2016 Proceedings of the 33rd ISARC, Auburn, AL, USA

Analytical Hierarchy Process Decision Support System (AHP-DSS) for Trenchless Technology

Mohamed Salah, Soliman Abu Samra, Ossama Hosny
Pages 1-9

Among the increasing complexities and surface development, underground utilities installation, renewal and repair remain one of the most challenging projects worldwide. In addition, the crucial need for a minimal surface disruption is what even makes it more thought provoking for contractors/specialists to maintain. That is why, trenchless technology has been ...

Keywords: AHP, Decision support system, Modeling, Trenchless technology

Time-Cost Tradeoff for Multiple Paving Projects Using Genetic Algorithms

Mohamed Salah, Tarek Zaki and Ossama Hosny
Pages 10-18

Road construction companies work on delivering multiple projects at the same time. Careful planning and allocation of each project's resources need to be determined and evaluated in order to minimize their costs and maximize their profits. In this paper, a model was developed with the objective of trading off between ...

Keywords: Paving Projects; Multiple Project; Resource Allocation; Optimization; Genetic Algorithms; Construction Planning.

Fast and Robust 3D Terrain Surface Reconstruction of Construction site Using Stereo camera

Changhun Sung, Sang Hoon Lee, Young Min Kwon and Pan Young Kim
Pages 19-27

This paper presents a fast and robust three-dimensional (3D) terrain surface reconstruction system using a stereo camera. The local feature-based 3D terrain surface reconstruction algorithm consists of two major steps: matching and terrain surface reconstruction. In this paper, extracted corners are described by multi-scale descriptors (MSDs), and the matching precision ...

Keywords: 3D terrain surface, Stereo Camera, Interpolation, Triangle mesh, Regular grid plane

Sampling-Based Floor Plan Analysis on BIMs

Christian Schlette and Jürgen Roßmann
Pages 28-35

This contribution explores a novel combination of methods from robotics and BIM by working on Building Information Models (BIMs) with the Open Motion Planning Library (OMPL), an extensible programming interface and reference collection of various algorithms for sampling-based motion planning. We present a seamless workflow from industrial BIM generation to ...

Keywords: BIM, Sampling-based Motion Planning, Floor plan analysis

Site Plan Development: Tower Crane Placement Using BIM Based on Data Obtained from IFC File

Tomas Funtík and Jozef Gašparík
Pages 36-41

One of the fundamental issues of site plan development is the location of a tower crane which needs to be designed to meet specific criteria and specific needs of structures. With today's traditional techniques it is quite difficult to consider optimal position and to select adequate technical parameters of a ...

Keywords: BIM, Tower Crane, Building Technology

Application of Self-Location System Using a Floor of Random Dot Pattern to an Automatic Guided Vehicle

Yutaro Fukase, Hiroshi Kanamori, Hiroshi Taga, Khoichi Saito and Eiichi Nagata
Pages 42-49

Application of the AGV (automatic guided vehicle) has broadened in factories and warehouses. Although most AGVs use magnetic tape for the guide path, the guided method has some problems. Once a path has been set, you require re-installation of the magnetic guide tape on a floor in order to reset ...

Keywords: Automatic Guided Vehicle, Self-localization System

Automatic Surface Flatness Control using Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data and the 2D Continuous Wavelet Transform

Enrique Valero and Frédéric Bosché
Pages 50-58

Evaluating flatness defects in surfaces during the construction of a building can prevent problems during subsequent construction tasks or the operation phase. An area of particular interest is that of the flatness of warehouse slabs on which pallet-transporting equipment is operated (nowadays including robots). Flatness control has typically been done ...

Keywords: Surface, Flatness, Control, Wavelet Transform, 2D

Inspection Robot with Low Cost Perception Sensing

Harriet Peel, George Morgan, Colin Peel, Anthony Cohn and Raul Fuentes
Pages 59-66

This paper presents the use of off-the-shelf products as a low cost solution to bridge bearing inspection. A commercial product, known as a DiddyBorg, is a robot designed for use with a Raspberry Pi as the on-board computer. The DiddyBorg is used as a robotic platform to make a photogrammetric ...

Keywords: Structure-from-Motion, robot, inspection, point cloud

How Can Lean, IPD and BIM Work Together?

A.H. Fakhimi, J. Majrouhi Sardroud and S. Azhar
Pages 67-75

As buildings have become more complex, the construction industry has become more specialized, but it is under greater pressure to become more efficient, productive and integrated. Thus, all recent and novel attempts including Lean Construction (LC) philosophy, Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) method and recently Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology are ...

Keywords: BIM, Integrated Project Delivery, Lean Construction, collaboration, benefit and challenges

Direction Aware Bluetooth Low Energy Based Proximity Detection System for Construction Work Zone Safety

J. Park, Y.K. Cho and S.K. Timalsinac
Pages 76-82

Over the last decade, the rate of fatality of workers in construction work zones has been of serious concern. One of the most frequent accidents happens due to a ground worker being struck by construction equipment. A major reason behind this is the inability of equipment operators to be aware ...

Keywords: proximity sensing, direction awareness, work-zone safety, Bluetooth low energy, construction

Field Construction Management Application through Mobile BIM and Location Tracking Technology

J. Park, Y.K. Cho and K. Kim
Pages 83-89

While Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been increasingly accepted in the construction industry, the rich project information in BIM is still not well utilized to support the field construction management. Project managers need to spend significant time and effort to find out useful project information (such as plans and specifications) ...

Keywords: Building Information Modeling, Bluetooth, Cloud communication, Construction management, Location tracking

Adaptive Control of Bulldozer's Workflows

Alexej Bulgakov, Sergei Emelianov, Thomas Bock and Georgy Tokmakov
Pages 90-97

The most important task for bulldozer's traction mode control is to use its traction capacity in full by means of its end-effectors control. To keep traction mode at maximum or at a given resistance value applied to end-effectors automatically is difficult due to a great number of stochastic factors affecting ...

Keywords: Robotics and mechatronics, Automation and control, Bulldozer, Neural network technologies.

Mathematical Representation of Haptic Robotic Realization for Artifacts Maintenance

Alexey Bulgakov, Andrey Volkov and Daher Sayfeddine
Pages 98-104

Originally generated from Greek world 'haptikos', haptic technology is used in many grasping and robotic applications. Commercially, it is widely known solution in videogames and mobile technology. Essentially, haptics is used in medical robots, where the surgeon is located outside of the sterile area and remotely operates vide a direct ...

Keywords: Haptics, Telerobotics, Artefact Maintenance

Innovative Assessment of Selected Properties of Industrial Floors

T. Funtík, J. Erdelyi, M. Dubek, J. Gašparík
Pages 105-113

The quality and precision of casted industrial floor is often a dispute between an investor and a contractor. Its geometrical and physical properties divert from values defined by the project and also often do not meet the criteria of National Standards requirements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate ...

Keywords: TLS, Non-destructive testing, Industrial floor

Automatic Reconstruction of As-built BIM from Laser Scanned Data of Precast Concrete Elements for Dimensional Quality Assessment

Q. Wang, J. C. P. Cheng and H. Sohn
Pages 114-122

Precast concrete elements are popularly used in the construction of buildings and infrastructures because they enable higher construction quality, less construction time, and less environmental impact. To ensure the performance of complete precast concrete systems, dimensional quality of individual precast concrete elements must be assessed before they are transported to ...

Keywords: Building Information Models, Laser scanning, As-built BIM reconstruction, Precast concrete elements, Quality assessment

Active Control of a Pan-Tilt-Zoom Camera for Vision-Based Monitoring of Equipment in Construction and Surface Mining Jobsites

Ehsan Rezazadeh Azar
Pages 123-131

Automated monitoring systems have proven to be effective in improving the productivity of equipment-intensive operations in the construction and mining sectors. Vision-based systems are the most recent methods employed to detect, track, and monitor construction equipment. The currently developed systems, however, analyze video frames captured by a stationary camera, which ...

Keywords: Computer vision, equipment monitoring, pan-tilt-zoom camera, automated control

A Face Recognition System for Automated Door Opening with parallel Health Status Validation Using the Kinect v2

A. Ogawa , A. Mita, C. Georgoulas and T. Bock
Pages 132-140

Nowadays it is said that extending the healthy life expectancy is important in the aging society target group. Of course it is important for every single-person household to be regularly checked upon their safety, but especially for elderly people the importance is higher at the point of healthy living, because ...

