2002 Proceedings of the 19th ISARC, Washington, U.S.A.

Collaborative Fire Protection Engineering Based on Software Agents

Uwe Rueppel
Pages 3-7

This paper presents a new approach with software agents to support the task of preventive fire protection engineering. Agents are stationary or mobile software components to support the user in his planning tasks according to their specific design. Agents can act autonomously within their environment, which means that they can solve problems without the ...

Keywords: Collaboration platform; fire protection engineering; informatio technology; software agents

Strategies for Realizing the Benefits of 3D Integrated Modeling of Buildings for the AEC Industry

C. Eastman, R. Sacks, G. Lee
Pages 9-14

We explore the reasons why advanced information technology applications have not been adopted by the AEC industry. Within the industry, however, some sectors have made significant moves toward adoption of advanced IT. By examining these areas of success, we propose a framework for the incremental conversion of the AEC industry to fully incorporate advanced ...

Keywords: knowledge-based applications, building models, information technology innovation, construction automation

The Role of the CIMsteel Integration Standards in Automating the Erection and Surveying of Structural Steelwork

K. Reed
Pages 15-20

The second release of the CIMsteel Integration Standards (CIS/2) has been endorsed by the American Institute of Steel Construction as the standard for the electronic exchange of structural steel project information for the North American steel design and construction industry. Derived from the deliverables and experiences of the Pan-European Eureka CIMsteel Project and published ...

Keywords: automated construction, integration, product data model, project delivery, structural steelwork

Beyond Webcam: A Site-Web-Site for Building Construction

S. Nuntasunti, L. Bernold
Pages 21-26

The use of project website and web cam technology in the construction industry is limited to providing basic information about the project and 24/7 pictures of the site. This paper discusses the promises of a site-based website that serves as the central hub for real-time communication, monitoring, and control in building construction. Such a ...

Keywords: collaboration; productivity; Internet; logistics; value; website; equipment; safety

Developing a Construction Integrated Management System

Y. Shiau, M. Wang, T. Tsai, W. Wang
Pages 27-32

Building market has been shortened for last few years and tremendously affected the construction profit in Taiwan. In order to survive in such abominable environment, people have put many efforts on construction methodology, materials, budget planning, and strategy alliance. However, to properly enhance the construction management is the key issue to raise company?s competition. ...

Keywords: Construction Management, Cost Control, Delphi, Object Oriented

Use Questionnaire and AHP Techniques to Develop Subcontractor Selection System

Y. Shiau, T. Tsai, W. Wang, M. Huang
Pages 35-40

The construction scale is growing rapidly; therefore, to subcontract is a common style in Taiwan?s construction industry. Selecting appropriate subcontractors is a key to assure the success of a construction project. With different environment, construction project usually invoke complex attributes. We need a good tool to help engineers to pick the best selections during ...

Keywords: AHP, Bid, Procurement, Quotation, Subcontractor Selection System

Development of an Electronic Acquisition Model for Project Scheduling (e-AMPS) Using Java and XML

W. Lin
Pages 41-46

During the construction phase, participants in a multi-contract project acquire external real-time scheduling information from other involved parties and use this to make appropriate decisions in regard to project control. There are two major obstacles to project participants gaining efficient access to external information in a distributed data environment: (1) the variety of ...

Keywords: Internet; WWW; Project Management; Intelligent Agent; Information Integration

An Automated Selecting Subcontractor Model in e-Commerce

P. Lin
Pages 47-53

From the observation of organization changes in digital economy, the features of organization expansion from its concentrated kernel to the globalized ecommerce scope is identified to rebuild the relationships and connections between the whole subcontracting supply chain for construction projects. An automated subcontracting selection model is proposed and the final decision-making for selection will be ...

Keywords: utility theory, e-commerce, subcontract, decision-making

Mobile 3D Visualization for Construction

R. Lipman
Pages 53-58

Until recently, visualization of 3D models required computational resources available only on desktop computers in office environments. With the advance of technology, it is now possible to visualize substantial 3D models on mobile handheld computers in the field. This paper discusses some of the current technology, discusses the use of the Virtual Reality Modeling ...

Keywords: construction; handheld computer; visualization; VRML

Digital Archival of Construction Project Information

D. Latimer, C. Hendrickson
Pages 59-64

The Digital Library Initiative (DLI) concerns itself with the automatic creation, organization, and indexing of complex collections of data. With its own wealth of data types, the construction industry pushes the boundaries of the current technologies, especially with regards to automatic archival of construction project information. Many issues unique to the construction projects, such as data provenance and ...

Keywords: Digital library, document management, project document archival

E-Work: The Next Iteration in Construction Information Materials Management Systems

D. Castro-Lacouture, M. Skibniewski
Pages 65-71

The initiative of implementing Internet-based solutions for the integration of the supply chain of materials will not succeed if there is not assurance of collaboration and communication among the parties in the construction business. Neither EDI nor web-based supply chain applications can facilitate both the process integration and flexibility required by the construction ...

