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1988 Proceedings of the 5th ISARC, Tokyo, Japan

21st Century Developed by Robots

Ichiro Kato
Pages 1-8

Abstract: We have considered machines marvelous because they can do what man cannot do. We will have a new sense of value in the future, regarding machines as marvelous for doing things as well as man does. In fact, it is easy for machines to do what man cannot do, and ...

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High Payoff Areas for Automation Applications

Richard L. Tucker
Pages 9-17

Abstract: Construction, although the world's largest industry, is also its most archaic. Most construction practices are very labor-intensive, with resulting impacts on safety, productivity, and quality. The need for automation is apparent, Automation development, however, is expensive and the selection of initial activities for attention need prioritization. A method for prioritization ...

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Issues in the Development of a Building Robot

Abraham Warszawski
Pages 17-26

Abstract: "An overall automation of construction process is expected to significantly improve the efficiency and quality of building. An automated construction consists in fabricating of components off site and their robotized erection and finishing on site. A development process of an interior finishing robot includes an analysis of an optimal configuration for this purpose, ...

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Current Status of the Development and Implementation of Construction Robots in the Federal Republic of Germany

Martin-Christoph Wanner
Pages 27-30

Abstract: This paper gives a short overview of the current situation in the Federal Republic regarding robotics in construction. It deals with various research and hardware activities and gives some informations of organizational aspects. The theme 'Robotics in construction' is now widely known in construction companies. Due to various factors however ...

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The Current Status of Industrialized Construction and Construction Robotics in Finland

Lauri Koskela
Pages 31-34

Abstract: During the past few years, a cluster of development projects with wide participation have been initiated in Finland in order to create the necessary basis for a second wave of industrialization of construction in the next decade. The targets include the creation of an open construction system based on prefabricated ...

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Research in Automation of Building in Israel

Abraham Warszawski
Pages 35-37


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The Surrounding of Construction Industry and Problems of Automatization and Robotization in Construction of Japan

Shigeyuki Obayashi
Pages 39-46


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Robots in the Swedish Construction Industry

Hans G Rahm
Pages 47-50

Abstract: This article describes a number of robots used in the Swedish construction industry. The robot concept is considered in a broad sense. Present robots are used for tunnel drilling, demolishing concrete, load carrying, concrete grinding and floor cleaning. There are not many robots at present in the Swedish construction industry ...

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Industrial Robots in the UK - A Review

M.M. Cusack
Pages 51-56


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Development of Advanced System for Construction Technologies with Proper Use of Electronics

Kenji Cho
Pages 57-64

Abstract: "Since 1983, Ministry of Construction has been engaged in the research project ""Development of Advanced Systems for Construction Technologies with Proper Use of Electronics"". This project has the purpose of making contribution to improve construction technologies related to planning, design, execution, maintenance and conservation by application of the electronics-related technologies. ...

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Administrative Measures to Take in Advancement of Electronics-Oriented Building Construction Technology

Tatsuo Terai
Pages 65-70

Abstract: Several factors concerning to rationalization of building construction technology are dealt with from the administrative point of view, with special stress on utilization of electronics-oriented advanced technology. Once behind other major ministries in connection with this kind of technology, MOC, the Ministry of Construction has been getting more affirmative to ...

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Advanced Robot Technology Project in Japan

Yasushi Okada
Pages 71-80

Abstract: This report presents the current status of the "Advanced Robot Technology" Project in Japan. The "Advanced Robot Technology" project is aimed at research and development on advanced robot systems capable of carrying out inspection, maintenance, rescue, and other complex tasks in dangerous environments that preclude any direct human intervention. R&D ...

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Space Robotics

Tsutomu Iwata
Pages 81-84

Abstract: Space Robotics is a key technology to Japan's space development in the 21st century. Cis-lunar space infrastructure will be developed via advanced artificial intelligence, robotics and automation as well as human astronauts in the next twenty yeas.

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Research and Development of Robot for Reactor Dismantlement - Current Status and Perspective of Development of Robot through JPDR Decommissioning Program

M. Ishikawa
Pages 85-94

Abstract: Robot systems to be applied to the actual dismantlement of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) have been developed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1981 as a part of the technical development for reactor decommissioning. The development has been carried out through the steps of the ...

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Knowledge Base of Components and Connections for a CAD/CAM System

Claude Bohatier, Flora Cagnasso, Brigitte Dubois, Marie-Claude Thomas
Pages 95-104

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to describe a CAD/CAM system conceived at first for the assembly of mechanical parts, which can be used in other areas, particularly in construction. We describe here the organization of the core of the system which is composed of a set of knowledge bases ...

Keywords: Knowledge base, OOP, CAD/CAM, assembly, construction, functional connections

Elements for Spatial Reasoning in Construction

Christian Giraud, Stephane Hanrot
Pages 105-114

Abstract: According to AI techniques we see spatial reasoning, in construction, as generation and solving of goals involving a spatial representation model of buildings defining a rich taxonomy of parts and elements, and spatial relationships between these parts and elements. We define spatial representation model and spatial relationship from previous experiments ...

