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1991 Proceedings of the 8th ISARC, Stuttgart, Germany

One Decade of Robotics in Construction

Yukio Hasegawa
Pages 21-34

Abstract: Research and development of robotics in construction was started about a decade ago. History of the construction robot R & D is reviewed, and also steps of R & D and diffusion is discussed. Start of International symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC) took a role of big trigger ...

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Automation and Robotics in Construction - State of the Art in Germany

Wolfgang Poppy
Pages 35-42

Abstract: Automation and Robotics in Germany are concentrated on concrete and asphalt mixing, concrete block and pipe making, precast concrete units and masonry prefabrication, control of mobile construction machinery, tunnelling and renewing of buildings and sanitation. The development has been going at a measured pace, because not all prerequisites to the ...

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Automation and Robotics in Construction, State of the Art in Japan

Tetsuji Yoshida
Pages 43-48

Abstract: This paper reports on the current state of the art in automation and robotics Research and Development (R&D) activities in Japanese construction industry. At present, building constructions are activated and a shortage of construction workers has been serious in Japan. Accordingly, there has been a growing need for automation and ...

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Automation and Robotics in Construction, State of the Art in the United Kingdom

Fikry K. Garas
Pages 49-52

Abstract: As in a number of western countries , the need for automation and robotic application for use in the construction industry in the U.K has been recognised during the past ten years. The industry is experiencing increasing shortages of skilled labour and an ageing workforce. The industry is also facing ...

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Construction Robotics - State of the Art in France

Jean-Luc Salagnac
Pages 53-57

Abstract: From the initial programmes launched in 1984 to the present situation, a lot of actions have been initiated in France in the field of construction robotics. This paper draws out the main lines of the background resulting from this seven years period and describes the present situation with emphasis on ...

Keywords: Robotics; construction; France; State of the art; research; industrial; projects; applications

Research and Development in Automation of Building in Israel

Abraham Warszawski
Pages 59-63


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Automation and Robotics in Construction - State of the Art in Finland

Lauri Koskela
Pages 65-70

Abstract: The thrust area of Finnish construction automation is concrete component prefabrication. Also mobile on site robotics and other themes are developed. It is recognised that changes in organisation, building systems and information management are needed in connection to the introduction of advanced automation in construction. National projects, which aim at ...

Keywords: construction robotics; construction automation; industrialised construction; Finland

Robotics in the Swedish Construction Industry

Hans G Rahm
Pages 71-74

Abstract: The article describes two R&D projects which are now in progress to develop robots for the Swedish construction industry. The projects are being carried out by two co-operating groups, one in the Stockholm area and one in the Gothenburg area. In addition to these projects, a long-term research project is ...

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Construction Automation and Robotics in Australia - A State-of-the-Art Review

J. O'Brien
Pages 75-82

Abstract: In this paper the current state of the art in the field of construction robotics and advanced automation in Australia is reviewed. The status of general robotic engineering in Australia is firstly discussed and then the commercial applications scene is reviewed. The current extent of robotic use on site and ...

Keywords: Robotics; construction processes; automation; mechatronics

Shotcrete Robot for Improving Working Conditions, Quality and Economy in Civil Engineering and Tunneling

B. Maidl
Pages 85-94

Abstract: The construction material, shotcrete, has gained more importance in the last years, more especially in tunnelling and underground construction. Through the automation of the shotcrete nozzle con-shotcreting with respect to the assessment criteria of concrete quality, economy (rebound) and working conditions (dust development) which occur during conventional manual treatment could ...

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Computer-Controlled Production in the Precast Works 2000

W. Orth
Pages 95-110

Abstract: In 1986 we started operating our first CAD/ CAM –controlled element floor slab works, the works of Messrs Losch at Bad Durkheim. The latest stage of our development is demonstrated by the multi-functional plant which was recently put into operation. In this plant element floor slabs as well as walls are ...

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Computer-Controlled Concrete Distribution

Hartmut Benckert
Pages 111-119

Abstract: After now five years of development the concrete pump with AMC control represents the first step towards computer – aided concreting on the job-site in the future. AMC results in an increase in productivity in placing concrete along with increased safety. The experience gathered here can be used to ...

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Stance of Machinery Manufacturers and Leasing Companies for Development and Application of Construction Robots

Tatsuya Wakisaka, Eiji Muro, Kazuhiko Arai, Nobuyasu Miura
Pages 123-130

Abstract: The building contractors society conducted a questionnaire of manufacturers and leasing companies concerning construction robots in 1989. The questionnaire items included situation surrounding production and leasing of construction machinery and the attitudes of the respondent firm to development and spread of the construction robots. The results indicate that though faced ...