Keywords: E-work, materials management, protocols, agents

Capitalizing on Early Project Opportunities to Improve Facility Life-Cycle Performance

C. Kam, M. Fischer, R. Hanninen, S. Lehto, J. Laitinen
Pages 73-79

This paper presents the findings from the design and construction of the Helsinki University of Technology Auditorium Hall 600 (HUT-600) in Finland. Running simultaneously with the construction project, an international research partnership extensively documented and analyzed the use of product modeling and interoperability standards for information exchange. The project team improved design cycle times and ...

Keywords: Life-Cycle Analysis, Pilot Project, Product Model

Dynamic Change Management for Fast-Tracking Construction Projects

M. Park
Pages 81-89

Uncertainties make construction dynamic and unstable, mostly by creating non value-adding change iterations among construction processes. Particularly, when a project is fast-tracked without proper planning, those change iterations can cause the disruption of the construction process. For this reason, to effectively handle fast-tracking change iterations involved in fast-tracking need to be identified, and the ...

Keywords: Change, Fast-tracking, Feedback, Rework, Simulation, System Dynamics

AUTOMOD3: A Planning Tool for Modular Building System

V. Padron, O. Cardenas, R. Diez, M. Abderrahim, C. Balaguer
Pages 91-97

High quality modular construction is one of the solutions for the fast growing need for affordable high quality housing in Europe, which can not be solved by conventional building technology. The software environment for automatic modular construction AUTMOD3 has been developed, by University Carlos III de Madrid, in the frame of the European Union ...

Keywords: Automatic modular construction, CAD/CAM Integration, CIC, Robotics

Simulation-Facilitated Factor-Based Approach for Cost Correlation Evaluation

W. Wang
Pages 97-102

Project cost becomes increasingly variable if many cost items for a construction project are correlated, and this can increase the uncertainty of completing a project within a target budget. This work presents a factor-based computer simulation model for evaluating project costs given correlations among cost items. Uncertainty in the total cost distribution of an ...

Keywords: Computer Simulation; Cost Estimating; Risk Factor; Uncertainty

Criteria of Taking Decisions at Technical Operation of Building Machinery in Conditions of the Construction Plant

A. Bulgakow, A. Drownikow, V. Perschin
Pages 103-108

In the article on the basis of similarity functioning the technique of getting and using the criteria of taking decisions at technical operation control, modernization and replacement of the elements of building machinery in conditions of the construction plant is Considered.

Keywords: similarity, functioning, criteria, technical operation, and modernization

Database Synchronization Technology for Multi-Project Schedule Coordination

H. Choo, I. Tommelein
Pages 109-117

This paper describes a computing environment, called WorkMovePlan, that supports the exchange of data pertaining to resources shared between multiple production units and between multiple projects. It presents issues related to the generation and management of this data exchange and the development of a distributed, multi-project scheduling system that is deployed in industry practice.

Keywords: Planning; Scheduling; Distributed Scheduling; Multi-project Scheduling; Database; Synchronization; WorkMovePlan

Project Performance vs. Use of Technologies at the Work Function Level

J. O?Connor, L. Yang
Pages 117-122

An industry-wide survey was used to collect project data from more than 200 capital facility projects on the issue of technology usage at the work function (WF) level and overall project success. Findings pertaining to associations between project success and technology usage at the work function level are discussed. The project success variables analyzed ...

Keywords: cost success, schedule success; technology usage; work function; work function characteristics

Development of an Information Model to Enhance Integration and Coordination in the Construction Projects

A. Caballero, S. Ahmed, S. Azhar, M. Barcala
Pages 123-128

Construction is generally believed to be a fragmented industry and increased integration and coordination among different processes and parties is considered by many experts as one of the ways that can resolve most of the problems created by fragmentation. Process inefficiency and a lack of effective quality control in the products of construction ...

Keywords: Construction, Information Technology, Coordination, Integration, Modeling

Development of an Integrated Cost Estimation and Cost Control System for Construction Projects

S. Azhar, S. Ahmed, A. Caballero
Pages 129-134

Today, most of the construction companies are using computer-aided softwares for cost estimation and cost control. The cost estimation is done before the construction begins while the cost control is performed during the construction period. The organization which controls the cost could be different from the organization which prepares the cost estimate. Moreover, ...

Keywords: Cost Estimation; Cost Control; Cost Integration; Cost Engineering; Construction Softwares, Data Modeling

Automated DSS for Lighting Design of Nighttime Operations in Highway Construction Projects

K. El-Rayes, K. Hyari
Pages 135-140

Nighttime construction lighting is reported to be a crucial factor affecting quality, safety, cost and productivity of nighttime construction projects. This paper presents an automated decision support system (DSS) for lighting design in highway nighttime construction projects. The DSS is designed to optimize four major objectives: (1) maximizing average illuminance; (2) maximizing lighting ...