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Geometric Reasoning in Computer Integrated Building Construction

Robert F. Woodbury, Steven J. Fenves, Nelson C. Baker,Richard W. Quadrel, Clauss B. Strauch
Pages 115-124

Abstract: Geometric reasoning, the integration of geometric representation and inference in advanced computer systems, is presented as an issue at the forefront of research in construction automation. The unique demands that construction automation poses on such reasoning are discussed. An architecture that provides a structure for geometric reasoning is presented and ...

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Building Design for Robotic Assembly

C F Earl, M M Cusack
Pages 125-134

Abstract: Construction projects contain a high manual input in all aspects of assembly. Manufacturing applications of robotics, particularly in flexible assembly demonstrate the importance of design for assembly. This paper argues that attention must be focussed on building design if the potential for robotic assembly is to be realised in construction ...

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Robot-Oriented Design

Thomas-Alexander Bock
Pages 135-144

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to give architects and engineers who are involved in the design of buildings and components certain, guidelines for the "robot-oriented design and re-design" in order to support further spread of robotic technology in construction. Most of the construction and building costs are determined at ...

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Needs for Robots and Advanced Machines at Construction Site. Social Aspects of Robotics

Franz J. Anliker
Pages 145-150

Abstract: "1. In Germany as well as most likely all over Europe, the currently essential arguments for the use of robots and advanced machines within the building trade are as follows: a) Extreme shortage of skilled workers and apprentices. This shortage is partly compensated by a decreasing demand for construction work. ...

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The Construction of Man-Machine Interface for Remote Control Robot

Noboru Sugimoto, Hiroyasu Ikeda
Pages 151-160

Abstract: Of the functions of the man-machine interface of the remote control robot, those functions that are especially related to safety are described in this report. Based on the assumption that the human operator inevitably makes mistakes when issuing commands to the robot, two types of interlocks are proposed for the ...

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Automation and Robotics in Construction: A Feasibility Study

Roozbeh Kangari, Daniel W. Halpin
Pages 161-168

Abstract: This paper examines issues which relate to the feasibility of using robotics in the construction industry. Major factors which will influence when and how robotic concepts and machines are implemented in support of the production process in construction are considered. The primary factors driving the adoption of robotics in construction ...

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Men or Machines: Thinking or Doing

Sidney Newton
Pages 169-174

Abstract: The 'men or machines' alternative is a highly emotive one. There seems to be some justification in tipping the scales in favour of men being responsible where a task involves thinking, but less so where a task involves doing. This paper considers AI in design and robotics in construction as ...

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Current State of Automation and Robotics in Construction

Shankar Sundareswaran, David Arditi
Pages 175-184

Abstract: The use of robots is growing in the manufacturing industries. But in field-oriented industries like construction, adaptation to automation technologies has been slower. The most progress to date in automation for construction has been made in the control of temporary on-site plants for batching concrete, bending reinforcement steel, and making ...

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Constructability for Semi-Automated Piping Construction: Research Progress

J.T. O'Connor, Deborah J. Fisher
Pages 185-194

Abstract: This paper focuses on how semi-automated piping construction for process plants may become both technically and economically viable through constructability enhancement. Three major categories of constructability issues are addressed and include problems related to the pipe manipulator, issues associated with the typical layout and design of the permanent plant, and ...

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Conception of Idealized New Construction Robot in Civil Engineering Work

Noboru Okazaki
Pages 195-202

Abstract: Recently, in Japan's civil engineering work, some automated construction robots are positively employed to sites to avoid having the dangerous and painful work. Under such conditions, author introduces a dredging robot being able to prevent a muddiness of seabed-soil during excavation to be applied to offshore marine projects such as ...

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Building Manufacturability and Robotics

Omer Akin
Pages 203-212

Abstract: Manufacturability of buildings at the same level2 of effectiveness as other products has been a long struggle with mixed results. Current advances in CAD/CAM and Robotics promise to make it more plausible today than at any other time. Difficulties of building manufacturing relate to a number of factors; diversity of ...

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Technologies to Be Developed for Successful Introduction of Robots into Building Construction Industry

Yukio Hasegawa
Pages 213-220

Abstract: Several years have passed since the first robot introduction into building construction sites. Earnest efforts by the involved people developed some types of construction robots in the industry. But the construction industry is understood to be a very difficult area of robotization and there is no integrated robotized building construction ...

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Adapting Building Technology to Facilitate Robotization

Brian Atkin
Pages 221-228

Abstract: This paper reports on the preliminary work of a research project which is looking at the extent to which modifications in basic building technology might be necessary to accelerate the progressive robotization of on-site production processes. The research programme, which is outlined, will incorporate studies of on-site processes for certain ...

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Feasibility and Potential Implementation of Robots in Canadian Building Construction

Osama Moselhi
Pages 229-238

Abstract: This paper considers the feasibility and potential implementation of robots in Canadian building construction. The characteristics of the Canadian construction industry are described and factors such as labour costs, productivity, and safety which have a direct bearing on the feasibility of robots utilization are examined. The potential for automation is ...