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Towards Site 2000 - Developments in Automation and Robotics in Construction

David A. Bradley and derek W. Seward, Fikry K. Garas
Pages 131-137

Abstract: The current state of robotic technology is briefly reviewed with a view to establish what developments need to take place to enable the fully integrated site of the future. A scenario is presented depicting how such a project could be organised – from tender stage to completion – and implications ...

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Automated Shotcrete Techniques are Improving the Working Conditions

Rudolf Scholbeck
Pages 139-148

Abstract: Employees in the construction industry are exposed to exceptional physical burdens and accident and health risks. Extensive research projects conducted in the past or currently in progress have provided practical solutions for reducing these burdens and hazards. Shotcreting is used here as an example to demonstrate how improvements in equipment and ...

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Automated Devices to Eliminate Undesirable Performance in Mobile 4 WD Construction Machines

Piotr Dudznski, Kazimierz Pieczonka
Pages 151-158

Abstract: The paper discusses two original systems to automatically eliminate negative behaviours in mobile construction equipment with 4WD.For example in an articulated frame steer machine one of the devices allows for over 2 fold decrease of energy consumption by steering gear. The devices have been designed on the basis of both ...

Keywords: construction machine; 4WD drive; Automation; improving efficiency; driving and steering system; decrease of tyre wear

Wheeled Robots to Overcome Ground Unevenness in Construction Areas

Kazuo Tani, Osamu Matsumoto, Shuuji Kajita, Nobumasa Shirai
Pages 159-166

Abstract: The recent demand for use of robots in construction areas require realization of robots that can run and work over rough grounds. We seek for the technological possibilities to allow wheeled robots to move freely by overcoming unevenness of the ground. We have studied active suspensions for wheeled robots to ...

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Design of a Sensor-Supported Mobile Working Platform for Rough Terrain

Martin Zimmermann, Rolf Truninger, Gerhard Schweitzer, Martin Werder
Pages 167-176

Abstract: New technologies and large financial investments will be required in the near future for the automation of forestry and construction work in an European mountainous regions, where hazardous work conditions strongly limit the access for conventional equipment. This paper presents the design of the robo TRAC, a man driven sensor- ...

Keywords: Mobile platform; legged locomotion; man-machine interface; intelligent interactive control; safety; stability

Automation and Robotics of Underwater Concreting in Huge Scale Steel Caisson, The Main Tower Foundation of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge

Santoshi Kashima, Takehisa Iho, Yoshitaka Nakagawa
Pages 179-188

Abstract: Antiwashout underwater concrete totalling about 500,000 meter cube in volume was placed for the two under water foundations of the Akashi Kaikyo bridge, to be the world’s longest suspension bridge when completed. Placing took a year under severe marine conditions with a maximum 8- knot tidal current and a maximum ...

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Automated Surface Finishing of Large Diameter Storage Tanks

Matthew A. Freund , Alfred E. Traver, Gordon L. Wesley, James T. O'Connor, R. Scott Rowland
Pages 189-196

Abstract: Current surface preparation and coating application techniques for large scale steel structures, such as storage tanks, are problematic because they expose workers to substantial safety hazards, extend construction and maintenance schedules, and generate significant expense for owners. In order to help mitigate these impacts, a partially automated system to perform ...

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Research and Development of Totally Mechanized Construction System for High-Rise Buildings

Shigeru Sakamoto , Takanobu Kumano
Pages 197-206

Abstract: This paper discusses T-UP method: Totally Mechanised Construction System for High Rise Buildings based on the consolidation of mechatronics technology and construction techniques. The aim is to mechanically fabricate the individual floors of buildings speedily and continuously. Taisei Corporation has been making great efforts in research toward the mechanisation work. ...

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EC Research Funding in Robotics

K.-H. Robrock
Pages 209-212


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New Developments on the Sanitation of Sewer Pipes - A Research Program of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology (BMFT)

Dieter Fuhrmann
Pages 213-235

Abstract: The main cost factor in the construction and operation of drainage systems in residential areas continue to be the sewer systems for waste water and storm water. Surveys have shown sewer systems to be in an alarming state of dilapidation which , among other factors, may give rise to diffused ...

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A New Robotic Manipulator in Construction Based on Man-Robot Cooperation Work

Toshio Fukuda, Yoshio Fujisawa, Fumihito Arai, Eiji Muro, Haruo Hoshino, Kenji Miyazani, Tadao Mikami
Pages 239-245

Abstract: This paper deals with the mechanism and the control method of a new robotic manipulator in construction based on man-robot cooperation work. Because of the coming labor shortage of the aging society in the near future, robots will be used in the construction field more and more. To support robot ...

Keywords: Man-Robot Cooperation; Direct Teaching; Robotic

Practical Application of Master-Slave Manipulator with Force Reflection

Attila Bencsik, Tibor Kegl
Pages 247-256

Abstract: The department of Mechanical Engineering of the Banki Donat Polytechnic has developed a master – slave manipulator with force reflection. In it’s present developed form the master-arm has a rotating four freedom force reflection. Its potential measuring and force reflection units- which are hydraulic cylinders – are of module system. ...