Keywords: Computer Vision, Kinect v2, Face Recognition, Fatigue Detection, Ambient Assisted Living

Visual and 3D Mapping for Steel Bridge Inspection Using a Climbing Robot

Nhan H. Pham, Hung M. La, Quang P. Ha, Sy N. Dang, Anh H. Vo, Quang H. Dinh
Pages 141-149

There are over six hundred thousand bridges in the U.S. which require great amount of human effort along with expensive and specialized equipment for maintenance. Current bridge inspections are manually performed by inspectors which are inefficient and unsafe. This paper presents visual and three dimensional (3D) structure inspection for steel ...

Keywords: Field robotics, Climbing robots, Steel bridge inspection.

Improving Construction Labor Productivity Using Automatic Rebar Tying Gun

M. Safa, J. G. Cardenas, D. G. Leblanc, D. Rose, and A. Shahi
Pages 150-155

Rebar tying is labor-intensive and expensive, with a high learning curve that restricts proficiency at the craft to a great deal of construction field experience. Obtaining this experience requires tasks that are taxing on the human body, often resulting in muscular and skeletal injuries. Previously, research and engineering controls for ...

Keywords: Automatic Rebar Tying, Labor Productivity, Rod Busting Process, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Construction Project

Hybrid Simulation Modeling of Hoist Down-Peak Operations in Construction Sites

Shousheng Xiang, Mehrdad Arashpour and Ron Wakefield
Pages 156-164

The down-peak period is an important aspect of hoist operations in construction projects. To make the vertical transportation service more efficient, the operation parameters of down-peak should be modeled precisely in the process of planning. A simulation model is developed to analyze the operations of elevator in down-peak. The ...

Keywords: Agent-based modeling, Automation, Building projects, Construction management, Discrete event simulation, Elevator planning, Robustness, Process visualization, Validation

Alternative Scheduling and Planning Processes for Hybrid Offsite Construction

Tarek Salama, Ahmad Salah and Osama Moselhi
Pages 165-173

Offsite construction has gathered momentum in recent years due to its improved performance in terms of project cost, schedule, quality, environmental impact, and safety. Offsite prefabricated systems vary depending on the size of prefabricated components, which affect the need for onsite construction. These systems include categories such as modular, panelized, ...

Keywords: BIM, Panelized Construction, Planning, Hybrid Offsite Construction Introduction.

A Sequential Pattern Mining Approach to Extract Information from BIM Design Log Files

Saman Yarmohammadi, Reza Pourabolghasem, Arezoo Shirazi, Baabak Ashuri
Pages 174-181

Building Information Modeling (BIM) and its implementation in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is rapidly growing all over the US. The growing utilization of BIM application has resulted in accumulation of tremendous volumes of computer-generated design data. Such vast datasets provide practitioners with an opportunity to extract valuable information ...

Keywords: Building Information Modeling, Data Mining, Sequential Pattern Mining, BIM Log Files

HBIM and Fire Prevention in Historical Building Heritage Management

Giulia Frosini, Carlo Biagini, Pietro Capone, Vincenzo Donato and Tommaso Giusti
Pages 182-190

Italy possesses a unique cultural heritage that is constantly under threat from natural and anthropic risks: fire vulnerability is one of the main causes of architectural heritage destruction. The goal of this work is to propose a methodological approach to the management and preservation of historical building heritage with respect ...

Keywords: HBIM, interoperability, fire safety, historical buildings.

The Role of Automation in Right-time Construction Safety

Jochen Teizer
Pages 191-199

Construction organizations continue to be challenged to adequately prevent accidents. Although the five C's (culture, competency, communication, controls, and contractors) have been focusing for many years on compliance, good practices, and best in class strategies, even industry leaders have only marginal improvements in recorded safety statistics. Right-time vs. real-time construction ...

Keywords: Right-time alert and warning technologies, automation and control, construction safety and health, historical safety statistics, lagging and leading indicators, performance measures, prevention through design, pro-active decision making, real-time monitoring and feedback, remote sensing, safety culture and climate, worker education and learning.

First Person Virtual Reality for Evaluation and Learning of Construction Site Safety

Thomas Hilfert, Jochen Teizer and Markus König
Pages 200-208

Early hazard recognition in the construction environment plays a pivotal role in accident prevention. Modern technological advances in the field of visualization and display hardware enable unrivaled situational experiences when using head-mounted displays. Low-cost hardware, high refresh rates and increasing resolutions of devices enable immersion into a virtual world with ...

Keywords: first person view, construction safety, equipment, hazard recognition, learning, situational awareness, virtual reality.

BIM Applications of Rule-Based Checking in Construction Site Layout Planning Tasks

Kevin Schwabe, Markus König and Jochen Teizer
Pages 209-217

Site layout and logistics planning generally plays an important role for the successful execution of construction activities. The allocation of the right amount and size and the timely use of resources play critical roles. Compared to other industrial sectors the construction industry shows a lack of technological progress in site ...

Keywords: building information modeling, construction schedule, logistics, rule-based checking, site layout planning

Automated Equipment Recognition and Classification from Scattered Point Clouds for Construction Management

Jing Dao Chen, Yihai Fang and Yong Kwon Cho
Pages 218-225

Recognizing construction assets from as-is point cloud data of construction environment provides essential information for engineering and management applications including progress monitoring, safety management, supply-chain management, and quality control. This study proposes a fast and automated processing pipeline for construction target assets recognition from scattered as-is point clouds. The recognition ...

Keywords: Object recognition, Object classification, Scattered point clouds, Laser scanning, Machine learning.

Real-time 3D Mobile Mapping for the Built Environment

Jing Dao Chen and Yong Kwon Cho
Pages 226-233

Laser scanned point clouds are relevant for geometric analysis, building maintenance and energy modeling, yet obtaining fully registered point clouds is a labor-intensive process when targets or common registration features are absent. Thus, we propose a versatile mobile platform that forms an incremental 3D map of the environment in real ...

Keywords: 3D, Lidar, point cloud, SLAM, real-time

Parametric Library Components for BIM-Based Curtain Wall Design Automation Module

Beomjun Kim and Sangyoon Chin
Pages 234-240

Recently, the use of curtain wall systems has been increasing. The architect should be able to intuitively select materials and design elements that are the most suitable for the building from among diverse curtain wall systems. However, in the current curtain wall design processes that are mostly implemented in 2D, ...

Keywords: Curtain Wall, Building Information Modeling (BIM), Parametric BIM Library, Level of Development (LOD), Basic Shape Information

A Framework for Developing an Estimation Model of Damages on Bridge Elements Using Big Data Analytics

Soram Lim, Sehwan Chung, Seokho Chi and Junho Song
Pages 241-249

According to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Korea, the number of bridges over 30 years old will be three times in 2025 than three thousands in 2015 so that proper maintenance enforcement has emphasized. The Korean government legislated on the Special Act on Safety Control for Infrastructure ...

Keywords: Bridge Management, Infrastructure Maintenance, Damage Estimation, Big Data

Use of Ultra-Wideband Sensor Networks to Detect Safety Violations in Real Time

Jason Lucas, Joseph Burgett, Adam Hoover and Mehmet Gungor
Pages 250-257

Safety is the highest priority for most construction professionals. However, enforcing the safety requirements and self-regulation of construction jobsites can be difficult. Often, one safety manager is responsible for multiple jobsites and must split their time appropriately depending on the type of work and size of job. This, coupled with ...

Keywords: Ultra-Wide Band Sensors, Safety, Construction, Network Sensors, OSHA, fall protection

Ergonomic Assessment of Residential Construction Tasks Using System Dynamics

Hossein Abaeian, Ndukeabasi Inyang, Osama Moselhi, Mohamed Al-Hussein and Marwan El-Rich
Pages 258-266

Modular residential construction activities often require prolonged standing, bending, stooping, and material handling, while working in crowded spaces; these activities increase the potential risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs), which may worsen over time, resulting in permanent disability and, consequently, the loss of ability to work. The use of system ...

Keywords: residential construction task, system dynamics, ergonomic risk

Coupling Wireless Sensor Networks and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Bridge Health Monitoring Systems

Hashem Izadi Moud and Masoud Gheisari
Pages 267-273

Bridges are exposed to different types of damages within their lifetime. Bridge maintenance is an essential procedure that can significantly affect lifetime and serviceability of bridges. First step in bridge maintenance is inspection. Visual inspection has been traditionally the dominant method of bridge inspection. Although visual inspection is still used ...