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The Existing State and Future Problems of a Robotization in Construction

Shigeyuki Obayashi
Pages 239-248

Abstract: This report shows the matters which are investigated and analyzed in 'Robotics Committee in Construct ion' of 'Japan Society of Civil Engineers'. This Committee, consists of many authorities, has worked on a wide variety of technical problems since 1981; such as safety control and saving time in construction works, systematization, ...

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System Proposal of an Automated Vehicle Considering its Use in Construction Sites

Yoshikuni Okawa
Pages 249-258

Abstract: By the result of system analysis of works being done in the construction sites, we propose an automated vehicle system, which has color TV cameras as vision sensors. Guidance mark is a color tape placed temporarily on the floor. Thus, we can make frequent and easy changes of its possible ...

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Work Study for Robotization of Construction Process

N. Miura ,Y. Tamura, Y. Hasegawa, M. Isozaka
Pages 259-268

Abstract: In the development of construction robots and the designing of their operational systems, to accurately grasp the real state of the construction process and to collect extensive data as well as to be well prepared for various conditions is indispensable. This study, on work study for robotization of construction process ...

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Educating a Workforce for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in Construction

Robert W. Dorsey
Pages 269-278

Abstract: Artificial intelligence and robotics will change construction practices and education sufficiently to require new approaches. Starting with design and continuing into facilities management. Current linear relationships of the parties to construction shall change to become clustered relationships, to allow better integration of services. Clustered relationships will cause owners, designers, constructors ...

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Research & Development on Robotic Systems for Assembly and Finishing Work

Takatoshi Ueno, Yasuo Kajioka, Hitoshi Sato, Junichiro Maeda, Nobuhiro Okuyama
Pages 279-288

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explain four robotic systems for assembly and finishing work in building construction. "Mighty Shackle Ace" is a radio control auto-release clamp to execute steel column and beam erection safely and efficiently. "FLATKN" is a concrete slab finishing robot which provides high work efficiency ...

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Study on a Robotic System for Pavement Cutting Work

Tomoki Kobayashi ,Syoji Honda ,Yuichi Tsukahara, Takatoshi Ueno, Hitoshi Sato, Tetsuji Yoshida, Ryuichi Tsutsui
Pages 289-298

Abstract: A study has been executed for development of a robotic system for pavement cutting work. Targets for this study are l)to make the cutting work safer than the conventional method, 2)to reduce the noise level and pavement surface slurry contamination. The conventional method is examined from the point of automation ...

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Potential Application of Robotics in Highway Construction

Zohar Herbsman, Ralph D. Ellis
Pages 299-308

Abstract: The highway construction process differs considerably from the building construction process. The unique features of highway construction enhance the potential for robotics application, this paper first anaylzes the highway construction process. Then various robotic technologies and their application to highway construction are examined. Finally, an analysis of financial performance is ...

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The Manipulator to Turns Raw Land into Building Lots

Sumio Fukuda
Pages 309-316

Abstract: The construction industry has been confronted with both a stagnation of productivity, and an increase in the number of accidents, as the age of skilled labors increases and their number decreases. In today's booming construction market, these problems have become readily apparent at urban renewal and housing subdivision construction sites. ...

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A Position and Heading Measurement System for Robots - Laser Navigator

Ken-ichi Nishide, Moritomo Hanawa, Norio Hori
Pages 317-324

Abstract: This paper describes the development of a position and heading measurement system using for moving robots ( we call ""LASER NAVIGATOR"" ), which is composed of a scanning laser unit (SLU) mounted on a robot and three or more corner-cubes ( retro-reflectors ) fixed on the ground. A coordinate system ...

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A System for Multiple Sound Source Localization

Jie Huang, Noboru Onishi, Noboru Sugie
Pages 325-332

Abstract: In the present article we present a new method for multiple sound source localization. The method relies on the phase differences among the corresponding frequency components derived from the signals picked up by a set of three microphones, where the sound sources are assumed to be coplanar with three microphones. ...

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A Positioning System for Mobile Robots in Construction Applications (Laser Positioner)

Tatsuyuki Ochi, Kouhei Mio
Pages 333-340

Abstract: The Laser Positioner is a unique system that determines the position of a mobile robot in a wide-open field. The measurement system employs a new technique in which particular laser beacons are used to emit two symmetrical laser beams that travel in opposite directions around the beacon and a sensor ...

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Issues in Domain Modeling of Constructed Facilities

Walid T. Keirouz, Daniel R. Rehak, Irving J. Oppenheim
Pages 341-350

Abstract: Robots operating in a constructed facility must possess knowledge about and a description of their environment. This information is organized into a domain model. This paper presents current work investigating issues in developing domain models of constructed facilities for robotic applications using an object-oriented approach. Requirements regarding model contents and ...

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Structuration Environment and Guidance of a Mobile Robot for Construction Applications

Jean-Luc Salagnac, Sophie Siino
Pages 351-360

Abstract: The economical interest of robots for construction sites is not yet fully asserted. Existing experimental robots are still complex and costly machines. Most of these future robots are likely to be mobile robots. It is then essential to research simple technical solutions to ensure the mobility function. Attempts to use ...