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Robots for Cleaning and Decontamination of Building Constructions

Valery G. Gradetsky, Michael yu. Rachkov, Sergei V. Uljanov and Gorachand Nandi
Pages 257-266

Abstract: Some important problems of building maintenance is cleaning of walls, ceilings, and floors, cleaning of window glasses in high rise office buildings. The problem is specially advanced for application in nuclear power station halls, under ground stations etc. Robotic systems for these purposes consist of mobile robot having horizontal motion ...

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A Wall Climbing Robot for Inspection Use

Akira Nishi
Pages 267-274

Abstract: A wall climbing robot using propulsive force of propeller has been developed for wall inspection use. Thrust force is inclined to wall side to make use of frictional force between wheels and wall surface, and the robot can move on a vertical wall safely. A long body with many wheels ...

Keywords: Wall climbing robot; vertical wall; thrust force; propeller; locomotive robot; wheel locomotion

Automatic Excavator

M. Tochizawa, S. Takeda, S. Kamada, K. Hirosawa, Y. Kikuchi, T.Wada, S.Itoh
Pages 277-284

Abstract: This paper describes the automatized excavating system that was developed for excavating ditches for drains. This system we developed is composed of two sub- systems, an automatic surface finishing system and a laser guided system. The controller calculates the position of the bucket- tip by using information of the laser ...

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Control Fusion in Bulldozer - An Application of Neural Network

Toshimitsu Muramatsu, Nobuo Yakusizi
Pages 285-296

Abstract: The construction work and the machine action are very complicated. This is the main reason why the automation at construction site is very difficult and not realised yet. Focusing on the complicated and cooperative action of construction machinery, which needs combination of several actuators, some are repeated and some needs ...

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Excavator Dynamics and Effect of Soil on Digging

P. K. Vaha, A. J. Koivo, M. J. Skibniewski
Pages 297-306

Abstract: Automation of excavation work calls for a robotic system able to perform the planned digging work and responsive to interaction forces experienced during excavation. The development of automated excavation control method requires a dynamic model to describe the evolution of the excavator motion with time. The joint torques of the ...

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Social Requirements for the Use of Robots on Building Sites

Bernd Elisenbach, Jochen Reus, Bernd Schutt
Pages 309-316

Abstract: Despite the wide variety of rationalisation process, building work is not based on any concept of labour distribution in Taylor’s sense of the term. In the federal republic of Germany it is more organised on the gang system. This functions in accordance with the principle of flexible work-force deployment. In ...

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The Short-Term Social Implications for Construction Workers of Introducing Robots onto Australian Building Sites

C. C. Neil, G. D Salomonsson and R. Sharpe
Pages 317-325

Abstract: This paper examines some of the short-term social implications for workers of introducing robots on to Australian construction sites. Consideration is given to their possible consequences of job displacement and job loss, polarization of the work force, workers’ job satisfaction, the loss, retention and enhancement of workers’ skills, and union ...

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Survey Results and Further Issues in Construction Automation Education

R. Navon, L. Demsetz
Pages 327-332

Abstract: At the seventh ISARC, we compared two graduate courses in construction automation. This paper continues the discussion of automation as a component of a college or university construction programme. The results of a survey of construction educators are presented. At over 40 % of responding institution, the automation of construction ...

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Development of an Interior Finish Work Robot

Sumio Fukuda, Masayuki Takasu, Sigeyuki Kojima
Pages 335-344

Abstract: Installation of ceiling finish boards, which involves the handling of heavy gypsum boards performed on scaffold, is a laborious and dangerous work. An interior finish work robot capable of installing gypsum boards automatically was developed 1989 to relieve workers of such a dangerous, hard work. The developed interior finished work robot ...

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Interior Finishing Building Robot "TAMIR"

Yehiel Rosenfeld, Abraham Warszawski, Uri Zajicek
Pages 345-354

Abstract: The latest development in the evolution of TAMIR- Technion Autonomous Multi purpose Interior Robot is described. The robot performs, at this stage, three types of full scale interior finishing works: a) Wall building b) Plastering / Painting c) Tile setting. The former task was perfected during the last year and it ...

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Development of Automatic Conveyor System at Construction Sites

Hiroshi Nojima, Yoshimi Nakata, Masakazu Kakuyama, Seiichi Shibayama, Wataru Isomura, Taro Okamoto
Pages 355-364

Abstract: This paper describes the development of a prototype of automated conveyance system and the feasibility study carried out at the actual construction site. The system, consisting of highly – intelligent robots (automatic forklift, automatic wagon, automatic lift, and automatic roller conveyor) functioned harmoniously and autonomously realizing an automatic conveyance of ...