Keywords: Bridge Health Monitoring Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, UAV, Wireless Sensor Networks

The Impact of Eco-Feedback on Energy Consumption Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Study

Jing Lin, Nan Li, Guofeng Ma and Junjie Zhou
Pages 274-281

To reduce energy consumption in buildings, researchers have in the recent decade explored the potential of changing occupants' energy consumption behaviors using eco-feedback technologies. Energy consumption behavior is a type of consumer behavior, which has been proven cultural-specific in prior research. This paper aims to examine the impact of cultural ...

Keywords: Cross-cultural, Behavior, Eco-feedback, Energy consumption

Eye-Tracking Technology for Construction Safety: A Feasibility Study

Renata Brito de Oliveira Pinheiro, Nipesh Pradhananga, Radu Jianu and Wallied Orabi
Pages 282-290

A construction site is a harsh environment demanding entire human senses and attention, even for regular scheduled tasks. Many accidents occur on construction sites because of inability of workers to identify hazards and make timely decisions. To understand why some hazards go unseen, it is crucial to study how workers ...

Keywords: Construction Safety, Eye-tracking, Virtual Reality, Site Perception, Hazard Recognition

A Framework of Lift Virtual Prototyping (LVP) Approach for Crane Safety Planning

Yihai Fang and Yong Cho
Pages 291-297

Many crane accidents occur due to a lack of understanding of potential constraints present on lift sites, especially the spatial conflicts with inadequate clearance to surrounding obstructions. Even the most thorough lift plans can be compromised by changes in lift sites such as a newly-erected frame in the crane workspace ...

Keywords: Lifting Virtual Prototyping (LVP), obstruction recognition, spatial conflicts, Crane safety planning, Lift safety and efficiency

Analytical Model and Data-driven Approach for Concrete Moisture Prediction

Karthick Thiyagarajan and Sarath Kodagoda
Pages 298-306

The advent of smart sensing technologies has opened up new avenues for addressing the billion dollar problem in the wastewater industry of H2S corrosion in concrete sewer pipes, where there is a growing interest in monitoring the environmental properties that govern the rate of corrosion. In this context, this paper ...

Keywords: Analytical Model, Data-driven approach, Drying-wetting process, Electrical resistivity data, Gaussian Process prediction model, Moisture data.

Automated Classification of Detected Surface Damage from Point Clouds with Supervised Learning

Burcu Guldur and Jerome Hajjar
Pages 307-313

Recent advances in sensing technologies provide opportunity to utilize advanced data collection equipment such as laser scanners, high-resolution cameras, etc. for both short- and long-time monitoring of structures. Laser scanners, which are capable of collecting up-to two million points per second along with high-resolution images, are especially evolving rapidly and ...

Keywords: Terrestrial Laser Scanning, Surface Damage Detection, Damage Classification, Supervised Learning

Construction Progress Management and Interior Work Analysis Using Kinect 3D Image Sensors

Kosei Ishida
Pages 314-322

Construction progress management and work analysis are often difficult in building interiors. In order to make progress management easier, the authors developed methods for recording the interior work environment. These methods record data using Microsoft Kinect sensors. In this paper, the authors describe methods for recording work data utilizing several ...

Keywords: Work efficiency, Point cloud, Kinect, Skeletal tracking, Construction management, Interior work

Immersive Virtual Environments for Investigating Building Emergency Evacuation Behaviors: A Feasibility Study

Hao Zou, Nan Li and Lijun Cao
Pages 323-331

Evacuee behaviors have significant influence on the efficiency of emergency evacuation in buildings. While crowd evacuee behaviors have been extensively examined with various simulation models, the understanding of individual evacuee behaviors has to date mostly relied on sociological models, which are usually subjective and descriptive. Using latest advances in virtual ...

Keywords: Emergency evacuation, Virtual reality, Evacuation experiment, Sense of presence, Feasibility study

Automated Construction of Masonry Buildings using Cable-Driven Parallel Robots

T. Bruckmann, H. Mattern, A. Spenglerc, C. Reichert, A. Malkwitz and M. König
Pages 332-340

This paper presents an approach of using cable-driven parallel robots for automated construction. Masonry buildings are considered as appropriate application case due to repetitive construction procedures, high demands on quality as well as accuracy of construction, and handling of small and lightweight material. In this context, the application of Building ...

Keywords: Automation and Robotics, Building Information Modeling (BIM), Mechatronics, Simulation

Integration of NDE Measurements and Current Practice in Bridge Deterioration Modeling

Marwa Ahmed, Osama Moselhi and Anjan Bhwomick
Pages 341-349

Deterioration models are required and used in Bridge Management System (BMS) to predict the condition and performance of bridges. Effective maintenance of bridge structure relies on the accuracy of deterioration models used to predict bridge performance. Markov Model is a deterioration forecasting model that is widely used in BMS. However, ...

Keywords: NDE, Deterioration Modeling, Bridges, DBNs

Discrete and Continuous Simulation Approach to Optimize the Productivity of Modular Construction Element

Mona Afifi, Mohamed Al-Hussein, Simaan Abourizk, Ahmed Fotouh and Ahmed Bouferguene
Pages 350-356

Bolstered by significant productivity improvement in manufacturing technology, the construction paradigm has shifted toward industrialized construction methods, such as modular construction. Modular construction has benefitted from the long term development of the manufacturing technologies and core techniques used in the assembly production lines of construction prefabrication plants. Lean production is ...

Keywords: Lean, construction, productivity, simulation

Automated Removal of Planar Clutter from 3D Point Clouds for Improving Industrial Object Recognition

Thomas Czerniawski, Mohammad Nahangi, Scott Walbridge and Carl Haas
Pages 357-365

The industrial construction industry makes use of prefabrication, preassembly, modularization and off-site fabrication (PPMOF) for project execution because they offer a superior level of control as compared to on-site operations. This control is enabled by systematic and thorough performance feedback loops. Improvement of the feedback systems within these facilities will ...

Keywords: Fabrication and process control, industrial fabrication, pipe spool, 3D laser scanning, 3D point cloud, 3D object recognition, clutter removal.

Arbitrary 3D Object Extraction from Cluttered Laser Scans Using Local Features

Mohammad Nahangi, Thomas Czerniawski, Christopher Rausch and Carl Haas
Pages 366-373

Determination of construction performance metrics requires intensive processing of large amounts of data collected on construction sites including cluttered laser scans. For example, for quality control of construction components using 3D laser scans, the acquired point cloud should be cleaned and the object-of-interest should be extracted for measuring the incurred ...

Keywords: Local feature descriptors, hashing, hash table, RANSAC, 3D object recognition, clutter, laser scanning

Applying the Concept of Selective Assembly to Modular Construction to Mitigate Impacts of Component Variability

Christopher Rausch, Mohammad Nahangi, Melanie Perreault, Carl Haas and Jeffrey West
Pages 374-382

As adoption of offsite methods of production continues to grow within the construction industry, optimization techniques from manufacturing are increasingly being utilized analogously for increasing productivity, reducing rework, and improving assembly processes. This paper demonstrates how the concept of selective assembly can be applied in modular construction as a potential ...

Keywords: Selective Assembly, Tolerance Control, Modular Construction, Geometric Variability, Assembly Planning, Interchangeable Components

A Preliminary Study on Text Mining Based Human Resource Allocation in a Construction Project

Sangil Han and Ghang Lee
Pages 383-391

Even engineers who have the same job title and are working on the same project have different skills and backgrounds. However, despite the importance of assigning the right person to the right job to ensure successful project delivery, current human resource (HR) allocation practices are only concerned with the list ...

Keywords: Construction engineer, text mining, human resource allocation, resumé, KNIME

Incorporating BIM into Architectural Precast Concrete Fabrication

Jeffrey Collins
Pages 392-402

Digital models have many benefits for construction; for example, clash detection prior to approval, ability to confirm assembly sequencing, verification of as-built dimensions, and more. Customizing and preparing such models for project delivery takes a large amount of time and, unfortunately, cannot guarantee that the physical building or part can ...

Keywords: Building Information Modeling, BIM-based workflow, Precast concrete, Parametric modeling, Fabrication, Computer Aided Design

Automated 3D Image-Based Section Loss Detection for Finite Element Model Updating

Kasra Ghahremani, Ali Khaloo and David Lattanzi
Pages 403-411

Accurate and rapid condition assessment of in-service infrastructure systems is critical for system-wide prioritization decisions. One major assessment consideration is structural section loss due to deterioration, for instance from corrosion. Modern 3D imaging, which generates high-resolution 3D point clouds, is capable of measuring this degradation. Despite growth in the fields ...