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Construction Bar Code Standards

George Stukhart, Stephen L. Pearce
Pages 361-370

Abstract: Automatic identification systems, particularly bar codes, are an essential link in achieving automated construction materials management system. There is a significant future in bar coding, as is evident in other industries. The opportunity to promote data transfer between organizations and companies has not been adequately explored. By following the research ...

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Building an Engineering Database and Integrated Information Systems in Construction Industry

Toshio Ishii, Yuzo Kato, Osamu Morimot, Masayuki Amou
Pages 371-380

Abstract: We, a general contractor, is operating on the management principle of integrated system from designing to Construction, and is directed toward an engineering contractor. In 1965, large general-purpose computers were installed to start reorganization of the job processing systems, and the environments of use have been improved ever since, from ...

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Flexible Construction Systems (FCS)

Leonhard E. Bernold
Pages 381-390

Abstract: The need to increase safety, productivity, quality and efficiency in construction is a challenge to researchers to seek and develop bold innovative changes. Technological adaptation of successful concepts from other industries into construction, offer an important path for innovative progress. This paper will provide an insight into some aspects of ...

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Site Layout and Resource Scheduling - An Approach to Modelling Movement around Sites

M J Mawdesley, G Cullingford, A Haddadi
Pages 391-400

Abstract: This paper describes the results of experiments carried out in order to model the movement of resources round a construction site. The model deve16ped takes into account the accesses provided, the layout of the facilities on the site, the shape of the structural elements and the shape and size of ...

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Soffito: A Mobile Robot for Finishing Works in Buildings

Jean-Luc Salagnac, George Gallais, Eric Chevalaz
Pages 401-410

Abstract: Most of future construction robots are likely to be mobile robots. They will also manipulate tools to perform various tasks. The coordination of the mobile robot movements, of the handling of tools and products, of the task control will be executed by informatic systems that will probably be on-board systems. ...

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Painting Robot for Exterior Walls of High Rise Buildings

Masahiro Takeno, Akira Matsumura, Shigeru Sakamoto, Yoshihito Sakai, Atsushi Shirato
Pages 411-420

Abstract: The robot described in this report has been developed for painting the wall surfaces of the Shinjuku Center Building located in Shinjuku, Tokyo, which was recently decided to be repainted. A comparison study was made on the difference in efficiency between robot and manual painting. It was found that using ...

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Painting and Finishing Robot for Wall Surface

Seigo Tokioka, Katsuya Nishikata, Ryuichi Sekiguchi, Masafumi Wada, Hiroichi Inagaki, Sachio Sakai
Pages 421-430

Abstract: The object of this development is to complete a robot system which is capable of executing a series of wall finishing works. The system can adhere to the wall surface and move freely there, and automatically perform short-blasting and painting with a respective unit on it. As part of the ...

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Study on Elements Technology for Automation of Exterior Wall Sealing Work

Teruo Yamamiya, Masahito Mori, Shinji Yoshida
Pages 431-440

Abstract: The authors have studied the automation of exterior wall sealing work in order to secure stable quality and achieve safety of work at high altitudes. The automation system is divided into two functions: operating and supporting. The operating function consists of four subsystems including cleaning, primer coating, insertion of back-up ...

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A Robotized Wall Erection System with Solid Components

Yuichira Kodama, Yutaka Yamazaki, Hirota Kato, Yosuke Iguchi, Hideo Naoi
Pages 441-448

Abstract: One idea for the step up of robotization in building construction is to change the conventional construction works adaptable to robotics. In this paper, a structural system for the wall erection named SMAS (Solid Material Assembly System) is proposed and the developed hardware systems are mentioned. SMAS is a kind ...

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Fundamental Study on a Wall-Climbing Robot

Kiichi Ikeda, Taketoshi Nozaki, Saburo Shimada, Yoshio Tajima
Pages 449-458

Abstract: There is a great need for the development of a robot to perform painting and cleaning of high-rise buildings and tanks to perform painting and cleaning of high-rise buildings and tanks and similar dangerous tasks. The Mechanical Engineering Laboratory has been developing a wall-climbing robot (MEL-SPIDER) which can adhere to ...

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Unmanned System for Heavy Construction Equipment

Kiyoshi Sato, Tsuneo Hisataka
Pages 459-466

Abstract: Major portion of the current civil engineering work depends on heavy construction equipment. However, there are many points which must be improved from standpoint of construction efficiency and safety. The task of making improvements was undertaken by introducing automation technique with the object of meeting a decrease in heavy equipment ...

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Autonomous Land Vehicle Using Millimeter Wave Sensing Systems

Hiroshi Yamazaki, Naoki Okamoto, Sumihiro Yamazaki, Tsuneo Hisatake
Pages 467-476

Abstract: In order to achieve higher productivity in outdoor works such as construction, mining, agriculture, forestry, etc.,, it will be necessary to develop highly-advanced machines. We have just established a new organization for research and development activity of sensing and control systems for autonomous land vehicles for outdoor work using millimeter ...