Keywords: highway construction; lighting; nighttime construction; optimization

De Bolder, an Unusul Example of Off-Site Construction,

G. Maas, B. van Eekelen
Pages 143-148

De Bolder (?The Bollard?) is a 42.5 metre-high building with a circular cross-section of 30 metres and a weight of 25,000 KN. It was built in an industrial plant, transported a considerable distance across water, subsequently put ashore and placed on a foundation. This study focuses on the differences in construction methods and ...

Keywords: Building systems, industrialised construction, integrated product and process design, transport of building

Automated Data Acquisition and Planning of Highway Construction

A. Hassanein, O. Moselhi
Pages 149-154

This paper briefly describes a model, designed to automate data acquisition and analysis for planning and scheduling highway construction projects. The paper briefly describes the proposed model, and focuses primarily on its automation aspects. Geographic information systems is employed to analyze spatial data and estimate cut and fill quantities. The model also stores activities ...

Keywords: automation; earthmoving; geographic information systems; highway planning

Asphalt Quality Parameters Tracability Using Electronic Tags and GPS

F. Peyret, R. Tasky
Pages 155-160

This paper begins by introducing the developmental work carried out within the scope of the OSYRIS project, in the aim of proposing a new IT infrastructure for road-building sites and by drawing attention to the need for an electronic connection between paving operations and the asphalt mixing plant. The set of system specifications required to satisfy this connection is ...

Keywords: information and communication technologies, asphalt fabrication and laying, tracability, electronic tagging, GPS, quality control

Monitoring Construction Equipment for Automated Project Performance Control

R. Sacks, R. Navon, A. Shapira, I. Brodetsky
Pages 161-166

The ability of company managers to respond to variations in performance in construction projects is severely limited by the time delay common in existing information and control systems in reporting schedule, budget and quality deviations from plan. We propose a system for interpreting data acquired automatically by monitoring the activity of major construction ...

Keywords: Automation; Construction equipment; Information technology; Monitoring; Project performance control

Experiences with the Design and Production of an Industrial

Flexible, Demountable (IFD) Building System, F. van Gassel
Pages 167-173

The Dutch government encourages innovative construction by subsidizing cohesive industrial, flexible and demountable building (IFD) pilot projects. Industrial building concerns the process-related aspects of production, robotization, mechanization, automation, prefabrication, communication, etc. Flexible building involves products that are made in accordance with customer?s wishes and the possibility to make adjustments when the building is in ...

Keywords: Building Site, Building System, Industrial Construction , Multidisciplinary Design

FutureHome-a Prototype for Factory Housing

R. Wing, B. Atkin
Pages 173-179

The manufactured housing project FutureHome, which received major funding from the European Commission, has developed the engineering know-how to create affordable, high quality, cost effective manufactured housing, with a customer focus that takes account of diversity of styles, designs, materials and locations. The provision of housing to an acceptable standard is becoming an ...

Keywords: housing; manufacture; construction; automation; process

Automation in Building Design with Spatial Information

H. Nguyen, A. Oloufa
Pages 179-184

While current CAD (Computer-Aided Design) systems provide a variety of data representation schemes (e.g. wire-frames, surface, and solid modeling) and data exchange protocols, they fail to address automation issues in retrieval of building information to be used in different AEC (Architecture, Engineering, and Construction) applications. In these CAD systems, topological information (also known as ...

Keywords: Computer-Aided Design, Topological Information, Automated Building Design Systems, Solid Modeling

Genetic Algorithms for Accessing Engineering Performance

L. Chang, L. Zhang
Pages 185-190

The performance of engineering activities has significant impacts on the successfulness of implementing industrial construction projects. Improving engineering performance can lead to better project outcomes. Previous studies on engineering performance improvement have either focused on the use of certain techniques or products, or looked at specific engineering processes or areas. There has been a ...

Keywords: engineering performance, genetic algorithms, artificial neural networks

Mixed Reality Benefits for Design Perception

P. Dunston, X. Wang, M. Billinghurst, B. Hampson
Pages 191-196

Design visualization is key to the communication and shared perception of designs and is essential for meaningful design development and collaborations. The initial development of an Augmented Reality Computer Aided Drawing (AR CAD) system for enhancing visualization of models created in standard CAD was presented at the 17th ISARC. AR CAD features a ...

Keywords: 3D CAD; Augmented Reality; Mixed Reality; spatial cognition; visualization; Virtual Reality

Automation Consideration During Project Design

M. Hewitt, J. Gambatese
Pages 197-203

Automation as pertaining to the construction industry is the use of mechanical and electronic means to achieve automatic operation or control to reduce potential exposure, time, or effort while maintaining or improving quality. Contractors utilize automated technologies on projects as a means of saving cost, reducing project durations, improving quality and consistency, and ...