Keywords: 3D imaging, Condition assessment, Computer vision, Damage detection, Finite element model, Computational mechanics, Structural damage

Automation of Modular Assembly of Structural Frames for Buildings

Benny Raphael, Sai Chowdeswara Rao and Koshy Varghese
Pages 412-420

On congested sites in many cities around the world, there is no space available for installing heavy tower cranes and the approach roads are narrow. On such sites, it is desirable to have an automated construction system that can assemble the required components without the use of heavy lifting equipments. ...

Keywords: Automation, Modules, Assembly, Optimization, Automated Construction.

Suggestion of the Ground Stiffness Estimative Method with the Running Speed of a Plate Compactor

Takeshi Hashimoto, Kenichi Fujino and Kazuyoshi Tateyama
Pages 421-427

A reversible plate compactor, that is one type of small compaction machine, travels by performing small jumps forward or backward according to its own vibration and resistance from the ground. So it is assumed that its running speed is affected by the stiffness of the ground. Therefore it is thought ...

Keywords: soil compaction, ground stiffness, reversible vibratory plate compactor, running speed

Ambient Data Collection in Indoor Building Environments Using Mobile Robots

Bharadwaj Mantha, Carol Menassa and Vineet Kamat
Pages 428-436

Building designers have increasingly looked at simulation to improve the performance of building systems with the primary objective of simultaneously maximizing comfort, and minimizing energy use. The quality of the simulations depends on the quality of the data being input into the models. The input data for simulation comprises the ...

Keywords: On-line Simulation, Data Collection, Indoor robots, Navigation and Drift correction algorithms.

Fast Terminal Sliding Mode Control for Gantry Cranes

Ansu Man Singh, Van Truong Hoang and Q. P. Ha
Pages 437-443

Cranes remain a vital tool for the construction of infrastructure such as buildings, bridges, etc. Recently, there has been renewed interest in crane automation in dealing with concerns on safety and possible performance degradation due to system uncertainties and disturbances. One potential solution to the problem is the use of ...

Keywords: Machine Control Systems, Mechatronics, hoist control, Automation and Robotics

A Framework for Optimizing Lap Splice Positions within Concrete Elements to Minimize Cutting Waste of Steel Bars

Zahra Sadat Moussavi Nadoushani, Ahmed W A Hammad and Ali Akbarnezhad
Pages 444-451

One of the material waste streams in the construction of concrete structures is the waste generated during cutting of steel bars to their final required length. The amount of waste generated to produce the required length of steel bars can be affected considerably by the cutting patterns adopted. Waste can, ...

Keywords: Minimizing rebar cutting waste, Lap splice, Cutting pattern generation, Linear Integer Programing

Factors Influencing BIM Adoption in Small and Medium Sized Construction Organizations

Ying Hong, Samad M. E. Sepasgozar, A. Ahmadian F.F. and Ali Akbarnezhad
Pages 452-461

The advantages and disadvantages of Building Information Modelling adoption have been extensively investigated in available literature. However, the focus of previous studies has been placed mainly on BIM adoption in relatively large organizations and little effort has been made to investigate the effects that the size of the organizations may ...

Keywords: BIM adoption, small and medium sized construction organizations, influential factors

Simulation of HVAC Local Control Based on Occupants Locations and Preferences

Zheng Liu, Shide Salimi and Amin Hammad
Pages 462-469

The Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system consumes the major part of energy in buildings. By analyzing the gap between the actual energy consumed and the required energy to satisfy heating/cooling loads, it is estimated that an average of 38% of the energy can be saved with the adoption ...

Keywords: Energy consumption, energy simulation, occupancy, locations, preferences, HVAC setpoint.

Industrial Timber House Building - Levels of Automation

Djordje Popovic and Mats Winroth
Pages 470-477

Swedish industrial timber house building faces a constantly increasing housing demand. In order to respond to the demand, companies in this sector, have to improve their businesses in terms of productivity. At the same time, they need to meet customer requirements, i.e., offering flexible building solutions, thus creating a balance ...

Keywords: Physical and cognitive levels of automation, hierarchical task analysis, exterior wall, single-family timber house, off-site assembly.

Research on Improving Work Efficiency of Unmanned Construction

Masaharu Moteki and Nishiyama Akihiko, Shinichi Yuta, Hiroyuki Mishima and Kenichi Fujino
Pages 478-486

Unmanned construction is actively employed at dangerous locations where people cannot enter because of disaster damage. Unmanned construction is a technology of remotely controlling construction machines as an effective system of construction to ensure the safety of operators. However, the work efficiency of unmanned construction is poorer than that of ...

Keywords: Unmanned construction, construction machine, work efficiency, interface, visual information, haptic perception

Operation Analysis of Hydraulic Excavator with Different Operation System

Akihiko Nishiyama, Masaharu Moteki, Kenichi Fujino and Takeshi Hashimoto
Pages 487-495

Unmanned construction with remotely operated construction machines is actively used a means of construction work in dangerous areas with no access to people such as rehabilitation work sites damaged by natural disasters including earthquakes or volcano eruptions. Unmanned construction is expected to progress in the field as a quick and ...

Keywords: Remote control technology, Disaster, Construction machine, Hydraulic excavator, Operation interface Introduction

Derivation of the Factors Influencing the Network Performance of Serverless Smart Exit Sign Systems Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

Hyunoh Kim, Ghang Lee and Jehyun Cho
Pages 496-504

This paper presents the factors that could potentially affect the reliability of a serverless smart exit sign system, namely an evacuation guidance system based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) without a central server. Serverless smart exit sign system dynamically changes the directions of signs to indicate the shortest safe ...

Keywords: Serverless Evacuation System, Wireless Sensor Network, Smart Exit Sign System

A Multi-Objective Mixed Integer Programming Model for Minimising Obtrusive Effects and Installation Costs of Night-time Lighting on Construction Sites

Ahmed Hammad, Ali Akbarnezhad and David Rey
Pages 505-514

The increase in the rate of urbanisation worldwide has led to a boom in the construction industry sector in most major cities. To cope with the associated rising demand for further services and facilities, contractors find themselves frequently obliged to extend working hours on construction sites. Construction of major infrastructure ...

Keywords: Construction Lighting, Light Pollution, Multi-Objective Optimisation, Mixed Integer Programming, - constraint Method, Sustainable Construction Operations.

A Realization of a Construction Scale Robotic System for 3D Printing of Complex Formwork

James Gardiner, Steve Janssen and Nathan Kirchner
Pages 515-521

The cost of producing complex formwork or moulds for precast concrete and GRC (glass reinforced concrete) is perhaps the most significant limitation when constructing architectural intentions from prefabricated concrete elements. Our contribution, FreeFAB Wax , employs a 6-axis gantry robot with interchangeable end effector tooling to coarsely 3D print and ...

Keywords: Robotic 3D Printing for Construction, Precast Concrete, Additive Manufacturing, Prefabrication

Joint Segmentation and Recognition of Worker Actions using Semi-Markov Models

Jun Yang, Zhongke Shi and Ziyan Wu
Pages 522-528

Vision-based automated recognition of worker actions has gain lots of interest during the past few years. However, existing research all requires pre-segmented video clips, which is not applicable in the real situation. Furthermore, pre-segmented videos abandon the temporal information of action transition. A joint action segmentation and recognition method, which ...

Keywords: Action Segmentation, Action Recognition, Worker, Semi-Markov Models

A Suggestion for Improvement of IFC Data in Energy Performance Index (EPI) based on Open BIM

Jungsik Choi, Inhan Kim, Minchan Kim and Jeongwon Ryu
Pages 529-537

As many countries are becoming more aware of environmental issues, both the governmental and private sectors are making more of an effort to achieve eco-friendly construction. However, the assessment of circumstances for building energy performance and green building standards of legislation are still based on two dimensions and manual work. ...

Keywords: Building Information Modeling (BIM), Building Permission, Energy Performance Index (EPI), Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), Open BIM

Emissions Modelling of Earthmoving Equipment

Khalegh Barati and Xuesong Shen
Pages 538-546

Earthmoving operations produce high amount of emissions and are one of the main sources of air pollutants in construction and mining industries. Modelling and quantifying the emissions produced by earthmoving equipment is the first step for developing emissions reduction schemes. Currently, emissions of construction and mining equipment are mainly estimated ...

Keywords: Emissions, Earthmoving Equipment, Field Experiments, Site Observation, Data Analysis

Monitoring Apparent pH Value in Geopolymer Concrete Using Glass Electrode

Jin Dang, Xuesong Shen, Arnaud Castel and James Aldred
Pages 547-554

Geopolymer concrete (GPC) is estimated to reduce 80% carbon footprint in construction projects compared with ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Previous studies on GPC have been focusing on assessment of paste or mortar while the long-term durability of GPC has not been extensively investigated yet. This research aims to monitor carbonation ...