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Towards Intelligent Autonomous Digger

Tadeusz Szuba, Agata Stras, Robert Stras, Andrzej Krol, Adam Niezgoda, Krzysztof Jedrzejek
Pages 367-378

Abstract: Our research group is engaged in the researches on the problem of robot-digger. Our view point is located on the area of applies artificial intelligence, for which the robot digger is the excellent object to combine different areas of artificial intelligence into one quasi-intelligent & autonomous system. The considerations refer ...

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System of Digging Force Monitoring and Backhoe Tip Localization for Medium-Sized Hydraulic Excavator

Marek M. Poncyliusz, Jan Szlagowski
Pages 379-386

Abstract: In this paper system of measuring and registration of digging force or working reaction was described. It consists of three angle transducers mounted in joints (bucket-arm, arm-boom and boom-body), 2 sensors of digging force, electronic connections and computer based data processing system. The principles of system assembling and final mounting ...

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Optimum Design Basis of Digging Equipment of Earth Moving Machines on Example of a Backhoe Attachment

Eugeniusz Budny
Pages 387-396

Abstract: A method of optimization in the design of earth moving equipment is presented in this paper, using the example of a backhoe digging equipment. Its working capacity has been described with the use of geometric concepts deriving from the mechanics of a discrete set of points. Expressions depicting the ...

Keywords: CAD; Attachment; Excavator

An Integrated Construction Management System for Site Precast Concrete

Yoshikazu Sasaki, Tetsuo Kanaiwa
Pages 399-408

Abstract: In order to manage site precast concrete construction which has been increasing, an integrated construction management system employing a unique 3-D modelling method and analogue process input method was developed. At the planning stage, the system supports interactive planning between member configuration and installation planning, by a visual method and ...

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To Using Predicate/Transition Nets as Instrument of Inference in Expert Systems

H. Koerner, V. Franz, P. Boettcher
Pages 409-418

Abstract: PrT- Nets are useful as an instrument of inference. The article will give a short introduction in the PrT-Net theory and shows on same example how to transfer the work process in a PrT-Net structure.

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Using Design Drawings and Project Plans to Construct Discrete-Event Simulation Networks

Abdalla M. Odeh, Iris D. Tommelein, Robert I. Carr
Pages 419-428

Abstract: CIPRO* is knowledge based simulation system that enables its users to relate project design drawings and specifications to process networks and associated resources. Each process is defined in terms of actions, corresponding project components, availability and attributes of resources, a network of operations and queues and operation functions. CIPROS infers ...

Keywords: Discrete - event simulation; knowledge - based systems; Project planning; Process planning; Integration; Object - Oriented programming; construction

Development of Macro-Manipulator Based Robotic Systems for General Construction Use

Jonathan O'Brien
Pages 431-438

Abstract: This paper introduces the concept of macro manipulators as the means whereby the whole robotization of construction may become practicable. Two examples of full scale machines which are in the process of commercialization are presented to illustrate the feasibility of the technology. The paper examines in brief the applications potential ...

Keywords: Manipulator; Construction methods; robts; building systems; construction process; automation; mechanisation

Enabling Technologies for Large Manipulators ESPRIT II Project Lama

M. C. Wanner, W. Engeln, K. D. Rupp
Pages 439-446

Abstract: Programmable and mobile manipulators with very large reach are vital machines in the construction site of the future. This paper gives an overview of the developments in this subject which started in 1986. With the ESPRIT II project LAMA the enabling technologies for large manipulators will be provided in a ...

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Position and Anti-Collision Sensor Systems for Large Manipulators

F. Johannessen, F. Kristensen, J. Rasmussen
Pages 447-454

Abstract: This paper is dealing with two sensor systems for a large manipulator with the reach of 20 meters, which are under development as a part of a running ESPRIT II project. One system is an opto-electric position sensor system closely linked to the manipulator arm, which has the aim at ...

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Towards an Autonomous Heavy Lift Robot for Field Applications

Daniel W. Johnson, Martin Marietta, Sandor Szabo, Harry W. McClellan, William B. DeBellis
Pages 455-464

Abstract: The U.S. Army Human Engineering Laboratory ( HEL), in cooperation with the national Institute of standards and Technology (NIST) and martin Marietta Aero & Naval Systems (MMA&NS), has developed a test-bed to study the use of robots for materials handling in the field. In June 1990, the team completed ...

Keywords: Robotics; Material handling; Control systems; robot design

Automatic Levelling in Road Construction

Alfred Ulrich
Pages 467-478

Abstract: The fulfilment of today’s demand for particular pavement course thicknesses and a particular evenness in the construction of road surfacing is one of the main task set road building equipment. This aim can be reached through the use of electro-hydraulic control facilities for the working units of the corresponding construction ...

