 563-570

The concept of a redundant heavy manipulator is presented which utilizes innovative techniques from the fields of mechanical design, control and sensors. The goal is the development of an easy-to-use tool performing complex tasks in a constrained workspace.

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Enhancing Existing Cranes by a Semi-Automatic Navigation System

Yehiel Rosenfeld
Pages 571-578

Following previous feasibility studies on the subject, this paper presents the actual conversion of an existing full-scale 5-ton payload crane into a semi-automatic “Handling Robot”. Although performed in a laboratory setting, this crane- by its size, degrees of freedom, and mode of operation- resembles typical construction cranes, mainly tower cranes, ...

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Automatic Robot Path Planning for a GRC Spraying Cell

C. Balaguer, J. M. Pastor, A. Garcia, L. F. Penin, F. J. Rodriguez, A. Barrientos, AR. Aracil, J. Florez, N. Esteban, J. A. Comas, E. Marquez
Pages 579-586

This paper deals with the automatic path planning modules of a robotized system for the production of Glass Reinforced Cement (GRC) panels of any geometry. The robot paths generated take into account several criteria including space and time optimization of the paths, non-roll up the glass fibre, avoidance of the ...

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Modularity of PRM Type Cartesian Robots and their Application in the Production of Construction Materials

Z. Kolibal, P. Belohoubek, P. Holec, O. Vystrcil
Pages 587-591

The paper deals with the modularity and application of PRM robots derived from the PRKM set of robots which have been developed by the Technical University of Brno in cooperation with the Research Institute of Construction Materials, Brno. Specifications are provided for the robots and their manufacturing operations outlined.

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A Gripper for Handling Flat Non-Rigid Materials

A. Karakerezis, Z. Doulgeri, V. Petridis
Pages 593-601

This paper deals with the concept, design, construction and experimental results of a gripper dedicated to the handling of flat non-rigid materials (NRMs). A consistent review in end-effector technology for NRMs has been made through this study. Based on a number of functional requirements a gripper is proposed with two ...

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Portable Robot for Scour Survey Below Highway Bridges

William R. Bath
Pages 603-608

The robot is designed to remotely survey streambed conditions around underwater bridge foundations. Operating from the bridge deck, the operator can quickly and easily inspect the area and around the underwater foundations for scour damage. Scour is the term used by bridge engineers to describe erosion of the streambed around ...

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A Robotic Manipulator for Inspection and Maintenance of Tall Structures

N. R. Bevan, A. A. Collie, T. S. White, B. L. Luk
Pages 609-616

A succession of wall climbing robots have been built by the designers at the University of Portsmouth and Portech Ltd. This paper describes the latest machine, SCOUR, which has been designed to inspect and maintain large vertical or horizontal curved surfaces. Machines of this type are used where human ...

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Robot Control System for Window Cleaning

M. Farsi, K. Ratcliff, P. J. Johnson, C. R. Allen, K. Z. Karam, R. Pawson
Pages 617-623

The paper describes the dedicated robot control system for a robot demonstrator for window cleaning by mimicking human actions. Human washing and wiping actions are carried out by a sophisticated cleaning head with a combined datuming and cleaning function.

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Control Software and Hardware for a Wall Climbing Robot

M. M. Cusack, J. Thomas
Pages 625-632

A control system based on the STE bus system (IEE 1000 1987) has been developed in the construction robotics unit at the University of the West of England for the control of wall climbing robotics equipment. A modular design approach has been adopted which allows components to be updated individually. ...

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A Japanese View on the Role of Automation and Robotics in Next Generation Construction

T. Ueno
Pages 633-640

Productivity is a key issue in the construction industry. It has been forecasted that the labour productivity of the Japanese construction industry should be increased twice in the year 2010, comparing with the present rate. Automation and robotics in next generation construction should try to improve not only productivity but ...

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The Men and the Machine

M. Richardson, D. Trowell
Pages 641-650

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Essay: The Conflict between Accepted Maintenance Practice and Evolving Robotic and Automated System Maintenance on Large Groups of Tower Blocks

R. Weston
Pages 651-656

This paper highlights the current conflict between accepted maintenance practices and evolving automation inspection techniques. Examples are cited from the experiences of Birmingham’s City Council Housing Department which is responsible for the upkeep of over four hundred ageing tower blocks.

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Identifying Key Features in a Building Using a Single Uncalibrated Camera

Alastair M. Paterson, Geoff R. Dowling, Dennis A. Chamberlain
Pages 657-664

This paper describes the application of image processing to the automation of external building inspection. A robot is used to locate defects which need to have their positions accurately recorded. The first stage in this process is to locate the robot on the building and a method is proposed where ...

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Development of Air Conditioning Equipment Inspection Robot with Vision Based Navigation System

Y. Abe, K. Tanaka, Y. Tanka, T. Fukuda, F. Arai, S. Ito
Pages 665-674

In order to maintain a comfortable office environment periodical inspection of the air conditioning equipment is very important. It is necessary to measure the air temperature and the volume of the controlled outlet air correctly from the ceiling air diffuser. The periodical inspection of a large number of ceiling air ...

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Sensing for Feature Identification in Sewers

S. J. Broadhurst, T. P. Pridmore, N. Taylor
Pages 675-682

Multi-disciplinary research programmes have been established at Sheffied Hallam University to investigate specific areas of the Information Technology into the Construction industry theme. Interest is currently centred upon the development of suitably robust knowledge-based and related engineering systems for application in non-man-entry (NME) sewer renovation. Initial efforts have been directed ...

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Imaging Technology for Robot Maintenance and Calibration

A. G. Starr, I. Kennedy, R. J. Wynne
Pages 683-690

Mature robots in the manufacturing industry, i.e. those which have been in operation for 10 to 15 years, start to show wear out characteristics as the lives of individual components are exceeded. Studies in the automotive industry, for example, where robots have been used for mass production for over 15 ...

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Robotic Action-Heads - New Forms of Device for Attachment to Existing Construction Machines

J. B. O'Brien
Pages 691-699

This paper develops the concept of a range of computer controlled end attachments to construction equipment that will effectively convert the latter into de-facto large scale robotic manipulators. The paper develops the theory of such devices and then presents data on the development and testing of a full scale prototype ...

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New Concepts in Manipulators

Youichi Kikuchi, Takeshi Terajima, Takuro Odawara, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Toshimasa Kanda, Katsu Hirosawa
Pages 701-708

The civil engineering and building construction fields are currently experiencing a shortage of labor further aggravated by an aging workforce. Accordingly, various heavy, hazardous works are being mechanized and robotized to enhance worker safety. Cranes and winches, etc., are currently used for carrying and installing heavy materials, but manpower is ...

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Development of a Multifunctional Robot for Installation of Building Exterior and Interior Finishing Materials

Akira Miyama, Motohiro Sawada, Ikuo Suzuki
Pages 709-716

With the aim of improving the productivity and working environments of building construction sites, we have developed a multifunctional robot exclusively to help workers install building exterior and interior finishing materials at construction sites. This robot can be adapted to various exterior and interior finishing materials by replacing the end ...

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