Keywords: automation, design, construction, constructability, equipment, robotics

A Tool to Improve Efficiency in Large Scale Manufacturing

R. Bostelman, W. Shackleford, F. Proctor, J. Albus, A. Lytle
Pages 205-210

NIST is working directly with industry to improve repair and conversion operations of ships in dry dock. This work allows transfer of technology to construction and other industries requiring worker-access to large, external surfaces with minimum footprint and maximum system rigidity and control, while augmenting conventional suspended-scaffold systems and moving toward more autonomous large-scale ...

Keywords: worker access, ship repair, construction, robotics, cable controlled, large-scale Manufacturing

Remote Control of Machines for Removal of Damages Being Result of Disasters

Wars, Terrorist Attacks, A. Bartnicki, F. Kuczmarski, T. Przychodzien, A. Typiak, J. Wrona
Pages 211-216

This paper presents an analysis of various natural and civilization disasters being angled as possibilities of usage of the remote control or autonomous machines. There are determined the requirements for such a systems of theses vehicles or machines which are able to remove effects of natural disasters and local military conflicts or terrorist ...

Keywords: Remote control, vision systems, machines, disasters

Advancements in Tele-Robotic Pipelaying

L. Bernold, B. Li
Pages 217-223

The labor intensive construction industry has a very high accident rate. One of the key reasons for this is the exposure of workers to a hazardous environment such as heights, confined narrow spaces, and exposure to health threatening fumes, dust, and noise. Tele-robotic operation, which allows an operator to control a mechanical tool from ...

Keywords: tele-robotics, safety, trenching, remote control, pipe-laying, trench collapse

Motion Planning Taking Into Account the Dynamic Model of Vehicles: Application to the Compactor

C. Lemaire, P. Vandanjon, M. Gautier, F. Peyret
Pages 223-228

Motion planning is a necessary step before automation in road construction. This paper deals with motion planning for compactors. The compactor is an articulated frame steering vehicle used in road construction. Generally, motion planning uses the kinematic model of the robot. In the case of the compactor, this model is far away from reality ...

Keywords: Compactor, Mobile robots, Motion planning, Dynamic model

Façade Cleaning Robot for the Skyscraper

T. Bock, A. Bulgalow, S. Ashida
Pages 229-233

Considering all available basic conditions, a semiautomatic cleaning version can be best implemented under technical, organizational and economic constraints. All cleaning processes are executed by means of a service robot. The robot is controlled by just one operator. The cleaning quality of surface remains constantly excellent and the cleaning efficiency increases significantly.

Keywords: Cleaning Robot, Façade cleaning, Semiautomatic, Vacuum suction, Nacelle traveling, Skyscraper

Development and Application of Automated Delivery System for Finishing Building Materials

D. Atsuhiro, H. Koji, K. Tomoya, S. Takashi
Pages 235-241

The authors have developed an automated delivery system for finishing building materials with the aim of reducing delivery costs and improving efficiency. This system is composed of two kinds of automated equipment, and managed by a delivery scheduling system via the Internet. It has been applied to the construction of a high-rise building ...

Keywords: Automation; Delivery Schedule; Finishing Work; High-rise Building; Internet

Unmanned Construction System: Present Status and Challenges

Y. Ban
Pages 241-246

This report analyzes past unmanned construction system done at the Unzen-fugendake and Usuzan volcanoes to organize the present status of unmanned construction systtem from varied perspectives, describes challenges and countermeasures, and introduces future prospects. Unmanned construction systtem have been done to perform emergency countermeasure work and restoration work at disaster sites. Remaining challenges include development of ...

Keywords: Unmanned construction, remote operation, hillside reforestation, traveling crane, rough terrain crane

Report of the NIST Workshop on Automated Steel Construction

A. Lytle, K. Saidi, W. Stone, J. Gross
Pages 247-253

The Building and Fire Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, in cooperation with the American Institute of Steel Construction, sponsored a workshop on automated steel construction. The purpose of the workshop was to investigate the development of new technologies to facilitate automating the steel construction process. Desired outcomes included a clear ...

Keywords: construction automation, automated steel erection

Error Modeling for Automated Construction Equipment

Y. Cho, C. Haas, S. Sreenivasan, K. Liapi
Pages 255-262

This paper introduces the statistical error modeling approach for a computercontrolled large-scale manipulator (LSM). The LSM is sufficiently representative of several types of construction equipment to be able to serve as a general test bed. In the analysis, three factors which are measurable in real time: distance, hydraulic pressure, and payload, were varied ...

Keywords: automation; kinematics; manipulator; position error; regression analysis

Development of a Robotic Structural Steel Placement System

A. Lytle, K. Saidi, W. Stone
Pages 263-268

The NIST Construction Metrology and Automation Group, in cooperation with the NIST Intelligent Systems Division, is researching robotic structural steel placement as part of a project to develop an Automated Steel Construction Testbed. This project was initiated in response to industry requests for advanced tools and methodologies to speed the erection of steel structures ...