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Development and Application of Climbing Robot Jack System

Wataru Isomura, Shoichi Morimoto, Kiyoshi Sato
Pages 477-482

Abstract: Climbing Robot Jack System is a robotized hydraulic jack equipped with a level detector and operating control device that grips and climbs a steel pipe rod. Several sets of jacks are centrally controlled and overall level maintained. This system can be applied to climbing formwork method in bridge pier construction ...

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Frog Fire-Fighting Robot

Yu-Xuan Li, Qing-Kuan Kung, Ming-Yu Yin, Shou-Xin Zu
Pages 483-490

Abstract: This article describes the structure, moving mechanism and control system of the frog fire-fighting robot, as well as its features which gas been studied and manufactured by the authors. The robot can do interim jumping up and movement using fire-fighting water as its moving power. It can be controlled by ...

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Construction Network Generation with Approximate Reasoning

C. William Ibbs, T.C. Chang, Diego Echeverry
Pages 501-510

Abstract: An important aspect of construction project control is accurate development of a baseline schedule. It becomes the standard against which all progress and performance is measure. Knowledge-Based Expert Systems (KBES’s) offer promise of helping managers control projects better. Research at U.C.Berkeley is being conducted to utilize this tool. Concepts necessary ...

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Construction Planex: A Knowledge Intensive Planner for Construction Projects

Carlos Zozaya-Gorostiza, Chris Hendrickson, Daniel R. Rehak, Peter Lim
Pages 511-520

Abstract: This paper reviews the capabilities and application of the CONSTRUCTION PLANEX system. This knowledge-based expert system assists in the selection of construction technology, the definition of work tasks, the estimation of required resources and durations, the estimation of costs, and the preparation of a project schedule. The system has been ...

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An Ergonomic Analysis Framework for Construction Robot Performance Requirements

Miroslaw J. Skibniewski, Jeffrey S. Russell
Pages 531-540

Abstract: This paper presents a method for calculating a quantitative deterministic measure of the automated machine performance requirements based on the envisioned machine characteristics and available technology for a specific construction task application. An example application of the developed methodology to the analysis of a concrete placement task is provided. The ...

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Development of the Horizontal Distributor for Concrete Placing

Hayao Aoyagi, Yasushi Shibata
Pages 541-550

Abstract: The concreter placing method using a pump equipped with pipes and an end-hose has been used extensively. But placing concrete is still, in general, one of the most labor intensive in construction. The Horizontal Concrete Distributor has solved diverse problems involved in moving the end-hose and relocating pipes. This robot ...

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The Development and Practice Test of the "Mark II" Mobile Robot for Concrete Floor Slab Finishing

Kazuhiko Arai, Bunzo Yamada, Makoto Saito, Kouichi Banno
Pages 551-560

Abstract: Since 1984, the Mark I mobile robot for finishing concrete floor slabs has been at construction sites. This operation has confirmed the robot’s constant finishing accuracy, high efficiency, and savings in night-shift manpower through its use. The previous report discussed the robot’s effectiveness as a replacement for plasterers. Since then, ...

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Development and the Result of Practical Works of Concrete Floor Finishing Robot

Kimio Kikuchi, Shuzo Furuta, Takayoshi Imai
Pages 561-570

Abstract: We developed a concrete floor finishing robot (the SURF ROBO) in order to eliminate heavy-duty work and increase the efficiency of concrete floor finishing work. For about one year after development, several SURF ROBOs have been used at the practical construction sites and satisfactory results were obtained in respect of ...

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Remotely Controlled Machine for Biological Shield Concrete Dismantlement

Hisashi Nakamura, Hidenori Gohda, Mitsuo Yokota, Makoto Ichikawa, Seishi Suzuki, Tetsuo Hasegawa
Pages 571-580

Abstract: The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing necessary dismantling techniques to decommission the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) in the JPDR Decommissioning Program since 1981. A cylindrical geometric machine equipped with diamond sawing and coring units has been developed for activated biological shield dismantlement. This machine is ...

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Bipedal Walking Robot Capable of Moving on a Vertical Wall for Inspection Use

Akira Nishi
Pages 581-588

Abstract: A robot capable of moving on a vertical or overhanging wall has been expected for inspection use of the outer walls of tall buildings, dams, and some other vertical walls. For the purpose, the sucking force produces by the negative pressure in the suckers is available to sustain the robot ...

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Navigation/Positioning Control of Mobile Robots for Construction

Takashi Shiokawa, Yukio Yamashita, Kozaburo Tsuchiya
Pages 589-598

Abstract: Mobile robots at construction sites, compared with those used in the past in factories are required to possess particularly high levels of mobile techniques such as ability to establish free paths of navigation, position determination of high accuracy, use under severe environmental conditions, and autonomous navigation. Especially, for autonomous navigation, ...