Keywords: Levelling system; Road construction Machinery; Road Pavers; automatic Control

Modelling and Controlling the Road Finishing Process

Jean-Louis Gourdon, Francois Peyret
Pages 479-488

Abstract: Among the road construction tasks, finishing is one of the most important because, once carried out, nothing can be done anymore to improve the quality of the profile. The behaviour of this equipment and of the material it handles is more complicated that it seems to be. The most significant point of ...

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Simulation of Soil-Compaction with Vibratory Rollers

Dieter Pietzsch
Pages 489-504

Abstract: Most frequently, vibratory rollers are used for compaction tasks during earth works and road construction. An increase in the roller performance can be achieved by automatically adapting the machine’s parameters which determine the compaction result and by automatically controlling the state of compaction continuously. The actual problem is, that because ...

Keywords: Roller/soil-system; simulation; Vibration behaviour; compaction effect

Development of an Expert System for the Determination of the Span of Control of the Construction Foreman

Igal M. Shohet, Alexander Laufer
Pages 507-517

Abstract: The development of expert systems in construction management has been widely implemented to deal with heuristics involved in construction decisions. The role of the construction foreman, particularly his span of control (number of subordinates) has not received the degree of attention it deserves in research and in expert systems. Situational ...

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A Hybrid Neural Network Methodology for Cost Estimation

Osama Moselhi, Tarek Hegazy and Paul Fazio
Pages 519-528

Abstract: This paper presents an integrated systems approach, utilizing a hybrid methodology for the generation of practical cost and schedule baselines and for bid preparation under the prevailing competitive bidding environment. The system incorporates enhancements to the various functions that cover the quantitative aspects of estimate preparation, including: direct and indirect ...

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Automated Budgeting for Construction

Jonathan A.N. Booth, William H. Askew, Michael J. Mawdesley
Pages 529-538

Abstract: The evaluation of project plans in construction is seen to be an important task which will become more so as project complexity increases and computers become used more and more, initially as aids to planners and ultimately as automatic generators of plans. This paper discusses automated plan evaluation, and in ...

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Determination of the Six Degrees of Freedom of a Moving Civil-Engineering Vehicle

Jean-Francois Le Corre; Gaetan Garcia
Pages 541-550

Abstract: This paper presents a new system (SIREM) capable of computing the six degrees of freedom and the speed of a moving vehicle. It uses a rotating linear CCD camera on board the vehicle and light sources positioned with precision on the site. The main characteristics of the sensor are reviewed ...

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Control of a Track Vehicle for Construction Automation

Mika Matikainen, Hannu Lehtinen
Pages 551-560

Abstract: The mobile construction robot system of VTT consists of a track based vehicle, an industrial robot, support legs and process tooling. The main purpose of the control of the vehicle is the navigation and estimation of the position of the vehicle on construction site with an accuracy of ±50mm.The system ...

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The Panorama Project Approach, First Results and Potential Applications

Philippe Lemarquand,
Pages 561-568

Abstract: This paper presents the Panorama project, its objectives and technical approach, first results of autonomous motion with an experimental platform, and application scenarios. The Panorama project aims to develop an advanced perception and navigation system for automated industrial vehicles dealing with partially structured and partially known environments (outdoors).Applications concern the automation ...

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Development of Automated Construction Work Execution Technology Using Laser Beams

Ryoji Yoshitake, Muneyoshi Matsuo, Katsuhiko Kawakami
Pages 569-578

Abstract: This paper begins with a description of the dissemination of laser levels and the present status of measuring instruments. This is followed by an introduction of development evolution, equipment outline and the results of performance tests regarding a concrete levelling robot and an automatic level marker presented as the development ...

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Automatical Hydrodemolisher System

W. Schneider, M. Sollinger
Pages 581-588

Abstract: The high pressure water technics more and more serve as a work tool for cutting as well as for surface treatment. Especially in the construction industry this kind of technology is significant. Before mentioned method enables the operating staff to remove the deteriorated concrete in precision work, avoiding damage of ...

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Development of an Automatic Laitance Cleaning Machine

Hiromichi Ohta, Sadamichi Ouchi, Kouji Sirai, Mitsuo Sibuya
Pages 589-598

Abstract: To the rationalization of entire process of construction joint treatment, we developed Automatic Laitance Cleaning Machine. The system consists of travelling green cutting unit, a support unit composed of high pressure pump, and a vacuum pump, and a path guidance system. The travelling unit washes out laitance using a high ...

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Integrated Automated System for Concrete Rehabilitation on Large Building Sites

Ulrich Gengenbach, Jorg Bollinger, Alexander Reger
Pages 599-608

Abstract: Concrete rehabilitation is a task of great economic importance. Damage of concrete buildings is due to wear and tear during utilisation, poor material quality and environmental pollution. Most of the work for concrete rehabilitation is done manually and puts a heavy burden on the workers. The process of concrete rehabilitation ...

