1995 Proceedings of the 12th ISARC, Warsaw, Poland

A method for analyzing mechanized and robotized production processes on the building site

F.J.M. van Gassel
Pages 1-8

This article describes a method for analyzing mechanized and robotized production processes on the building site. The method is based on the theory of system analysis, which describes information, material and energy transformation processes. The basic diagram of the Worker-Equipment System was developed for this purpose. The concepts of mechanization ...

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System deployment structures – A new general form of robotic construction agent

Jonathan B. O'Brien
Pages 9-16

This paper examines the problem of the development of industrially useful general purpose robotic construction agents and discusses number of key intellectual constructs used to create them. A new abstract form, umbrella notion based around the idea of systems deployment structures is presented. The implications of thinking with this new ...

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Automation in construction – The implementation prospects

A.Warszawski
Pages 17-17

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True costs of construction accidents: Hidden incentive for construction automation and robotics

John G. Everett
Pages 19-26

One of the frequently cited drivers for automation and robotics in construction is the potential improvement in safety. Much of the publicity funded research in this area is the exotic and very hazardous applications such as space construction, underwater construction, and clean-up of nuclear and other contaminated sites. These applications, ...

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Worker safety and environmental protection in automated steel bridge restoration

Anna M. McCrea, Denis A. Chamberlain
Pages 27-38

The aim of the paper is to review and evaluate current legislation on health and safety and environmental protection in the context of proposed technologies in bridge restoration. Concerning health and safety, the main considerations are a new method of access, the use of robotic manipulators in surface preparation and ...

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Computer integrated construction

Abraham Warszawski, Rafael Sacks
Pages 39-47

The purpose of the automated, computer-integrated building realization process is to generate, automatically, all the information and the related documents for the design and the construction of a built facility. The paper reviews the concept of the computer controlled realization process and describes the knowledge base of the system employed ...

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Development of an automated real-time tracking system for pavement compaction

Cheng-Che Li, H.Randolph Thomas, Amr A.Oloufa
Pages 49-54

Quality control of asphalt pavements is an important concern of highway agencies and contractors. Compaction is an important step in this process as it leads to an increase in pavement strength and durability. While there are a number of factors that influence the in-situ pavement density, the number of passes ...

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Sessyl : The study of the positioning systems for road construction robotics

Francois Peyret
Pages 55-62

The first part of the paper gives a definition of positioning in the context of road worksites and stresses the advantages brought by the new positioning systems. A logical classification of these systems is also proposed. One technique in particular which seems to be more promising at the moment : ...

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OPSALC: An operations planning system for autonomous landfill compaction

Hui-Ping Tserng, Raghavan Kuingahalli, Jeffery S.Russell
Pages 63-69

The construction workers and operators associated with the sanitary waste landfilling operation are at high health risks because of constant expose to harmful solids and gases. Automation of spreading and compacting processes during landfilling operation can result in improved safety due to reduction in exposure of workers to harmful environment. ...

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Construction automation and intelligent vehicle highway systems: common thrust areas

Raghavan Kunigahalli, Jeffery S.Russell, Miroslaw J. Skibniewski
Pages 71-76

Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems are currently a high-priority area of research and development in many countries and can make significant improvements in mobility, safety, and productivity of transportation systems by utilizing advanced technologies from electronics, communications, and computer science. There are many research thrust areas that are useful to both ...

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GIS applications in construction: Planning for disaster relief

Roozbeh Kangari, and Asif Sani
Pages 77-84

Application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in construction disaster relief planning is presented. A case study of GIS developed for Fulton counted in the state of Georgia is presented. The project identifies potential resource allocations and accessible roads network using TranCAD GIS computer program. This model could be used for ...

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Integrated information technology of design and construction management

J.Sutt, T.Nuuter, Tallinn
Pages 85-92

The paper deals with integration of the data processing problems in the complex “design – construction” process, aiming to minimize the total time spent on data processing. Sequence of the basic tasks under observation is: quantity surveying and estimating, drawing up the technological models and calendar plans of Construction (including ...

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An intelligent approach to automate production budget planning in the building products industry

Dawood N.N.
Pages 93-101

Production budget planning in the building products industry is the process of committing and allocating resources to manufacture building products for 12 months ahead in order to satisfy certain criteria set by top management. It is a highly complicated and time consuming process and demands experienced production managers to handle ...