Keywords: pH glass electrode, Geopolymer concrete, Carbonation, Long-term monitoring

Optimum Driving Pattern for Minimizing Fuel Consumption of On-road Vehicles

Jacob Klein, Xuesong Shen and Khalegh Barati
Pages 555-562

The consumption of fossil fuels by on-road vehicles is the greatest source of air pollution and the second largest source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) globally. The emitted pollutions have caused major problems such as respiratory diseases. Also, as the sources of these types of fuels are diminishing, their price is ...

Keywords: Fuel Consumption, Statistical Modelling, Fuel Efficiency, On-road Vehicle, Instrumentation

Reduced-order Models for Supporting Energy Audits of Buildings

Mariangela Benedettelli, Alessandro Carbonari, Berardo Naticchia and Massimo Vaccarin
Pages 563-571

An energy audit is a standard process to support the decision-making in the area of energy management. Nevertheless, an energy auditor does not succeed as easily and quickly in identifying all the energy streams in a facility in order to decide whether retrofitting the audited object is beneficial. In fact, ...

Keywords: Energy audit, Reduced-order models, Energy retrofit

Human State Estimation System Implemented in an Office Deployable Getaway Based on Multiple Bio Information

Sayaka Nakaso, Jörg Güttler, Akira Mita and Thomas Bock
Pages 572-580

This article is proposing a human state estimation system on the basis of multiple bio information implemented into a movable cover chair called 'Office Deployable Getaway'. The proposed system consists of 2 sub-systems; the first sub-system analyzes fatigue based on eye movement including blinking rate and eye closure time while ...

Keywords: Human-Machine-Interaction, Breath Detection, Fatigue Analyzation, Human Mood, Eye Recognition, Ambient Assisted Living

A Cloud-Based BIM Platform for Information Collaboration

Ling Ma and Rafael Sacks
Pages 581-589

The Model View Definition (MVD) approach to interoperability of BIM models requires software vendors to write export functions that can map their internal representation to the whole scope of each of many domain-specific target MVDs. However, in everyday practical use of models, a user receiving an exchanged model often ...

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, Model View Definition, Cloud based database, Information collaboration, Semantic enrichment

Real-time Schedule Control

Shabtai Isaac
Pages 590-595

Numerous previous studies have dealt with the use of automated technologies for on-site, real-time data collection to support construction project control. Most of these studies are based on the assumption, that the collected data can be compared with planning data to identify deviations and implement control actions. However, construction scheduling ...

Keywords: Scheduling, Monitoring, Control, Real-time Data Collection

Human-Robot Collaboration for Creative and Integrated Design and Fabrication Processes

Shani Sharif, T. Russell Gentry and Larry M. Sweet
Pages 596-604

This paper proposes a new framework for digital design to fabrication workflow to create an effective collaboration process between human designers and industrial robots, in order to redefine the relationship between design and production. This framework aims at redefining the current one-directional workflow of design to robotic fabrication that is ...

Keywords: Robotic fabrication, Human-robot collaboration, Perception, Feedback, Adaptive control

Optimizing the Trajectory of the Painting Robot

Michal Bruzl, Vyacheslav Usmanov, Pavel Svoboda and Rostislav Šulc
Pages 605-612

The main objective of this research work was to create a technological and mathematical model of the robotic arm movement for conducting painting work. For experiment was chosen model of the robotic arm, which corresponds in its construction robots commonly used in industrial production. This model of the robot was ...

Keywords: Mathematical model, Robotic arm, Painting work, Trajectory for moving, Energy of servomotors

A Point Cloud-Vision Hybrid Approach for 3D Location Tracking of Mobile Construction Assets

Yihai Fang, Jing Dao Chen, Yong Cho and Peiyao Zhang
Pages 613-620

Modeling as-is site condition and tracking the three-dimensional (3D) location of mobile assets (e.g., worker, equipment, material) are essential for various construction applications such as progress monitoring, quality control and safety management. Many efforts have been dedicated to vision-based technologies due to their merits in cost-effectiveness and light infrastructure compared ...

Keywords: Point cloud-vision hybrid approach, Mobile asset tracking, Structure from Motion (SfM), Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

Investigating Safety Passage Planning for System Shoring Supports with BIM

R.L. Zhuang, S. Hung, Y.C. Shiau, K.T. Liu and C.C. Liu
Pages 621-626

All temporary structures at the construction stage are collectively called falsework. As part of the falsework, the importance of system shoring support (SSS) is often overlooked in construction projects, thus causing increasing accidents from SSS collapse. The 2014 occupational accident statistics of the Council of Labor Affairs show that most ...

Keywords: System Shoring Support, Safety Passage, Building Information Modelling.

Development of House Selling System for Construction Industries

R.L. Zhuang, Y.P. Chiu, Y.C. Shiau and C.J. Guo
Pages 627-633

Mobile information service can provide positioning, query, text, drawings, video and other browser interfaces. It is an indispensable object to most people. Advanced technologies have changed the manner and speed of information delivery. People need to work for a long time for buying a house. Choosing a suitable house is ...

Keywords: BIM, Mobile Devices, Smart Phones, House Selling System, 3D Perspective

Dynamic Space Conflict Modeling for Construction Operations

Arian Saeedfar, Lingguang Song and Satish Gore
Pages 634-641

Site planning is critical for efficient and safe construction operations. Current industry practice primarily relies on highly experienced planers and their personal judgment to anticipate and prevent space conflicts during construction operation. Inaccurate and unreliable site space planning not only leads to major loss of time and cost, but also ...

Keywords: Dynamic Planning, Space Demand, Space Conflict, Safety, Productivity

Audio Signal Processing for Activity Recognition of Construction Heavy Equipment

Chieh-Feng Cheng, Abbas Rashidi, Mark Davenport and David Anderson
Pages 642-650

Action recognition and tracking of construction heavy equipment is the first step for benchmarking and analyzing the performance of individual machines and evaluating the productivity of a jobsite as a whole. Aside from direct observations, the current approaches for automatically recognizing and tracking various actions of construction heavy equipment includes: ...

Keywords: Audio signals, Construction, Heavy equipment, Activity recognition, Short-Time Fourier Transform

An Automated GIS based Piezoelectric Potential Assessment: PE Calculator©

Shahaboddin Hashemi Toroghi, Mingyang Li and Baabak Ashuri
Pages 651-658

Renewable Sources are at the front line of policy discussions for replacing the fossil fuels around the world. Piezoelectric (PE) material can generate electricity in response to mechanical stress. Knowing that cars put a significant amount of stress onto the roadways every day, the use of piezoelectric transducer for asphalt ...

Keywords: Piezoelectric potential, Python, Geographic Information System (GIS), Energy

Low Cost Augmented Reality Framework for Construction Applications

Sai Meghasyam Kodeboyina and Koshy Varghese
Pages 659-668

Augmented Reality can be of immense benefit to the construction industry. The oft-cited benefits of AR in construction industry include real time visualization of projects, project monitoring by overlaying virtual models on actual built structures and onsite information retrieval. But this technology is restricted by the high cost and limited ...

Keywords: Construction, Augmented Reality, Marker-based Tracking, Information Retrieval, Google Cardboard.

Entity Matching across Stereo Cameras for Tracking Construction Workers

Yong-Joo Lee, Man-Woo Park and Ioannis Brilakis
Pages 669-677

While GPS and RFID are dominantly used for tracking construction equipment and materials, 3D vision-based tracking that employs stereo-vision system has been also proposed as an alternative to efficiently track construction resources operating in a congested site. The 3D vision-based tracking requires an entity to be tracked in both cameras ...

Keywords: Construction worker, Stereo Vision, Tracking, Detection, Entity Matching

Analysis of Accuracy Factor for 3D Reconstruction using 2D Image Obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

H.L. Ko, S.W. Kwon, S.W. Chung, D.Y. Moon, J.W. Park, J.W. Seo and S.M. Kang
Pages 678-685

Recently UAV has been used in various fields such as construction and civil engineering, disaster, terrain analysis, transportation, etc. In addition, many companies from all over the world are focusing on developing UAV technology. The market of personal UAV has been growing and attracting people's attention year after year due ...

Keywords: UAV, Structure from motion, illumination

Target-Free Automatic Registration of Point Clouds

Pileun Kim, Yong Kwon Cho and Jingdao Chen
Pages 686-693

The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel method that automatically registers colored 3D point cloud sets without using targets or any other manual alignment processes. For fully automated point cloud registration without targets or landmarks, our approach utilizes feature detection algorithms used in computer vision. A digital ...