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Modelling and Control of a Hydraulic Large Range Robot

U. Hirsch, A. Jacubasch, H. B. Kuntze, F. Eberle, B. Goller
Pages 609-620

Abstract: Large range robots are of increasing importance for various difficult applications at building sites or in hazardous areas. In collaboration with industrial partners the KfK has developed such extended multi point (EMIR) which is driven by hydraulic actuators. The position control of EMIR is a tough problem due to the ...

Keywords: Hydraulic large range robot,automatic control, modelling of nonlinearities and elasticity, model-based control concepts

Use of Robots for Quality Control of Precast Elements

W. Bischoff, E.P. Vogt
Pages 623-630

Abstract: Testing of geometric quality of a precast unit is aimed at yielding reliable information on the features achieved at yielding reliable information on the features achieved in production. Therefore the authors present a measuring system consisting of a robot, the sensors and the coordinating computer. The main goal of this ...

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An Automated Measuring System of Cracks in Concrete which Uses Image Processing Techniques and Artificial Intelligence Theory

Masayuki Miura, Toshikazu Miyajima, Satoru Miura, Katsura Ogasawara
Pages 631-638

Abstract: The measurement of cracks in concrete surfaces is a procedure undertaken to diagnose deterioration and the prospective life of concrete structures. The authors have been studying a measuring system which uses computer image processing to reduce labour requirements and increase reliability. In this study crack data were first defined and ...

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Process Driven Automated Rebar Bending

Leonhard E. Bernold
Pages 639-646

Abstract: This paper will present a new concept for rebar bending, which is based on merging the advantages provided by integrating electronic sensors, computer controlled motors, and data communication with a personal computer. The complexity of predicting the springback of rebar through pattern recognition and impedance control is also being discussed. ...

Keywords: CAD/CAM, pattern recognition, automation, control, rebar bending

Electronic Systems for Modern Construction Machines

Winfried Walzer
Pages 649-663

Abstract: Even under the very severe operating conditions typical for the construction machinery area electronic control systems are being used more and more Examples of presently used electronic control systems in a big European construction machinery supplier’s program of excavators, wheeled loaders and track type vehicles are presented

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Application of Electrohydraulic Control Systems with Earth Moving Machinery

Gustav Leidinger
Pages 665-682

Abstract: The complexity of the construction machine with its working implements has reached a degree at which the driver is no longer in a position to operate the machine continuously in the most efficient way. By introducing closed control circuits the operator can partly, or in some cases entirely be relieved ...

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Flexible Robot Control for the Building Industry

H. Wunderlich
Pages 685-694

Abstract: In the building industry, individually-tailored mechanical systems still dominate the field of construction work on bridges, factory halls, and buildings, as well as preventive maintenance work and repairs in various applications. Recently a strong demand to develop and integrate new robot controllers and mechanical systems for the building industry can ...

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An Automatic Direction Control System for Shield Tunnelling

Tadao Mikami, Yuji Hanamori, Tsuneyasu Ohnishi, Masanori Kanno
Pages 705-714

Abstract: We have developed the system operated by means of a computer for controlling direction of shield machine, which is one of the important parts in controlling shield method. The system consists of three sub-systems. The automatic survey system measures the position and direction of shield machine. The data acquisition system measures ...

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High-Accuracy Position Control System for Underground Diaphragm Walls

Masao Arai, Teiji Naitoh
Pages 715-724

Abstract: This paper describes a landmark High-Accuracy Position Control System for Underground Diaphragm Walls. The demand for ultra-large underground diaphragm walls, reaching the maximum depth of 170 m and thickness of 3.2, has lately increased. This high-accuracy position control system for use in the construction of such underground diaphragm walls is ...

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Intuitive Simulation Modelling Using Object Oriented Constructs

Amr A. Oloufa
Pages 727-736

Abstract: The development and computer coding of an accurate simulation model is probably the most important time consuming activity in the modelling of systems and the operations they are involved in. This hardship has confined the use of simulation modelling to the planning stages of the project. The object oriented view ...

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Integrated Product and Process Modelling for Construction Robot Control

Ronald Krom, Frits Tolman
Pages 737-746

Abstract: This paper discusses the role of product modelling technology in construction robotics control. Information models for the representation of construction product and process information enable more intelligent behaviour of construction robot tools, because construction knowledge can be transferred into the robots. In this paper an information model is presented for ...

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Simulation Analysis of Automated Earth Boring Methods

Daniel W. Halpin, Antonio A. Gonzalez-Quevedo, Simaan AbouRizk
Pages 747-754

Abstract: Simulation offers a tool that enables the simulator to compare alternative technologies in an environment that closely models the real world. Advantages of automation from a production perspective can be established by building a simulation model and experimenting with it on the computer. This paper illustrates this by specifically simulating ...