Keywords: construction automation, path planning, robotics, VRML, 3-D coordinate measurement systems

Robots for Spacing of Wood

T. Bock, D. Parshin, T. Souetina, A. Boulgakov
Pages 269-273

Construction is of great interest for using of woodprocessing robotics. The structure, kinematic and dynamic models of robots for material location and spacing as well as woodprocessing have been considered in the paper. Taking into account specific features and dynamic characteristics of robot, the recommendations on movements planning and forming laws of control have ...

Keywords: Motion control; robot kinematics; wood processing

An Economic Assessment of Selected Integration and Automation Technologies

R. Chapman
Pages 275-280

This paper presents a critical analysis of the economic impacts of past, ongoing, and planned research of BFRL?s construction systems integration and automation technologies (CONSIAT) program. The CONSIAT program is an interdisciplinary research effort within BFRL to develop key enabling technologies, standard communication protocols, and advanced measurement technologies needed to facilitate the delivery of ...

Keywords: Building economics; commercial buildings; construction; impact evaluation; industrial Facilities

A Micro Level Analysis of the Relationship Between Changes in Equipment Technology and Wages in the U.S. Construction Industry

P. Goodrum, M. Gangwar
Pages 281-286

A shortage of skilled labor exists in the construction industry. Fortunately, advancement in construction equipment and material technologies, along with modularized components and estimating and scheduling strategies have offset the shortage of skilled construction labor. The construction industry has witnessed a drop in real wages since 1970. Decline in real wages may be ...

Keywords: Construction; labor; equipment technology; wages; computer

Generating and Maintaining Activity-Based Cost Estimates with Feature-Based Product Models

S. Staub-French, M. Fischer
Pages 287-292

Understanding how the building design influences construction costs is a challenging task for estimators. Estimators must recognize the design conditions that affect construction costs and customize the cost estimate accordingly. Estimators have different preferences for how and when to adjust a project?s activities, resources, and resource productivity rates that form the basis of ...

Keywords: Cost Estimating; Information Technology; Construction; Product Features

Construction Zone Generation Mechanisms and Applications

R. Akbas, M. Fischer
Pages 293-299

Construction zones are geometric units of work in the construction planning process. Using construction parameters and geometric properties, construction zone generation mechanisms change the level of detail of the 3D geometry and corresponding activities of the planned project. We have defined and implemented a set of mechanisms for construction zone generation. Decomposition provides ...

Keywords: construction planning; geometric algorithms; construction zones; line-of-balance techniques

Assembly + Disassembly of Interior Walls

A. Hanser
Pages 299-302

Flexible extension walls - watched on a long-term-use - have lower costs and are more economical and especially more variable compared to convenient post-and- beamstructures. Because room requirements ? mainly in office and administration building ? change faster and faster, an extensive potential on future markets for these technologies exists

Keywords: Flexibility, Economic Efficiency, Non-supporting removable wall-unity, Media and electric wiring, Put-and-slide-technology, Relocate systems, Cost, Different Elements

Standardization of Data Flows on Earthworks and Road Pavement Sites Using Information Systems

F. Peyret
Pages 305-311

The work described in this paper is the follow-up of the first analysis presented in the previous ISARC on the same theme. The paper start by recalling the background with is the ISO TC-127 WG2 standardization initiative. Then he applies a basic logical model of site information system for civil-engineering sites to various existing or under development ...

Keywords: standardization, site information systems, civil-engineering, computer integrated construction, data flows

Parts and Packets Unification for Construction Automation and Robots

T. Umetani, T. Arai, Y. Mae, K. Inoue, J. Maeda
Pages 311-316

This paper proposes a method of configuration of database system for parts oriented construction. In parts oriented construction, robots acquire information related to the tasks from the server through ID attached to the construction components. This system aims (1) simplification in motion planning of the construction robots using information attached to components, (2) ...

Keywords: Automatic Construction, Information Integrated Components, Data Collection System and Labeling, Automatic Reconfiguration of Parts Information, RFID Tags

An UML-XML-RDB Model Mapping Solution for Facilitating Information Standardization and Sharing in Construction Industry

I. Wu, S. Hsieh
Pages 317-321

To facilitate information standardization and sharing in Construction Industry, this paper presents a simple but effective approach that maps the UML (Unified Modeling Language) object-oriented information model related to a construction project to an XML schema, then to a Relational DataBase (RDB) schema. First of all, the mapping between UML model and XML schema ...

Keywords: UML, XML Schema, RDB, Information Standardization and Sharing

Using Customized Navigational Models to Deliver More Efficient Interaction with Mobile Computing Devices on Construction Sites

J. Reinhardt, B. Akinci, J. Garrett
Pages 323-328

Mobile computing devices have started to become useful tools on construction sites. These devices can make large amounts of data available and support data collection tasks on a construction site. Even though battery life, computing power and data storage capacity have greatly improved and will probably not be limiting factors for mobile computing ...