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The Effects of Construction Knowledge on the Automation of Preliminary Building Design

Guillermo F. Salazar, David C. Brown
Pages 599-608

Abstract: This paper presents an approach to providing an automated decision support system for Preliminary Building Design. It integrates knowledge from different domains, mainly from construction, using Knowledge Based Expert Systems methodology. Given the overall geometric parameters for the building, this approach explicitly incorporates construction knowledge about major building components such ...

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Object Oriented Approach Applied to Construction

Marc Bourdeau
Pages 609-618

Abstract: Knowledge representation through object oriented approaches is inducing more and more applications for construction in European countries. Such a formalism allows to describe and handle intricate structures of objects, and to express and maintain several kinds of constraints upon these objects. In this paper, we draw a survey of the ...

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Component Specific Expert System and Robotic Applications for Building - Total Life Cycle Integration through Knowledge Bases

Timothy Cornick
Pages 619-624

Abstract: Modern building comprises the assembly of discreet and diverse systems for their structure, fabric and services. Each system comprises manufactured products, building design and construction skills and a completed element that requires maintenance in use. The success of the total building is dependent on how well the design, construction and ...

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A Multi-Link Multi-Purpose Advanced Manipulator with a Large Handling Hemisphere for Out-Door Applications

Dieter Smidt, Christian Blume, Matthias Wadle
Pages 625-634

Abstract: Multi-link articulated booms have a multitude of applications in civil engineering, e.g. concrete pouring, building maintenance etc., but also firefighting. In the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) a new system with a multi-link articulated boom of 22.2 m maximum length and 6 rotary axes is under development in cooperation with Putzmeister-Werk. Our ...

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The Development and Some Applications of the Head Balanced Manupulator for the Construction Industry

Kazuhiko Ohtubo, Hitoshi Tomaru, Shu Takeda
Pages 635-642

Abstract: With balancing functions, the head balanced manipulator enables fine positioning of a heavy object, requiring only a minimal application of force, while fully utilizing the manipulative senses of human hands. Through the application to pin fitting and core insertion work on factory assembly lines, the manipulator has proved its effectiveness. ...

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An Integrated Approach to the Development of Construction Site Crane Operations

Martti Elsila, Lauri Koskela, Heikki Lempinen, Sakari Pieska, Esko Salo
Pages 643-652

Abstract: The following is a review of the current status and future plans of the research concerning tower crane operations, carried out by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Firstly, an empirical time-motion study of crane operations on building sites is described. The results can be used for creating a ...

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Results of the Development of a Manipulator with a Very Large Reach

Martin-Christoph Wanner
Pages 653-660

Abstract: The paper gives an overview of the work performed in a national project by the companies Putzmeister, AEG and Dornier together with the IPA-Stuttgart. The principal hardware and software is now completed and tested. The first results show that the specifications of the system can be realized.

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Application of Multi-Dimensional Wire Cranes in Construction

Toshiro Higuchi, Aiguo Ming, Jaiang Jiang-Yu
Pages 661-668

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new type of installation, “multi-dimensional wire crane”, which can be used for construction of buildings and their façade maintenance. By using wires, the structure of installation becomes simple, and it is easy to install. To prove the effectiveness of the idea, we developed a ...

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Development of a Process Simulation Program (ORBIC-1) for a Building Construction Robotics System

A. Sakaguchi, T. Shiokawa, K. Hamada, Y. Yamawaki, K. Izumi, T. Wakisaka
Pages 669-678

Abstract: A construction process simulation program which is called ORBIC-1, is developed. ORBIC-1 consists of Building Model Data Generation, Construction Process Simulation of Conglomerate Robots, Simulation Result Graphic Display and Simulation Result Analysis subsystems. The results of the simulation process are displayed in 3-D color animation graphics and also analyzed from ...

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Design for Automated Construction

Thomas M. Gatton, L.T. Boyer
Pages 679-688

Abstract: When an existing product manufacturing process is automated, the largest savings are gained when consideration is given to modifying the design of the product and the components from which it is assembled. Traditionally, the manufacture of the product’s individual components and its final appearance were the main factors in ...

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Better Working Conditions on Site

Elsebet Frydendal Pedersen
Pages 689-694


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The Computer Controlled System of Deep Slurry Wall Construction

Toshio Nakamura, Kozaburo Tsuchiya
Pages 695-702

Abstract: Recently a slurry wall which is continuously excavated in underground should be constructed deeper and wider. For instance the slurry wall of 150m deep was constructed last year. It was difficult to keep the precision of the wall without the computer controlled system. This paper presents a new computer controlled ...

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The Development of Research Models for Automatic Excavation

Derek Seward, David Bradley, Robert Bracewell
Pages 703-708

Abstract: Lancaster University has recently begun research into construction robotics and initial concentration is on excavation plant. This paper describes the building of computer and small-scale models to facilitate research and development into hardware and control strategies. The emphasis is on maintaining flexibility to allow the research the widest possible scope. ...

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Operation System for Hydraulic Excavator for Deep Trench Works

Tomoaki Sakai, Kenji Cho
Pages 709-716

Abstract: Results of the experimental analysis of the operation system of a hydraulic excavator for deep trench works are described in this paper. The system of the operation of a hydraulic excavator has a hierarchical structure. The system is a sequentially controlled system which is consists of several partial systems in ...