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Development of wall inspection robots

A.Nishi, H.Miyagi, K.Ishihara
Pages 103-108

Use of wall-climbing robots for inspection or maintenance of wall surface has been anticipated for a long time. Four quite different models have been developed in our laboratory. The present model can move on a wall by using the thrust force of the propellers and can fly whenever it is ...

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Robotic kinematic simulation for sewer renovation

S.J.Broadhurst, G Cockerham, N.Taylor, T.Pridmore
Pages 109-116

Research into the development of robotic modules is discussed in the context of cost-effective, small bore, non-man entry (NME) sewer renovation. With an associated sensing system previously reported [1], interest herein is centred upon suitably robust task kinematics and control, where predictive modeling is implemented employing the GRASP robotic simulation ...

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Automatic diagnosing of fatigue life of machine parts

K.M.Golos, S.Oziemski
Pages 117-121

In the paper one of crucial point in the condition assessment strategy-fatigue life diagnosis has been discussed. The non-linear cumulative fatigue model has been presented.

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Interaction between a model excavator and the surrounding ground during positioning control tests

R. Fukagawa, T. Muro, K. Hozumi, T. Matsuike
Pages 123-130

A series of laboratory tests by using a model excavator for the diaphragm wall method were carried out in order to investigate the interaction between the model excavator and the surrounding ground. The behavior of excavator is theoretically formulated and the theoretical values were compared with the experimental data. As ...

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Control of hydrostatic travel drive system in earth moving machines

Bialy Jaroslaw, Krasuski Jan, Lopatka Marian Przychodzien Tadeusz
Pages 131-138

Application of hydrostatic travel drive system in tractor earth-moving machines enables a precise control of digging process according to given requirements and limits. A paper present some problems connected with this subject which have been chosen by the authors as the most important ones.

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Microcomputer controlled test stand for backhoe excavator

J.Szlagowski, D.Dabrowski, W.Lassota and M.Poncyliusz
Pages 139-142

This paper describes the mechanical equipment, hydraulic and measuring system for the microcomputer controlled test stand for backhoe excavator. Stand has been developed in Institute of Heavy Machinery Engineering. The paper also presents main features of hardware and software of the on-board system.

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On-board computer system for an excavator

Henryk Dobrowolski
Pages 143-149

The structure of experimental heavy machine operator’s assistant system is described. Main part of the system was built using factory made VME modules and programmed in C under OS-9. First version of system was implemented on an excavator while advanced versions are under development. The paper describes the architecture of ...

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Automated routing and obstruction detective system for trench construction : A GIS approach

Min-Yuan Cheng; Guey-Lin Chang
Pages 151-158

Unlike most civil engineering projects, trenching schemes are not confined to a recognized site but, by their nature, connect distant locations and involve working ina variety of rural and urban environments. In trench construction, one of the tasks for the engineers is to select a suitable route to minimize construction ...

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The optimisation of tool shapes and trajectories in heavy machines

A. Jarzebowski, J. Maciejewski, D. Szyba, W. Trampczynski
Pages 159-166

The aim of this paper is an experimental determination of the most efficient tool trajectories and tool shapes from energy consumption point of view, for heavy machines tools during the filling process. Laboratory tests were performed under plane strain conditions on a constant slope made of cohesive soil, using various ...

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Brawal 1611 and Brawal 4011 energy-economical hydraulic excavators with the artificial intelligence elements

Ryszard Walczewski; P. N. W. Doram
Pages 167-177

The Brawal excavators have original proprietary structure protected by numerous patents. The sliding working accessories enabling optimization of the parameters of cutting and of additional functions, for example exact scarping. Energy-recuperation system decreases the cost of operation and temperature of the hydraulic oil, thus increasing the machine’s capacity to work ...

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Concept of a flexible microprocessor system of controlling electro-hydraulic drives of building machines

Eugeniusz Budny, Michal Bartys
Pages 179-192

This paper presents a concept of a microprocessor control system with flexible structure and parameters, designed for steering and positioning working components of machines driven by electro-hydraulic systems. An idea for decomposition of a block structure of the control system was presented, as well as the idea of transposing block ...