Keywords: 3D LIDAR, Point cloud, Registration, Feature point, RGB image, Segmentation

Resource Allocation Methodology of Virtual Desktop Infrastructure in Cloud Computing BIM: Focusing Korean Small and Medium Sized Architectural Design Firm

K.H. Lee, S.W. Kwon, J.H. Shin, D.H. Kim, D.Y. Moon, S.Y. Lee
Pages 694-702

BIM (Building Information Modelling) technology has been expanded for using in construction project during the past 20 years. However, recently its spread has been delayed than the initial expectations, due to the high-cost of BIM infrastructure development, the lack of regulations and process. In design phase, especially, collaboration based on ...

Keywords: VDI (Virtual Desktop Infrastructure), Cloud Computing, BIM, Design Collaboration, Virtualization

Using Simulation Applications for Sustainable Design and Construction

Hoda Khoshnevis, Nima Khairdoost
Pages 703-710

This paper briefly illustrates the application of Building Energy Consumption Simulation (BECS) for sustainable construction education. The curricula of building-related majors have not greatly taken advantage of simulated environments as supplementary tools besides traditional methods. The main purpose of the research project was to determine how a simulation application ...

Keywords: Simulation, Sustainable Construction, Education, Building Energy Consumption

3D Grid Size Optimization of Automatic Space Analysis for Plant Facility Using Point Cloud Data

Gyuseong Choi, Soonwook Kwon, Dong Hyun Kim, Dae Yoon Moon, Suwan Chung, Song Yi Lee and Hyung Lyul Ko
Pages 711-719

Currently, as plant market grows up, client demands to increase construction quality, technology and to reduce construction time. Due to the vast scale of the construction site and complexity of process, plant project can have some problems of communication among the project participants, the duplication of work, errors and rework. ...

Keywords: 3D grid size, Space matching, Point cloud, Laser Scanning

KBimCode-Based Applications for the Representation, Definition and Evaluation of Building Permit Rules

Seokyung Park and Jin-Kook Lee
Pages 720-728

This paper aims to describe applications of KBimCode that enables representation, definition and evaluation of building permit rules for BIM-enabled code compliance checking. KBimCode is a standardized script language. It is developed to represent the Korean Building Act as explicit computable rules. The application of KBimCode can be summarized as: ...

Keywords: Automated code compliance checking, Automated Building Permit System, Korean Building Act, KBimCode, KBimLogic, BIM (Building Information Modeling)

Optimizing Surveillance Camera Placement in Buildings Using BIM

Ameen Albahri and Amin Hammad
Pages 729-734

Surveillance cameras are becoming indispensable tools due to their ability to ensure security in buildings. However, many organizations claim that purchasing, installing and maintaining these cameras are costly. Furthermore, current practices have conducted different 2D and 3D techniques to find the optimum camera placement inside buildings. These techniques have many ...

Keywords: Surveillance cameras, BIM, Optimization, Genetic Algorithm

Integration of BIM and FEA in Automation of Building and Bridge Engineering Design

F. Fedorik and T. Makkonen and R. Heikkilä
Pages 735-741

Current development in structural engineering allows designers to create efficient and controlled structural systems, which lead into savings in terms of financial cost, time consumption and lack of lucidity in structural designs. Building Information Modeling (BIM) creates a great opportunity for cooperation of individual experts within one project to maximize ...

Keywords: BIM, FEA, Interoperability, Bridge engineering, Building engineering

Challenges and Opportunities for Implementation of Laser Scanners in Building Construction

Samad M.E. Sepasgozar, Cynthia Wang and Sara Shirowzhan
Pages 742-751

Digital technologies, including hand-held laser scanners and locating systems, are being increasingly introduced to the construction market and have the potential to provide real-time data to create construction information modeling (e.g. shop drawings and as-built). Focusing on the unique advantage of these technologies, this paper identifies the challenges and opportunities ...

Keywords: Laser Scanner, Implementation, Challenges, Ease of Use, Building Information Modelling, Drawing.

Design and Simulation of a Fuzzy Supervisory Control System Integrated in a Small Public Building

Alessandro Carbonari, Silvia Meschini, Mariangela Benedettelli
Pages 752-760

Public administrations are encouraged to adopt actions for energy requalification of public buildings, which are responsible for considerable amounts of energy consumption. Low-cost technology improvements for energy renovation with high return on investment is a good opportunity when resource shortage hampers the adoption of expensive refurbishment. To this purpose, the ...

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, advanced control systems, energy saving, heating system, public buildings

Auto-Layout of Lighting Objects to Support Lighting Design in the Early Phase of Design

Hyunjung Kim, Jinhua Huang, Yeon-Sook Hwang and Jin-Kook Lee
Pages 761-769

This paper aims to propose an approach to automated lighting layout system in indoor space in the perspective of auto-generation of design alternatives. Lighting environment is one of the most important factors in the domain of interior design. Well-designed lighting environment enables occupants to perform their actions safely. Furthermore, it ...

Keywords: Automated lighting arrangement system, Building information modeling(BIM), Parametric design, Alternative creation,

Automated Layout Planning of Climbing Formwork System Using Genetic Algorithm

Min Ju Kim, Taehoon Kim, Hyunsu Lim, Hunhee Cho and Kyung-In Kang
Pages 770-777

Layout planning of climbing formwork system is a prerequisite for executing efficient and cost-effective structural framework in a high-rise building construction. However, most of the formwork system layout is operated manually under heuristic approach of the supervisor, and thus is prone to errors that affect constructability of the entire construction. ...

Keywords: Automated layout planning, Climbing formwork system, High-rise building, Genetic algorithm

An Extended Ambient Intelligence Implementation for Enhanced Human-Space Interaction

Alexander Liu Cheng and Henriette H. Bier
Pages 778-786

This paper proposes an extended Ambient Intelligence (AmI) solution that expresses intelligence with respect to both Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) and spatial reconfiguration in the built-environment. With respect to the former, a solution based on a decentralized yet unified Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is proposed. This is deployed across ...

Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing, Adaptive Architecture, Wireless Sensor Networks, Ambient Intelligence.

Evaluation of Lifting Efficiency of Double-Cage Construction Lift in Supertall Building Construction

Wansoub Kim, Dongmin Lee, Taehoon Kim, Seung Woo Kim, Hong-Ku Jung, Hunhee Cho and Kyung-In Kang
Pages 787-795

Construction lifts are key equipment used in the vertical transportation of resources in supertall building construction. Also, according to the increase of vertical lifting distance, construction lifts are becoming more important for successful projects completion. However, a limited number of construction lifts were hard to handle the lifting load during ...

Keywords: Double-cage, Construction Lift, Supertall Building, Lifting Efficiency, Discrete Event Simulation, CYCLONE

Robotic Application of Foam Concrete onto Bare Wall Elements

Elisa Lublasser, Jan Brüninghaus, Anya Vollpracht, Linda Hildebrand and Sigrid Brell-Cokcan
Pages 796-804

In the course of frequently altering energy saving regulations, numerous buildings have to be comprehensively refurbished to meet the rising energy-efficiency standards in order to protect the global environment and to save resources. However, available materials as well as adaptable design concepts for additional energy-saving insulation layers are not yet ...

Keywords: Insulation, Foam Concrete, Robotic application, Automated process, Surface Design

Development of a Fast and Effective Solution for On-Site Building Envelope Installation

Wen Pan, Thomas Bock, Thomas Linner and Kepa Iturralde
Pages 805-811

Purpose: building cladding installation process is one of the most important tasks in the construction phase. This paper will focus on the development of a fast and effective method for assembly precast concrete exterior wall panel in high-rise building. The existing method can be described as inefficient, time consuming, expensive ...

Keywords: Assembly, Construction sequence, Logistics, Continuous flow

Accuracy Assessment for 5 Commercial RTK-GNSS Systems using a New Road laying Automation Test Center Calibration Track

R. Heikkilä, M. Vermeer, T. Makkonen, P. Tyni and M. Mikkonen
Pages 812-817

In Finland several work sites reported errors of several centimeters between the height results when using different commercial virtual reference station networks and receiver brands. The real time kinematic results are calculated by manufacturer provided software containing in-house know-how. Further complications for calculations will arise when using physical or especially ...