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An Optimum Operation of a Bulldozer Running on a Weak Terrain

Tatsuro Muro
Pages 717-726

Abstract: Establishing an automatically controlled system to obtain a maximum productivity of a bulldozer running on a weak terrain, the total traffic performance of a tracked vehicle could be clarified by use of a micro-computer in robotics from initial informations of terrain material and vehicle dimensions. Here, an useful estimation method ...

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Rubble Leveling Robot in Underwater Construction

Toshihisa Naruse, Toshiyuki Sawano, Kazuki Iida
Pages 727-736

Abstract: In this article, the rubble leveling robot is introduced as an example of robotics in underwater works; this robot is operated remotely by operators on the support vessel to carry out rubble leveling work in the construction of breakwater foundation mounds, taking the place of manual labor of divers. This ...

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Definition of a Programming Language for Telerobots Application to Robotics in Building Construction

B. Tondu, R. Fournier, G. Clement
Pages 737-746

Abstract: This paper deals with the programming of construction robots for finishing work on facades of buildings. The difficulty of automating such tasks and the high potential occurrence of incidents on the building site, lead to consider the use of hybrid telerobots, programmable like autonomous robots but also controllable in teleoperation ...

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Crane Control System with an Industrial Robot

Tamio Arai, Hisashi Osumi, Jun Ohta
Pages 747-754

Abstract: Most of existing industrial robots have much smaller load capacity than their own weight. Therefore it is very difficult for a robot to handle a heavy work such as a steel frame in a construction site. The purpose of this research is to develop a crane control system which can ...

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Automatic Control Systems for Construction Machinery

Makoto Kakuzen, Hirokazu Araya, Nobuo Kimura, Isao Sawamura
Pages 755-764

Abstract: Automatic control systems for construction machinery have been developed, which control the motion of attachments. The purpose of these systems is to simplify such difficult operations as level crowding of a hydraulic excavator and level luffing of a crawler crane. The control systems consist of a microcomputer-based controller, sensors and ...

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Development on Aquatic Walking Robot for Underwater Inspection

Mineo Iwasaki, Jun-ichi Akizono, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Toshihumi Umetani, Takashi Nemoto, Osamu Asakura, Kazumasa Asayama
Pages 765-774

Abstract: An experimental model and a prototype model were made for development of underwater inspection robot. The experimental model is overground test robot that is not made watertight. The model was used for basic research and a debug tool for program development. The prototype model made watertight was developed after tests ...

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Development of Automatic Steel Pipe Inspection and Acceptance System Application of a Construction Robot to Construction Site "D"

Masahiko Sawaguchi, Minenobu Nishimura, Koji Doumoto, Shigenobu Hyakuta
Pages 775-784

Abstract: Repeated studies have been conducted on the automatization of construction work and for greater efficiency in processing of information and the operation of the Equipment Center, that serves many construction sites, are dealt with as one study. Temporary construction materials which flow between jobsites and the Equipment Center and the ...

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Development of a Fully Automatic Clean Room Measuring System

Akira Ohsakaya
Pages 785-792

Abstract: The more highly the performance of clean rooms is required, the more frequently and closely we must measure and analyze the environment of them, not only as built facility but also as operating facility. Fully automatic clean room measuring system “CLEAN-WATCHER” has been developed in order to automatically measure and ...

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Leak Check Robot

Isao Koyama
Pages 793-800

Abstract: Among the areas related to fields of high tech, including the electronics industry and the Production of medical and food products those places requiring a particularly high degree of cleanliness are installing clean rooms. When clean rooms are put into operation for the purpose of assuring a high degree of ...

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New Automated Operation and Feedback Control in Soil Improvement Method

Takahiro Kawakami, Michio Katsuhara, Tomohiro Isoda
Pages 801-810

Abstract: Soil improvement methods are an important mechanized field within the construction industry in Japan. As a representative soil improvement method, the Sand Compaction Pile Method has a 30-year history and has undergone many improvements in terms of both implementation and control. In this paper, the latest improvements in the Sand ...

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Measuring Robot of the Degress of Soil-Compaction

Teruhiko Umezono, Yoshifumi Nakagawa, Tomonori Takada, Hiroshi Sakurai, Akiomi Shimazu, Kiyoshi Minami
Pages 811-820

Abstract: This robot executes real-time measuring of the soil-compaction degree while running under its own power on compacted ground for site preparation, roads, dams, etc. The basic conditions for the development of the robot are as follows. o Use shall be possible in a work environment of where bulldozers and other heavy machinery ...

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Automated Surveying System for Shield Tunneling

Ken-ichi Nishide, Kyosuke Mishima
Pages 821-828

Abstract: During shield driving, to survey and control the position of a shield machine is an essential part of the quality control to keep the tunnel alignment within the tolerance. In curved alignment, conventional surveying with a transit and a level is quite time-consuming and often results in steering of a ...