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Development of roof push up construction method

Takumi Fujji, Chuzi Hagiwara, Masahiro Morita, Masao Miyaguti
Pages 193-201

The roof push up construction method is a construction method whereby the roof floor is erected first, then the building is constructed by pushing up the roof floor successively by one floor with hydraulic oil jacks. Because the roof floor is built first by this construction method, the working environment is ...

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Development of a new building construction method, the arrow-up system for completing the whole building at the safe ground level

Hideo Tanijiri, Takashi Arai, Shuichi Tamoda, Kazuo Ishikawa, Yasuo Enomoto, Akemi Sakura
Pages 203-210

The Arrow-up System (AUS) is a new building construction method developed to complete a whole building, from structural to finishing work, all at the ground storey level. First, principal building production plants will be provided at the ground storey level on its construction site. The structural work and exterior finishing ...

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Implementation of lean production in construction component manufacturing

Lauri Koskela; Jukka Leikas
Pages 211-220

This paper is based on a research project undertaken by a consultancy company, a research institute, and six construction component manufacturing firms. The goal was to draw up a methodology foe initiating lean production activities in construction component manufacturing, and to verify the potential of lean production in this industry ...

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Development of a tunnel lining inspection method by the elastic-wave transfer function method (ETFuM)

Hiroyuki Morishima, Hiroo Koyama, Yakichi Higo, Satomi Tunoda, Yukinori Kiuchi
Pages 221-227

Japanese railway tunnels are currently inspected by using destructive testing. The inspection procedure consists of three important inspecting items, such as lining thickness, voids between a lining and the natural ground, and compressive strength. This method has difficulties in measuring accuracy, cost and Efficiency of inspection. In order to solve these ...

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Technological aspects of automation and robotics in construction

Juiry A. Villman
Pages 229-233

This paper discusses theoretical concept and principles of the theory assessing the technological development of working tasks in construction. The relationship between the complexity of tasks, cost of manual labour, technological advancement of the equipment and other factors is studied and quantified. Using the Fisher-Pray models, the dependence is established ...

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Development of marking robot working at building sites

Kouetsu Tanaka, Makoto Kajitani, Chisato Kanamori, Hideki Itoh, Yasunori Abe And Yoshio Tanaka
Pages 235-242

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Characteristics of a robot oriented building block system

T. Bock; W. Leyh
Pages 243-257

The application of that robot system for the automatic assembly of commercial cavity blocks is the subject of the following report. What is characteristic of cavity blocks is the fact that they are at first assembled dry, without cementing material, and the masonry is later filled with mortar. As to ...

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Object-oriented planning and controlling-system for a wall construction robot

T. Bock; D. Stricker; T. Huynh; J. Fliedner
Pages 259-266

In this article we present several important aspects of a software system control. This is designed and developed for a wall assembly robot in an European Espirit III project called ROCCO, RObot assembly system for computer integrated construction. The system consists of an off-line program for planning of complex assembly tasks ...

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The robotic building construction system

T. Bock; W. Leyh
Pages 267-280

The application of that robot system for the automatic assembly of commercial cavity blocks is the subject of the following report. The entirely different characteristics and abilities of assembly robots are not taken into consideration. However, their dimensional tolerance is relatively small (0.5 mm). Furthermore as cavity bricks, they have ...

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Technological aspects in the development of a mobile bricklaying robot

G. Pritschow, M. Dalacker, J. Kurz, M. Gaenssle
Pages 281-290

This paper presents a process for automated masonry construction on a building site by means of a mobile robot. A scenario for the on-site operation of a man-machine-system comprising the mobile bricklaying and a skilled worker is outlined. An automated method for the application of thin-bed mortar is presented and ...

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Controlled hydraulics for a direct drive brick laying robot

J. Heintze, P. C. Teerhuis, A. J. J. v. d. Weiden
Pages 291-298

Starting from a specific task requirement a Brick Laying Robot has been designed. The tight performance claims which have been imposed by the task specification, constitute the basis for the research on control of hydraulically driven manipulators. The main goal is to increase robot efficiency and task suitability by application ...

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Dynamic stability of machines with articulated frame steering in automatic warning system aspect

Piotr Dudzinski, Radoslaw Cieslak, Kazimierz Pieczonka
Pages 299-306

The stability of operation of heavy machines is one of the main factors determining their working ability and safety. This problem is of a major importance for articulated frame machines that have worse stability than machines with the conventional steering system. So far the problem has not been solved satisfactorily. ...