Keywords: Construction, Human Computer Interaction, Mobile Computing, Navigation through Complex Data Structures, Product and Process Models

Computerized Bridge Coating Defects Assessment Using Neuro-Fuzzy Thresholding Method

P. Chen, L. Chang
Pages 331-336

Digital image processing has been prevalently adopted in different areas. In the construction field, image processing has been used for defect detection on steel bridge painting and underground sewer systems. However, non-uniformly illuminated images always cause recognition problems and affect the accuracy. In order to resolve these problems, the neuro-fuzzy recognition approach (NFRA) was ...

Keywords: Fuzzy Adjustment; Multi-Resolution Pattern Classification (MPC); Neural Networks; Neuro-Fuzzy Recognition Approach (NFRA)

The Application of 3-D Scanner in the Representation of Building Construction Site

N. Shih
Pages 337-342

This study offers a method for creating a representation of an on-going construction site by using a geometric approach. The representation includes the definition of 3D data between the design and construction stages. A method is proposed for using a 3D long-range laser scanner to retrieve information on site occurrences, in order to ...

Keywords: 3D scanner, construction

Data Interpretation from Leuze RotoScan Sensor for Robot Localisation and Environment Mapping

D. Seward, S. Quayle, K. Zied, C. Pace
Pages 343-348

Two applications for the use of a laser-scanning device are currently under investigation at Lancaster University. Lancaster University Computerised Intelligent Excavator (LUCIE) is an autonomous excavator which navigates using GPS and compass readings. Work is currently concentrating on navigational safety, for which the rotoscan sensor is employed for obstacle detection, and for possible self-localisation and ...

Keywords: collision detection; navigation; robotics; sensors; surface estimation

Experiences with Point Cloud Registration

C. Witzgall, G. Cheok
Pages 349-356

The development of LADAR (laser distance and ranging) technology to acquire 3D spatial data made it possible to create 3D models of complex objects. Because an unobstructed line-of-sight is required to capture a point on an object, an individual LADAR scan may acquire only a partial 3D image, and several scans from different ...

Keywords: LADAR; measures-of-fit; point cloud; registration; TIN; triangular mesh

Human-Assisted Object Fitting to Sparse Range Point Clouds for Rapid Workspace Modeling in Construction Automation

S. Kwon, K. Liapi, C. Haas, S. Sreenivasan, J. McLaughlin
Pages 357-362

In large-scale construction sites there are constant needs for rapid recognition and accurate measurement of objects so that on-site decisions can be made quickly and safely. Current methods involve full area laser range scanning systems that can produce very detailed models of a scanned scene, however the computational and data acquisition time that is ...

Keywords: construction automation; laser range finder; least squares method; object fitting; object matching; workspace modeling

Reconstructing Images of Bar Codes for Construction Site Object Recognition

D. Gilsinn, G. Cheok, D. O?Leary
Pages 363-368

This paper discusses a general approach to reconstructing ground truth intensity images of bar codes that have been distorted by LADAR optics. The first part of this paper describes the experimental data collection of several bar code images along with experimental estimates of the LADAR beam size and configuration at various distances from ...

Keywords: bar codes, deconvolution, image processing, LADAR, object recognition, sparse matrix

Artificial Intelligence-Based Quality Control of Aggregate Production

H. Kim, C. Haas, A. Rauch
Pages 369-374

This paper discusses a quality control method, based on artificial neural networks, that enables a plant operator to quickly detect property variations during the production of stone aggregates. The group texture concept in digital image analyses, two-dimensional wavelet transforms, and artificial neural networks are reviewed first. An artificial intelligence based aggregate classification system is then ...

Keywords: aggregate, artificial neural networks, group texture, laser profiling, wavelet transforms

A MEMS Transducer for Ultrasonic Flaw Detection

A. Jain, D. Greve, J. Oppenheim
Pages 375-381

Metal structures can fail because of fatigue crack propagation or because of section loss from corrosion. Regular inspection is required to intercept such failures, and in situ sensors would be a superior technology for that purpose. We have designed and fabricated arrays of MEMS capacitive diaphragm transducers and we report on their performance ...

Keywords: Diaphragm; flaw detection; MEMS; phased array; ultrasonics

Utilizing Radio-Frequency Identification on Precast Concrete Components ? Supplier?s Perspective

B. Akinci, M. Patton, E. Ergen
Pages 381-387

Precast concrete material suppliers are responsible for the components that they manufacture from casting until up to 25 years after installation. To effectively manage the production and storage at a the production facility, to streamline the construction process and to quickly repair a component should there be a problem, information about components must ...