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Development of a Compact Survey System for Small Shield Tunneling

Tadao Mikami, Masanori Kanno, Tsuneyasu Ohnishi, Takaaki Tsuruoka
Pages 829-838

Abstract: A compact survey system for small shield tunneling has been developed. The real time data acquisition system offers information on pitching, tolling and yawing of the shield machine as well as location. A set of the system comprises a target including three LEDs and a prism reflector, a detector including ...

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Automatic Measurement System of Tunnel Profile

Takashi Okada, Yutaka Shyozawa, Motoo Tunoda, Masami Ishiguchi
Pages 839-848

Abstract: This paper discussed an automatic measurement system used for checking the accuracy of tunnel profile. Such checks, in all work phases from construction to maintenance after completion, requires measurements as well as analysis and assessment of data obtained. This sophisticated system has been developed through high-level automatization of all these ...

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Tunneling by Robot Shield Driving Automatic Control System

Tetsushi Sonoda, Akio Fujimoto, Hiroshi Nagura, Ichiro Wakiyama
Pages 849-858

Abstract: We have developed the shield driving automatic control system “SDACS” which has been introduced into a number of projects for realizing sophisticated constructions. In Japan, the mud pressure type shield (MP shield) method has become widespread as it is suitable for a variety of types of soil. But this type ...

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Automatic Shield Tunneling Method with a Small Cross-Sectional Area

Shoji Kondo, Kazuyoshi Matsuzaki, Masanobu Kuroiwa
Pages 859-866

Abstract: In Japanese urban areas, almost all conduits for telecommunication cables are laid under public roads having heavy traffic. Therefore, we have developed and continued to refine, a new tunneling method (M2) for small cross-sectional area tunnels not requiring personnel in tunnels. A centralized control system installed in a vertical shaft ...

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The Development of an Apparatus for Diagnosing the Interior Condition of Walls

Masaaki Ebihara
Pages 867-876

Abstract: Methods to diagnose the condition of walls include the use of supersonic sound and infra-red light, but their use is difficult and accuracy is sometimes questionable. The conventional method of using a hammer and interpreting the sound waves is also open to differing interpretation. The author has , however, adapted ...

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Advanced Robotics in the Field of Survey/Inspection Maintenance and Repair of Buildings and Structures

R A Radevsky, F K Garas
Pages 877-886

Abstract: "With increasing resources being devoted to the field of inspection and maintenance of buildings and structures, the use of robots to carry out this type of work is a natural development. In order to carry out survey/inspection maintenance and repair, it is currently necessary to gain access to the faces ...

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Automated Pipeline Inspection Robot in Construction

Toshio Fukuda, Hidemi Hosokai, Masashi Otsuka
Pages 887-896

Abstract: This paper deals with a new type of automated inspection robots with the inch worm mechanism in particular, for inspecting pipelines from the outside of pipe surfaces of constructions during and after construction. Since pipelines are necessary for life lines, these are laid out in many constructions. Therefore, the inspection ...

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Application of In-Pipe Visual Inspection Robot to Piping Internal Surface Lining

Shoji Nagano, Yoshiyuki Oka, Kiyoshi Ozawa, Kazumasa Kato
Pages 897-906

Abstract: In most cases, it is difficult for inspectors to directly inspect the extent of contamination and damage to the internal surfaces of small diameter pipes, as access to the inside of these pipes is limited due to size of devices and associated in-pipe environmental conditions. Accordingly, the utilization of remote-controlled ...

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Development of a Concrete-Spraying Robot for Tunnel Work

Teruhiko Umezono, Yoshito Yamada, Junichi Mihara, Osamu Sakairi
Pages 907-914

Abstract: This paper treats the SL robot, a concrete spraying robot for tunnel construction work in mountains. The SL robot is the core of the SL (Spray Lining) system developed by our company as a very efficient concrete spraying method with low dust generation. The SL robot reduces material loss from ...

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Development of Shotcrete Robot

Hitoshi Nakajima, Kouhei Mio, Yukio Ichihara, Yuichi Sagara
Pages 915-924

Abstract: In recent years, concrete spraying or shotcrete work carried out at NATM method tunnel construction sites has become a social problem because the dust put into the air during work. Further, current shotcrete methods result in a large amount of rebounded concrete and dust, which raise both cost and safety ...

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Smooth Blasting in Hard Rock tunnel Using an Automatic Drilling Machine

Ken-ichi Yoshimi, Masayuki Suzuki, Kohei Furukawa, Koji Nakagawa
Pages 925-934

Abstract: This study was made to minimize overbreak and underbreak of the design excavation face by conducting various analyses of data obtained from the automatic drilling robot in a hardrock tunnel. At the site, it is difficult to minimize overbreak and underbreak, so trial and error must be repeated. We conducted ...

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Shield-Segment Erection Robot

Masafumi Wada, Tsutomu Nakanishi, Makoto Kouda, Hiroichi Inagaki
Pages 935-944

Abstract: This paper discusses a robot capable of handling segments which are, in dimensions, of the greatest class in the world. The robot has been developed as part of a series of innovations for automatization and robotization of the shield method now used most frequently in tunnel construction. The robot erects, in ...

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