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 The development of the intelligent multi-axis ALR robots

P. Belohoubek, Z. Kolibal, Z. Kadlec, O Vystrcil
Pages 307-311

The paper describes the development of the special industrial multi-axis anthropomorphic angular robots, of ALR type – their design, computer control and the intelligence. Human interaction and the robot control versus management control ( the management factory control) are also addressed. At the institute of production machines and the systems ...

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An interactive database system with graphical linkage for computer aided heavy lift planning

Carl T.Haas, K. L. Lin
Pages 313-324

Planning heavy lifts is a time consuming and costly activity. Several systems have recently been developed for computer aided heavy lift planning that increase planning productivity and dependability of lift plans. These systems must handle a wide range and growing volume of both graphical and non graphical data, including information ...

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The influence of a four wheel driver of a working machine on some of its traction properties

Gustaw Tyro, Lech Knap, Zbigniew Zebrowski, Jerzy Zebrowski
Pages 325-332

This paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of all-wheel drive kinematic discrepancy influence on drawbar pull for wheeled working machines. The research project was undertaken to verify and confirm theoretical solutions. Presented analysis shows possibilities for improvement of wheeled machines and dynamic and energetic as well as exploitational way ...

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Adaptive gait acquisition using multi-agent learning for wall climbing robots

Lawrence Bull, Terence C Fogarty, Sadayoshi Mikami, James G Thomas
Pages 333-339

In this paper we present work in progress to examine the use of two machine learning techniques to determine the gait of a wall climbing root. We describe the use of the genetic algorithm and then that of the reinforcement learning technique Q-learning, within a multiple-agent framework, for this task. ...

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Dynamic simulation, nonlinear control and collision avoidance of hydraulically driven large redundant manipulators

Martin Schneider, Manfred Hiller, Stenfan Wagner, Fachgebiet Mechatronik
Pages 341-348

A detailed dynamic model of hydraulically driven mobile large-scale manipulators is presented. The model can be used as simulation model, for the calculation of the forces in the design process and for the development of the controllers, which are required for tracking given trajectories, but also to avoid vibrations. It ...

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Can construction from the experience of other sectors in achieving the appropriate balance between organizational and technological innovation

J M Jones, M Saad
Pages 349-356

Studies of the use of advanced technology in manufacturing have given clear indication of the need for simultaneous changes in organization and management practices if a successful and sustainable implementation of advanced technology is to be assured. It can also be shown that it is sometimes counterproductive to introduce new ...

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Process automation versus machine dependency

Stanislaw Oziemski
Pages 357-364

This paper discusses the dependability of machines with particular reference to construction equipment in relation to increasing levels of automation. Various strategies are presented and their impact on utilization systems. Finally, reducing health hazards and environmental protection are in dependability assessments.

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Computer aided planning in construction survey and analysis of construction planning procedures

Naruo Kano
Pages 365-374

In this paper, the author conducted survey on two construction planning processes in an attempt to establish a system of CAP(Computer aided planning) for construction projects. The surveys were followed by a discussion of the structure and characteristics of planning. The author concluded that current systems for computer-aided construction plans, ...

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A neural network system for productivity forecasting

Dr. A.H.Boussabaine
Pages 375-381

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Construction quality control through pen-based computers

Machine Hise, Luh-Maan Chaang, Ming-Tech Wang
Pages 383-390

This paper describes the research results and the experience gained by applying pen-computers to the area of construction quality. A pen-based computer system has been developed to include the functions of signature, error detection, drawing capability, form navigation, user instruction, and decision making. The system eliminates the required effort ...

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Computer aided operation of the single-bucket excavator with the remote control and laser control system of positioning

Bartnick Ada, Konopka Stanislaw, Kuczmarski Franciszek, Typiak Andrzej
Pages 391-398

Essential difficulties in the operation of a single-bucket excavators is the fact that they are multi-functional machines. They can be fitted out with a range of various working features. Hence, elaborate automatic control system is being indispensible. It makes possible, the flexible co-operation with the operator in carrying ought to ...

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Hybrid simulation system for analysis of the specialized mobile systems

A.Maslowski, A.Andrzejuk, A. Czerniewsk –Majewska, P.Sszynkarczyk
Pages 399-406

The aim of this paper is to present the simulation system for analysis of the specialized mobile systems, which are equipped with a human operator – supported computer system (on board or tele-operator ). Simulation is performed in real time, using a computer system and a mobile robot. Visualization of ...