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A System for Determining the Location of Construction Equipment on the Working Site

Yevgeny Yu. Malinovsky, Vasily E. Rufov, Victor N. Kovalev
Pages 757-766

Abstract: It is known that mobility of future robotic construction plants, which is their main function, is ensured by the possibility of high-precision positioning and by the orientation capability of a movable robot in reference to a stable (engineering type) system of coordinates related to the parameters of the site. We ...

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3-D Sensor System

M. Eibert, P. Lux, C. Schaefer
Pages 767-778

Abstract: Vision systems are inevitable components of intelligent and automated construction machinery. 3-D vision systems are proposed to provide advanced machine capabilities such as collision avoidance, robotic manipulation, terrain mapping, and more. The range images generated by the 3-D sensors substantially facilitate robust, real-time data processing required for intelligent and automated ...

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A GPS Application for Positioning of Earthwork Equipments

Tatsunori Sada, Yoshifumi Nakagawa, Tomonori Takada
Pages 779-786

Abstract: GPS is a new radio-wave positioning system, which allows the user to ascertain his position from waves transmitted from the GPS satellites. A system using GPS navigation sensors was applied to positioning of earthwork equipment. While the precision obtained in single-point positioning was only around 20m, the precision could be ...

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Laser-Controlled Machines for Microtunneling

M. Herrenknecht
Pages 789-800

Abstract: Micro tunnelling machines have experienced a fast technical development during the past 10 years. The development of mechanical and plant engineering as well as of the laser and electronics must be continued constantly in order to meet the high requirements of the jobsites. Thanks to this successful development the micro tunnelling machines ...

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Manipulator System for the Redevelopment of Gaps in Brick Sewers

Wofgang Muller, Alexander Schliebmann
Pages 801-806

Abstract: In the very moment only small sewers can automatically be renewed. Large brick sewers as we can find in nearly every big town are up to now repaired manually Therefore the company HOCHTIEF and the Fraunhofergesellschaft have developed a remote controlled manipulator system. This machine is a hydraulic driven robot with 5 ...

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Robots Repair Damaged Drains

Th. Palaske
Pages 807-816


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The Mason's Elevator Handling Machine

Dieter Bohm
Pages 819-832


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Limits to Profitability of Automated Masonry

G. Drees, J. Laukemper, G. Pritschow, M. Dalacker
Pages 833-842

Abstract: Apart from production costs, the saleability of the finished product and the acceptance of the new technology by construction industry are decisive factors for making automation in construction profitable. To achieve this goal, organization and logistics are to be in line with construction environment. With all these requirements met, chances ...

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Automation of Design and Construction of Single-Family Made of Brickwork

Franz Anlinker, Markus Anlinker, Karin Rothenbacher
Pages 843-847

Abstract: The following report details the procedure for the erection of buildings in solid brickwork with prefabricated wall panels. The first part describes the partially automated plant as it already exists and of which several are in operation. The second part delineates the stages of development as they have been planned ...

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A Robot Climbing Vehicle and its Man-Machine Interface for Use in the Nuclear Industry

T.S. White, A.A. Collie, J. Billingsley, B.L. Luk
Pages 851-859

Abstract: This paper describes the design and performance of a robot system NERO (Nuclear Electric’s Robot Operator), commissioned by Nuclear Electric PLC. The robot was first operational in February 1991. The system consists of a robot climbing vehicle and a specially designed control console. The robot is pneumatically powered and uses ...

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Remotely-Operated Dismantling of the Reactor Internals at Niederaichbach Power Plant Using Manipulators

Gerhart Grunanger
Pages 861-870

Abstract: The joint venture NOELL/NIS received the order for the project and planning work and execution of the dismantling of the nuclear power plant Niederaichbach from the Kernforschungszen-trum Karlsruhe. According to the present situation of the work progress a green meadow planted with green bushes shall be created in about 4 years ...

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Remote Control System of the Concrete Cutting Machine

Kaneo Takahashi, Tetsuo Hasegawa
Pages 871-880

Abstract: The JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor) is a power reactor which was first built in Japan. The life of a reactor is generally considered to be 30 to 40 years. So the decommissioning will be needed. Therefore, it is now necessary to develop decommissioning technologies, including dismantling techniques of these ...

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Automatic Inspection System for Piping Corrosion

Yukio Kurosaki
Pages 883-892

Abstract: Pipes used in buildings for supply of hot and cold water, as well as of water for air-conditioning systems, are subjected to deterioration due to the various factors, which may lead to leakage and blockage of the pipes and to malfunctioning of the systems. Causes of the deterioration vary but ...

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Directional Control Employing Fuzzy Reasoning of a Micro Tunnelling System

Toshio Takatsuka, Tomohiro Kurosawa, Yoshihiro Harada
Pages 893-900

Abstract: NTT has developed a micro tunnelling system with new directional control employing fuzzy reasoning which can construct a tunnel along the designed line well, in response to a shortage in experienced operators and the need to improve the working condition. Fuzzy reasoning, in which the know-how acquired form experienced operators ...