Keywords: RTK-GNSS, Accuracy of measurement, Virtual reference station

A Case Study: Projecting Images for Designing Interior Panels using Parametric Modeling Tool

HaYan Kim, Jinhua Huang and Jin-Kook Lee
Pages 818-825

This paper aims to describe a case study of parametric interior design based on BIM (Building Information Modeling). As the practical use of BIM-based design grows, its influence expands into the field of interior architecture design. BIM makes possible to check various design plan, reach decision making in an ...

Keywords: Parametric Modeling, BIM, Interior Design, Automated Design Process

SeeBridge Information Delivery Manual (IDM) for Next Generation Bridge Inspection

Rafael Sacks, Amir Kedar, André Borrmann, Ling Ma, Dominic Singer and Uri Kattel
Pages 826-834

Innovative solutions for rapid and intelligent survey and assessment methods are required in maintenance, repair, retrofit and rebuild of enormous numbers of bridges in service throughout the world. Motivated by this need, a next-generation integrated bridge inspection system named SeeBridge is proposed. To frame the system, an Information Delivery Manual ...

Keywords: Information Delivery Manual, Bridge inspection, Building Information Modelling, Semantic enrichment, Remote sensing.

Development of the Scenario-Based Evaluation of Indoor Circulation using BIM-enabled Parameters

Jaeyoung Shin, Jin-Kook Lee and Jinhua Huang
Pages 835-843

This paper aims to develop the scenario-based analysis of indoor circulation using BIM-enabled parameterized quantities of a circulation path computed by BIM-enabled applications such as walking distance, spatial topology, number of turns, etc. A building circulation plays an important factor to plan overall spatial configuration based on specific purposes so ...

Keywords: Building Information Modeling (BIM), Indoor circulation, Scenario-based evaluation, Parameterization

Applying Systems Modeling Approaches to Building Construction

Francisco Valdes, Russell Gentry, Charles Eastman, Stephen Forrest
Pages 844-852

Current building modeling environments lack the ability to support coordinated, incremental and systematic description of project requirements, design specifications, and the set of interactions that emerge among them, from different stakeholders, during building design. This paper discusses the prospect of a system-centric modeling framework that integrates a parametric CAD tool ...

Keywords: Building Information Modeling, Model Based Systems Engineering, System Modeling Language, Building Construction, Knowledge-Based Design.

Robot-Oriented Design for Production in the context of Building Information Modeling

Fabiano Correa
Pages 853-861

Construction industry must make more extensively use of automation and robots in order to increase its productivity and reduce its impact in the environment. It seems that the first steps in this direction was taken with the Building Information Modeling (BIM) paradigm. Wide adoption of BIM, particularly for the activities ...

Keywords: BIM Integration with Robotics, IFC, Additive Manufacture

State of Art on Site Space Modeling in Construction Projects

Satish Gore, Arian Saeedfar and Lingguang Song
Pages 862-871

Limited space availability is a common issue faced by construction projects and it has great impact on project productivity and safety performance. Effective management of space is challenging due to the highly dynamic and complex nature of construction site environment. Among them is space modeling, i.e. how to capture and ...

Keywords: Construction site, space modeling, state of the art, literature review.

Interoperability with IFC in the Automated Rebar Fabrication

Alex R. Maciel and Fabiano R. Correa
Pages 872-880

Some problems of efficiency in the cut and bent rebar supply chain is related to stakeholder's interaction and the flow of information between designers, constructors and rebar fabricator. In the actual process, distinctive standards are used for exchange of information between design and fabrication. The BVBS format represents a standard ...

Keywords: BIM, IFC, Reinforcement bar, Automated bending machine,

Data-Processing Model for Vertical Zoning based on Construction Lift Operation Records for High-rise Building

J.H. Shin, S.W. Kwon, D.H. Kim, D.Y. Moon, S.W. Chung, G.S. Choi and K.H. Lee
Pages 881-888

As recent buildings have been getting higher and larger, vertical construction lift planning and operation are key factor for successful project. Although many studies have been trying to set up a construction lift planning system at early stage before lift installation. But there are not regarding real-time control system for ...

Keywords: Construction lift, Vertical zoning, ELIS(Embedded Lift Information System)

Automatic Crane-Related Workflow Control for Nuclear Plant Outages through Computer Vision and Simulation

Cheng Zhang, Pingbo Tang, Alper Yilmaz, Nancy Cooke, Verica Buchanan, Alan Chasey, Ronald Laurids Boring, Shawn W. St. Germain , Timothy Vaughn, and Samuel Jones
Pages 889-897

Nuclear power plant (NPP) outages involve a large number of maintenance activities with a tight schedule and zero-tolerance for accidents. Outage projects thus need real-time control to ensure safety and productivity. During outages, crane lifting is critical for outage control and risk management. An effective outage control method should monitor ...

Keywords: Nuclear power plant, Outages, Crane, Workflow control, Computer vision, Simulation

Decision Support System for Material Selection based on Supplier Rating

Abiola Akanmu and Bushra Asfari
Pages 898-906

Buildings are continuously recognized as being responsible for significant amount of carbon emission to the environment. A good way to reduce this emission is through the choice of appropriate materials. However, selection of buildings materials is typically based on a number of factors, some of which can either be cost ...

Keywords: Harmony Search Optimization, Supplier Rating, Material Selection

An Adaptive Automated Monitoring of Construction Activities using Swarm Nodes

Abiola Akanmu and Jiansong Zhang
Pages 907-913

Effective progress monitoring of construction activities is always of great value to project stakeholders. It is increasingly being recognized that the success of any project is hinged on the level of awareness of the project status. Although, automated technologies have shown to potentially offer real-time information for quick decision making, ...

Keywords: Swarm, Monitoring, Adaptive, Optimization

A Process-Driven Representation Schema for Masonry Wall Assemblies

Andres Cavieres, Russell Gentry and Charles Eastman
Pages 914-922

The paper introduces a new approach for the representation of masonry walls in Building Information Modeling applications. The proposed representational scheme addresses the different types and levels of information required to support the design and construction of masonry walls. In particular, the paper proposes the concept of masonry wall 'region', ...

Keywords: BIM, Masonry, Representation, Levels of Development, Design Process, IFC.

LCA of a Designed Single-Family Housing in Atlanta under Two Different Energy Usage Systems

Yifu Shi and Tianyu Feng
Pages 923-933

According to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), 87% of the US population will be living in urban areas by 2030 which brings in an increasing demand for residential buildings in metropolitan areas all over the US. High performance houses and net zero house which equipped with photovoltaic (PV) panels ...

Keywords: LCA, Residential, High Performance House, Net-zero House, PV, Environmental Impacts

Challenges of Migrating from Desktop-Based BIM in Construction

Samad M.E. Sepasgozar, Aaron Costin and Cynthia Wang
Pages 934-942

Recent studies increasingly offer new Building Information Modelling (BIM) solutions and some other studies are modelling BIM adoption and implementation practices. However, the migrating process from the current practice of using desktop-based BIM to a web-based BIM covering broader activities of the entire project lifecycle is complicated. This paper intends ...

Keywords: Desktop-based BIM, web-based BIM, Implementation, Process.

Data-Driven Scene Parsing Method for Construction Site Monitoring

Hongjo Kim, Kinam Kim and Hyoungkwan Kim
Pages 943-947

This paper presents the applicability of a nonparametric scene parsing model for recognizing all objects in an image. The data-driven model labels all the pixels of query images as their object classes using the labels in similar images of the existing dataset. The model has a flexible number of parameters ...

Keywords: Monitoring, Construction Site, Computer Vision, Image Processing, Scene Parsing, Object Recognition

Large Scale 3D Printing of Complex Geometric Shapes in Construction

Jochen Teizer, Alexander Blickle, Tobias King, Olaf Leitzbach and Daniel Guenther
Pages 948-956

3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has become an established technology in many industry sectors for the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) objects. The layered production of scaled prototypes and smaller series typically use automated computer controlled systems that rely on a-priori designed digital 3D models. General principles for 3D ...

Keywords: 3D printing, additive manufacturing, concrete formwork, contour crafting, machine automation and robotics, modularization.

Sensing Workers Gait Abnormality for Safety Hazard Identification

Kanghyeok Yang, Changbum Ahn, Mehmet Vuran and Hyunsoo Kim
Pages 957-965

Ironwork is considered one of the most dangerous construction trades due to its fall-prone working environment. Since safety-hazard identification is fundamental to preventing ironworkers' fall accidents, engineering measures have been applied to eliminate fall hazards or to reduce their associated risks. However, a significant quantity of hazards usually remains unidentified ...