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Task decomposition in support of automation and robotics in construction

Azhari Nb Ahmed, J N Scott, D A Bradley
Pages 407-414

In order to define the requirements for automation and robotics technologies as applied to the construction industry it is necessary to consider the task structures within which these technologies are to be applied. This in turn implies that any particular task or activity for which automation is to ...

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Methods and software engineering tools for simulation of robot dynamics

J.Auzinsh, P.Sliede
Pages 415-422

Methods and appropriate engineers- oriented tools DINA and LMS have been developed for the automated simulation of flexible robot dynamics, including those with closed kinematic loop and changing structure. The typical example of such mechanism is robot, performing assembly operations in industry or construction.

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CAD environment for automated and robotic construction

R. Jluke, M. M. Cusack, J. M. Jones
Pages 423-429

Successful robotic and automated systems require a well defined, structured and controlled work environment. It is therefore clear that before automation in the construction process can be effectively implemented, uniformity and clarity of the various tasks to be automated must be introduced. The structuring of the process must be addressed ...

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Development and field experiments with full automated rebar CAD/CAM system

Ronie Navon, Yaacov Rubinovitz, Mendi Coffler
Pages 431-439

The paper describes the development of a fully automated rebar manufacturing machine, using current technology of computerized numerically controlled machines. The development involved a graphic simulation system. The resulting machine receives the raw material in a discrete form and finite lengths. The raw material is fed to the machine, bent, ...

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Fuzzy vs probabilistic scheduling

Moselhi, Lorterapong
Pages 441-448

This paper provides a comprehensive comparison between two groups of nondeterministic scheduling methods: 1) probabilistic and 2) fuzzy set based methods. A numerical example is used to demonstrate the differences between the two groups of methods. The comparison is conducted considering three aspects: 1) theoretical assumptions, 2) data acquisition and ...

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CAT - computer aided testing in automation of stability tests of mobile building construction and earth-moving machinery

Krzysztof Szymanski, Janusz Ratajczak, Wlodzimierz Mijakowski
Pages 449-455

This paper describes methods of testing of stability of building construction machinery and equipment using an automatized data acquiring and processing system. This method allows to determine on-line the machinery stability with respect to a choosen tipping edge(line) and in accordance to corresponding standards.

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Building system design for development of automated interior finishinf system – WASCOR IV research project report(part II)

Naohisa Sunaga, Yukio Hasegawa, Kinya Tamaki, Hiroshi Kasai, Hiroshi Kurita, Tatsuo Murayama, Hitishi Sugiura, Teruo Yomo, Masashi Matsudo
Pages 457-464

For the development of automated building construction system with robots, the WASCOR (WASeda Construction robot) research project has been organized since 1982 by the system science institute, waseda university. The WASCOR IV project started in 1992. The research theme of the wascor IV project is to develop automated construction systems ...

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Development of interior finishing unit assembly system with robot - WASCORIV research project report(part III)

Masatoshi Handa, Yukio Hasegawa,Hisashi Matsuda, Kinya Tamaki, Sigeyuki Kojima, Kotharou Matsueda, Tomoyuki Takakuwa, Takumi Onod
Pages 465-472

The WASCOR research project was organized in 1982 by the system science institute, Waseda university, Tokyo, japan, aiming at automizing building construction by robotics. This is collaborated by nine general contractors and a construction machinery manufacturer. WASCORIV has been working on the automized building interior finishing system. In the symposium ...

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Analysis of tolerances in robotic mapping of buildings

I. M. Shohet, Y. Rosenfeld, A. Warszawski
Pages 473-480

Autonomous map making is becoming a widely used tool in robotics for various applications. One of the major problems to be dealt with in the development of this tool is the tolerance of coordinates obtained of mapping. This paper presents an analysis of tolerances of a map created by a ...

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Construction robot- based on inflatable structure

N. Salomonski, M. Shoham, G. Grossman, Y. Koren
Pages 481-487

This paper deals with a new kind of mechanical structure for robotic arm based on elements made of thin, inflatable shells. Our approach offers the advantage of increasing the strength to weight ratio of the robot. Moreover, it allows compact packaging and ease of robot deployment, critical in hard to ...