Keywords: Fuzzy reasoning, directional control, microtunneling

Computer Aided Remote Control for a Manipulator System to Repair Sewers

Alexander Schliebmann, Bernd Bley
Pages 901-906

Abstract: Remote controlled operation requires a lot of information about the working environment. Cameras and proximity sensors cannot give all the information being considered as necessary for working in a narrow and hardly observable environment. If the environment is geometrically more or less defined, computer support can give the missing information. The ...

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Progress in a Masonry Tasking Robot

Denis Chamberlain, Philip Speare, Seshagiri Ala
Pages 909-918

Abstract: Four major strands of development are reported; the experimental robot cell for masonry tasking currently being built is described, the operational tolerances required are established and the means of achieving them discussed, an account is given of work undertaken on the production, dispensing and application of bond materials and a ...

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Development of Mobile Tile Cladding Robot System

Hannu Lehtinen, Lauri Koskela, Hannu Sainio, Mika Matikainen, Karl-Johan Seren, Taisto Kemppainen
Pages 919-928

Abstract: An inner construction work robot test system has been designed and evaluated at VTT. The designed, but partially realized, robot system could reach and transfer a payload of 10 kg to any inner surface of such a room in any orientation, the maximum height of which is close to the ...

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Tile Setting Robot for Exterior Wall

Hitoshi Tomaru, Hitoshi Haino, Seiichirou Ishikawa
Pages 929-936

Abstract: Komatsu Ltd., Japan Ceramic Tile Association, and Hazama Corporation organized the developing committee of construction robot in 1988, and have been working on the tile setting robot jointly. The tile setting robot has two functions, one is to set tile for exterior wall of building, and the other is to ...

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Handling Systems in the Hardcoal Industry

Jurgen Czwalinna, Dieter Sonnenschein
Pages 939-949


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New Manipulator Concept for Handling Tasks in Coal-Mining

J. Harzer, W. Engeln
Pages 951-962

Abstract: This paper describes a new manipulator concept for application in underground coal mining. The manipulator was developed to set support elements in drifting. Experience with a first prototype and the demands for further development of the manipulator are outlined. Furthermore, this paper contains a short description of the control concept ...

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Automatic Directional Drilling System

Klaus-Dieter Schwidder
Pages 963-970

Abstract: An automatic directional drilling system for vertical bore holes has been developed by Schwing Hydraulik Elektronik and Deutsche Montan Technologie (DMT) as a joint venture. This system measures the inclination continuously during the drilling process and corrects minor deviations from plumb by immediate counter steering. The actual angles and the ...

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Development in Underwater Robots

G. F. Schultheiss
Pages 973-980

Abstract: To characterize the development in underwater robots in the areas of subsea oil and gas production, nuclear power plants or oceanography examples have been selected. They are discussed with respect to their degree of automation and in relation to the sensorial capabilities. Development projects are shown from European countries like ...

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Manganese Nodule Deep Sea Mining

Thomas Bock, Gunther Dorfler, Fritz Gehbauer, Werner Leyh
Pages 981-990

Abstract: In cooperation with several French and German partners the Institut für Maschinenwesen im Baubetrieb is developing a manganese nodule mining system. The essential part of this mining system is a mobile collector to pick up manganese nodules in sea-depth of 5000 m and more. To guarantee high mobility, the collector ...

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Development of Inspection Robots for Headrace Tunnels

Makoto Sasaki, Tadashi Kanzaki
Pages 991-1000

Abstract: This paper describes an expert system with thinking and judgement abilities equivalent to human intelligence for use in developing an inspection robot for headrace tunnels. The significance of this system is that, based on data obtained by the inspection robot, it obtains the relationship between load conditions acting on the ...

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Research on Operation of Task Process of Hydraulic Excavator with Microcomputer

Feng Pei-en, Sun Shou-qian, Yang Yi
Pages 1002-1019

Abstract: A test-board of microcomputer-operated hydraulic excavator with bucket is developed. Its power is 7.5 KW and working pressure is 14MPa. The technique of electrohydraulic proportional servo and two-level computer control is applied. The operation of task process of excavator with microcomputer is to make pose of bucket approach trajectory obtained ...

Keywords: Excavator, task process, microcomputer-operated

Mobile Robots on Building Construction Sites: Specifications Based on Tasks Requirements and Geometrical Analysis

Jean-Luc Salagnac, Benoit Vinot, Etienne Schrive, Patrice Bras
Pages 1021-1027

Abstract: For the last two years, a French research project aimed to define the specification of construction robots, with regard to the mobility requirements. Mechanical aspects, as well as motion planning and positioning function were carefully examined, for a panel of building construction basical operations. Conclusions are carried out for construction ...

Keywords: Mobile robot, specification, building, construction tasks, mechanical morphology, motion planning, positioning systems