Keywords: RFID; precast concrete; construction; material management

MEMS Application in Pavement Condition Monitoring-Challenges

N. Attoh-Okine, S. Mensah
Pages 387-393

Although the universal definition of MEMS product possesses a number of distinctive features, they are miniature systems involving one or more micro-mechanical components or structure. Infrastructure assessment has recently addressed an important field for MEMS application. For example, satisfactory laboratory experiment in the area of concrete monitoring has been developed. Although the experiment ...

Keywords: devices, evaluation, microelectromechanical, monitoring, non-destructive, pavement, system

Towards the Ultimate Construction Site Sensor

W. Stone, M. Juberts
Pages 393-400

The NIST Construction Metrology and Automation Group (CMAG), in cooperation with the NIST Intelligent Systems Division (ISD), is developing performance metrics and researching issues related to the design and development of a "Next Generation LADAR" sensor that will enable general automation in structured and unstructured environments. This paper quickly reviews the basic physics and ...

Keywords: AM-modulation, construction automation, FM-modulation, laser radar, multiple returns, phantom points, pulse time-of-flight, range image sensors

A Cost-Effective Positioning Solution for Asphalt Rollers Based on Low-Cost DGPS Receivers

J. Jurasz, K. Kley
Pages 403-408

As of today, the DGPS-based Computer Integrated Road Construction systems for compaction support require high investments (about 50% of total machine cost), mostly due to the high cost of the positioning equipment. Worksite tests show that the majority of the compaction errors are serious omissions of the compaction plan. The article discusses the accuracy ...

Keywords: compactor pass map; computer integrated road construction; low cost DGPS; positioning; unscented Kalman filter

On-Board Data Management Structure for Advanced Construction Machinery Support

J. Jurasz, A. Ligier, A. Horn, J. Wendebaum
Pages 409-414

A flexible on-board data management structure for a construction machine and interfaces between its elements are discussed. The solution, which grants the required flexibility and enables advanced, distributed functions is discussed on the example of the road paving process.

Keywords: CANopen; digital work documentation; computer integrated road construction; road product model; site information systems; OPC; XML

Offline Path Planning of Cooperative Manipulators Using Co-Evolutionary Genetic Algorithms

M. Ali, N. Babu, K. Varghese
Pages 415-425

This paper presents a new path planning approach using Coevolutionary genetic algorithm (CGA) for automating the path planning of two Cooperative construction manipulators. A methodology based on the concept of configuration space (C-space) technique in conjunction with the Coevolutionary genetic search is used for generating the path. The paper proposes a method for finding the ...

Keywords: Cooperative manipulators, Path planning, Coevolutionary genetic Algorithm

Model for Automated Road Construction Control

R. Navon, Y. Shpatnisky, E. Goldschmidt
Pages 425-429

A survey of current practices revealed that very little control is normally done in earthmoving management. A model to control road construction projects was developed. The model is based on the concept of automatically measuring performance, by measuring locations at regular time intervals, and converting them into controlled parameters. According to this concept, control algorithms ...

Keywords: Automated Data Collection; Benchmarking; Control; Earthmoving; GPS; Monitoring; Road Construction

Force Sensor by Driving Hydraulic Cylinders: Identification of Inertial Parameters and Tests

F. Malaguti, S. Zaghi
Pages 431-436

Force feedback sensors are useful for the planning of robotic digging trajectories. In particular, when combined with force-control algorithms it becomes possible to sense buried objects and to determine the weight of excavated materials. The proposed force sensor system makes use of hydraulic cylinder pressure and thereby measures machine force indirectly. Successful implementation of ...

Keywords: digging robot, force sensor, identification, inertial parameters

Intelligent Driving Control System-Automated Driving Management and Control System Using Optimum Control Theory

T. Awata, K. Yoshida, H. Hino
Pages 437-442

To realize the all NO-DIG (trenchless method) operation of conduit installation, NTT developed the microtunneling method ?ACEMOLE? allowing long-distance and curved installations and promoted use of this method. NO-DIG method is not widespread in construction works because its construction cost is not economically compared with opencut method. We developed new ACEMOLE to solve these ...

Keywords: NO-DIG(trenchless method), microtunneling robot, fiber optic gyroscope, directional control, Kalman filter

Automatic Steering System for Rotary Snow Removers

H. Hirashita, T. Arai, T. Yoshida
Pages 443-448

In cold and snowy parts of Japan, most snow is removed from roads by mechanical snow removers, and to deal with roadside conditions and guarantee safe operation, these machines are normally operated by two people: an operator and an assistant. Work is in progress to develop automatic steering systems for snow removers in order ...

Keywords: Rotary snow remover, automatic steering, ITS, lane marker, GIS, GPS

Adaptive Control of a Construction Manipulator

V. Gradetsky, M. Rachkov, M. Pushkin
Pages 449-454

The paper describes an advanced control technique that uses a self-adjusting controller. The technique allows changing control parameters of the manipulator according to different technological forces and disturbances acting to the end-effector of the manipulator while performing surface treatment construction operations such as cleaning and polishing. The system is asymptotically stable for the phase ...