Keywords: Hazard Identification, Gait Analysis, Inertial Measurement Units, Safety management

Integrating Crane Information Models in BIM for Checking the Compliance of Lifting Plan Requirements

Justin K.W. Yeoh, Jun Huat Wong and Le Peng
Pages 966-974

Cranes typically represent the single biggest equipment investment deployed on a construction site. The success of lifting operations depends on addressing project conditions and adequate site safety management. The Crane Lifting Plan (CLP) is a safety document wherein the information required for planning crane lifting operations are encapsulated and analyzed. ...

Keywords: Crane Lifting Plans, Crane Information Model, Regulatory Compliance, Construction Requirements

Handheld Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Devices for 3D Scanning

Mark Froehlich and Salman Azhar
Pages 975-984

3D Scanning has allowed for the scanning of spaces serving as a valuable tool for verifying existing conditions. The cost, setup and processing times associated with procuring this activity limits its use within an active construction site. With setup consisting of multiple scans from triangulated views of one another, achieving ...

Keywords: 3D Scanning Technologies, IR Depth Sensors, SLAM,

The Study on the Integrated Control System for Curtain Wall Building Cleaning Robot

M.S. Gil, S.H. Kim, Y.S. Lee, S.H. Lee and C.S. Han
Pages 985-991

The industry's interest in building façade maintenance is rising with the growing number of new high-rise buildings in the metropolises. The conventional method of cleaning the façade of high-rise buildings relies on the use of ropes, gondolas, and the winch system involving human labor. Recently the building maintenance unit (BMU) ...

Keywords: Curtain wall building cleaning robot, Integrated control system, Sensor based control, Built-in guide rail

Development of a Sensor System for Detecting Window Contamination for the Building Maintenance Robot System

Y.S. Lee, S.H. Kim, J.H. Lee, M.S. Kang, D.I. Sun and C.S. Hand
Pages 992-998

Because of the increasing number of high-rise buildings and large glass facades and the resulting problem of safe and effective maintenance, many studies have been going on progress to develop automated window cleaning systems in the last few years. But the research has not been going on progress to make ...

Keywords: ISARC Window Contamination, Building Maintenance Robot System, IR Sensor

Development of BIM-Based Real-time Evacuation and Rescue System for Complex Buildings

Min-Yuan Cheng, Kuan-Chang Chiu, Yo-Ming Hsieh, I-Tung Yang and Jui-Sheng Chou
Pages 999-1008

With the architectural environment is constantly changing such as high-rise buildings, high-ceilinged space, and special space constantly constructed, thus the fire disasters are becoming diverse and difficult to predict. Therefore, the development and application of building's fire disaster prevention integration system become an urgent requirement for prevention the disaster and ...

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Building Information Modeling, Bluetooth Sensor, Route Optimization, 3D Visualization

Modeling the Permanent Deformation Behavior of Asphalt Mixtures Using a Novel Hybrid Computational Intelligence

Min-Yuan Cheng and Doddy Prayogo
Pages 1009-1015

One of the main causes of pavement rutting is the repetitive action of traffic loads which results in the accumulation of permanent deformations. As a result, it is important to understand the characteristics of the permanent deformation behavior of asphalt mixes under repeated loading and to build the accurate mix ...

Keywords: Symbiotic Organisms Search, Least Squares Support Vector Machine, Asphalt concrete mixture, Flow number, Prediction

The Development of a BIM-enabled Inspection Management System for Maintenance Diagnoses of Oil and Gas Plants

Hung-Lin Chi, Jun Wang, Jian Chai and Xiangyu Wang
Pages 1016-1024

Current inspection process has productivity issues, such as double handing information, time-consuming data aggregation, lack of information transparency and so on. About inspections for plant maintenance, site managers encounter difficulties in getting global pictures tracing a significant amount of inspection information at management perspective. The decision-making is based on paper-based ...

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, Inspection, Plant life extension, Maintenance

A Framework for Establishing Early Warning System for Working in Hot Environments

Wen Yi, Junxiang Zhu, Xin Liu, Xiangyu Wang and Albert Chan
Pages 1025-1031

Heat stress is a well-known occupational hazard, and climate change together with the increased frequency and intensity of extreme heat events has made risks more severe and widespread. The liquefied natural gas (LNG) construction industry is found to be more susceptible to heat stress than other industries because LNG workers ...

Keywords: Heat stress, Health and safety, Liquefied natural gas (LNG) construction industry, Early-warning system

An Integrated INS-GPS-Raspberry Pi System Using the Time-Sphere Model for Real-Time Identification of Struck-by-Equipment Hazard

Jun Wang, Shuming Du and Saiedeh Razavi
Pages 1032-1040

Struck-by-equipment hazard, i.e, contact collision between worker-on-foot and construction equipment or between equipment and equipment, is a major cause of injuries and fatalities in construction. A variety of smart technologies and systems have been developed and utilized to alleviate the risks of this type of hazard. However, most of the ...

Keywords: Real-Time Hazard Identification, Construction Safety, Technological Innovation, Raspberry Pi, Struck by, False Alarm, 4D Model, Inertial Navigation System

Applications of Supernumerary Robotic Limbs to Construction Works: Case Studies

Wooseok Seo, Chang-Yeob Shin, Juheon Choi, Daehie Hong and Chang Soo Han
Pages 1041-1047

In construction sites, most of manual works require at least two workers cooperating each other to complete a task properly. If it is possible to make a single worker carry out these kinds of tasks with the assistance of a robot, the overall construction efficiency can be increased. This study ...

Keywords: Supernumerary robotic limbs, Wearable robot, Construction work

Technical Term Similarity Model for Natural Language Based Data Retrieval in Civil Infrastructure Projects

Tuyen Le and H. David Jeong
Pages 1048-1055

Recent advances in data and information technologies have enabled extensive digital datasets to be available to decision makers during the life cycle of a civil infrastructure project. However, much of the data is not yet fully reused due to the challenging and time consuming process of extracting the desired data ...

Keywords: Civil infrastructure project, Landxml, Data retrieval, Natural language interface, NLP, Vector space model

Consolidated Exchange Models for Implementing Precast Concrete Model View Definition

Kereshmeh Afsari and Charles Eastman
Pages 1056-1064

The US National BIM Standard proposes facilitating information exchanges through Model View Definitions (MVDs). An MVD, defines a subset of the IFC schema that is needed to satisfy one or many exchange requirements of the AEC industry. In the MVD definition for precast concrete domain specified in precast concrete Information ...

Keywords: Exchange Model, MVD, Precast Concrete, IFC, BIM

A Model for Real-Time Control of Industrial Robots

Fereshteh Shahmiri and Jeremy Ficca
Pages 1065-1072

In this study a user-friendly model is developed for architects and designers without advanced programming skills who need to operate their projects in a real-time workflow from parametric design to robotic fabrication. Based on the implemented network capabilities in proposed model, not only one but also multiple robotic arms can ...

Keywords: Real-time, Networking, Socket Communication, TCP/IP, UDP, Robotic Fabrication

Cloud-Based BIM Data Transmission: Current Status and Challenges

Kereshmeh Afsari, Charles Eastman and Dennis Shelden
Pages 1073-1080

In the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry model-based data exchange methods are mainly based on manual file transfer, data conversion, and data-merge. File-based Building Information Model (BIM) data exchange is either in vendor specific file formats or neutral format using Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). IFC Model View Definitions (MVDs) ...

Keywords: BIM, Cloud Computing, Data Exchange, IFC

Development of a Modular and Integrated Product-Manufacturing-Installation System Kit for the Automation of the Refurbishment Process in the Research Project BERTIM

Kepa Iturralde, Thomas Linner and Thomas Bock
Pages 1081-1089

The manufacture-installation of prefabricated modules for the refurbishment market needs to be lifted to a more integrated, systemized and automated level, in order to transform the existing buildings stock towards near zero energy consumption at reasonable cost. In building renovation, prefabricated modules have to be industrially customized to each building, ...

Keywords: refurbishing, customization, automated, installation, prefabrication, axiomatic design

Lean-based Diagnosis and Improvement for Offsite Construction Factory Manufacturing Facilities

Youyi Zhang, Gordon Fan, Zhen Lei, Sanghyeok Han, Claudio Raimondi, Mohamed Al-Hussein and Ahmed Bouferguene
Pages 1090-1098

In current practice, manufacturing companies have daily outputs that are expected to meet the company’s targeted production level. In construction, there is an increasing trend toward buildings being manufactured off-site rather than through traditional stick-built methods on site. This trend has created a demand for construction companies to subcontract work ...

Keywords: Offsite construction, Light gauge steel, Modular construction, Lean manufacturing, Waste elimination.