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Evaluation and comparative study of robotics vs manual spraying of GRC panels

C. Balaguer, J. M. Pastor, A. Garcia, L. F. Pe In, F. J. Rodriguez, A. Barrientos, R. Aracil, J Florez, M. Esteben, Ja. A. Comas, Marquez
Pages 489-497

The paper presents in economic quality and technical terms several aspects of the robotics manufacturing of GRC panels, based on actual measurements of performance rates and real estimates of all cost items. The comparison of robotics versus manual performance is also presented. The system has been finished, and is now ...

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Robot motion in unstructured environment

Manfred Bartha, Max Eibert, Christian H. Schaefer
Pages 499-507

To operate an autonomous vehicle in off-road terrain is one of the most difficult problems in robotic. Since it is not possible to build a high resolution model(3d map) of an unstructured terrain, in particular of an industrial area or a construction site, a robot, driving through this terrain, in ...

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Task specific construction automation and visually competent robots - a position

G. Cockerham, T. P. Pridmore, N. Taylor
Pages 509-516

Sufficient work has now been done in the general area of automation and robotics in construction to allow the identification of more general principles and guidelines to begin. The current paper represents a first attempt to determine some of those guidelines. Consideration is given to the application of robotics. Conclusions ...

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Evaluating keyless data acquisition technology for construction site application

Ting-Ya Hsieh, Chun Chang Chen
Pages 517-524

This paper describes a group of technology for automatic data acquisition in construction, which is referred as keyless data acquisition(KDA) technology, including bar coding, magnetic strip, optical character recognition, radio frequency identification and voice recognition. First, past literature related to this area is reviewed and briefly discussed. Then KDA ...

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Adaptive control of rigid robots with uncertain drive gains using parameter unfolding

Raul Guenther, Liu Hsu
Pages 525-532

Significant progress in the analysis and design of adaptive tracking control schemes for rigid robot manipulators was achieved in the last decade. Many of these schemes have been designed at the torque input level. That is, the dynamics associated with the actuators is neglected. Moreover to design adaptive control at ...

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A digital control system for hydraulic excavator fixtures

Leszek Plonecki, Julian Cendrowicz
Pages 533-537

The cutting tool trajectory of a hydraulic excavator during working with traditional machine results from experience and intuition of an operator. To allow the excavator for an automatic execution of planned trajectories, the machine should be provided with control system of fixtures motion. Such a digital control system for single ...

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Three dimensional descriptipn of sewer laterals via reflective photometric stereo

S. J. Broadhurst, T. P. Pridmore, N. Taylor, G. Cockerham
Pages 539-546

Previous efforts have been directed towards provision of a visual sensing facility capable of the detection of lateral pipe entries in non-man-entry(NME) sewers. Attention is now turned to lateral description. A novel variant of the established vision technique photometric stereo is presented. The current goal of the new technique, reflective ...

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Determination of sewer structure using a moving camera

S. Fu, D. Cooper, T. Pridemore, N. Taylor
Pages 547-554

This paper presents a novel method of obtaining an accurate estimate of the shape of a sewer from a sequence of images captured by a camera moving along its length. An image flow technique is first applied. This gathers information from the whole image plane to produce a global description ...

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A model for automatic control of vibratory plate compactor

Witold Gutkowski, Krzysztof Szelagowski
Pages 555-561

Application of automatic control into compaction equipment is one of the most complex problem compared with other machines used in civil engineering works. This is due to the difficulties in getting proper feedback, consisting of a transfer to the compactor and information on the state of soil being just under ...

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The evaluation of ground properties and its application to the automatic control of vibratory soil compactors

Kazuyoshi Tateyama, Satoshi Nakajima, Tetsuo Fujiyama
Pages 563-570

A ground evaluating method was suggested which makes use of the behavior of an exciter that vibrates on the ground. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the relationship among the vibrating behavior of the exciter, the ground stiffness and the vibrating conditions of the exciter. A method that evaluates ...

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The tele-earthwork system best adapted to remote operated construction equipment

Yoshiro Ohimori, Minoru Mano
Pages 571-578

The tele-earthwork system is intended to ensure the safe performance of a series of earthwork, from the excavation of soil to the loading, transportation and the disposal of excavated soil, through the remote control steered from a centralized control room located away from the working areas, by using a variety ...

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