Keywords: adaptive control; construction manipulator, parametrical error; reference model; self-adjusting controller

Just-in-Time Continuous Flight Auger Piles Using an Instrumented Auger

N. Mure, J. Scott, D. Seward, S. Quayle, C. Clayton, M. Rust
Pages 455-460

Continuous flight auger (CFA) piles are constructed by drilling a CFA auger into the ground and, on reaching the required depth, pumping concrete down the hollow stem as the auger is steadily withdrawn. Current practice to predict the bearing capacity of CFA piles is to estimate the undrained shear strength-depth relationship for the overall ...

Keywords: data logging; instrumentation; pile foundations; process Optimisation

GPS-Based Wireless Collision Detection of Construction Equipment

A. Oloufa, M. Ikeda, H. Oda
Pages 461-466

This paper reports on research related to avoiding collisions in construction sites using differential GPS technology. In this project, the researchers developed and implemented a system where GPS technology was used in tracking a single vehicle and relaying its information to a central server. Using another simulated vehicle, the server evaluated collision scenarios and ...

Keywords: GPS, collision detection, construction, robotics, automation

Prototype Implementation of an Automated Structural Steel Tracking System

K. Furlani, D. Latimer, D. Gilsinn, A. Lytle
Pages 467-473

This paper discusses the prototype implementation of a system developed by researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the transfer of real-time on-site metrology and metrology-based data for tracking steel frame construction. The purpose of the implementation is to demonstrate the feasibility of automatically transferring information from the construction site ...

Keywords: construction automation, 3-D coordinate measurement systems, project information management systems, communication protocols, coordinate frame transforms, position and orientation determination, steel tracking

The Efficiency of a 3-D Blade Control System in the Construction of Structure Layers by Road Grader-Automated Design-Build of Road Construction in Finland

R. Heikkila, M. Jaakkola
Pages 475-480

The paper reports on the research work in the domain of automated road construction. A new method and prototype of automated road grader has been developed in Finland. The working experiments show measurable influence and quality as well as economic profit to be achieved by the new technology.

Keywords: accuracy, automated construction, construction economics, design-build, economic efficiency, road grader, 3-D machine control

Optimal Control of an Excavator Bucket Positioning

E. Budny, M. Chlosta, W. Gutkowski
Pages 483-490

Recently, there is an increasing interest in controlled excavation processes. However, the main attention, in research works, is paid to the bucket motion. This part of the process can be considered as a quasi static, kinematically induces process 8. It means that dynamic effects, by dropping accelerations terms can be neglected. This is ...

Keywords: excavation, optimization, control

Automated Construction Using Contour Crafting -- Applications on Earth and Beyond

B. Khoshnevis, G. Bekey
Pages 489-495

Although automation has advanced in manufacturing, the growth of automation in construction has been slow. Conventional methods of manufacturing automation do not lend themselves to construction of large structures with internal features. This may explain the slow rate of growth in construction automation. Contour Crafting (CC) is a recent layered fabrication technology that has ...

Keywords: Contour Crafting, housing construction, construction on other planets

Rapid Human-Assisted Creation of Bounding Models for Obstacle Avoidance in Construction

J. McLaughlin, C. Haas, K. Liapi, S. Sreenivasan, S. Kwon
Pages 495-501

State-of-the-art construction equipment control technology creates the opportunity to implement automated and semi-automated object avoidance for improved safety and efficiency during operation; however, methods for constructing models of local objects or volumes in real-time are required. A practical, interactive method for doing so is described here. The method: (1) exploits a human operator?s ability ...

Keywords: construction automation, workspace modeling, bounding box, convex hull, obstacle avoidance, laser range finder

Computer Technologies in Construction Robots Control

T. Bock, D. Parshin, R. Neudorf, A. Bulgakow
Pages 501-504

Construction is of great interest for applying practical and theoretical results in the field of robotics and computer technologies. The paper presents the composition and special features of kinematics and dynamic models of construction robots, control algorithms synthesis in terms of synergetic approach, planning of robot's movements based on computer techniques. Recommendations on computer ...

Keywords: automated control system, construction, computer technologies, kinematics, dynamic, model, robot.

Equipment Operator Training in the Age of Internet2

L. Bernold, J. Lloyd, M. Vouk
Pages 505-510

Considering the established needs for operator training in the construction industry and vastly improved data communication using Internet2, the feasibility of an effective Internet based training system for backhoe operators is increasing. This paper presents ongoing work on a prototype system designed with the idea that eventually any electronically controlled backhoe can be adapted ...

Keywords: training, skill assessment, information technology, motion control, construction equipment

Terrain Aided Localization of Autonomous Vehicles

R. Madhavan
Pages 511-518

This paper describes the development of a terrain-aided localization framework for autonomous land vehicles operating at high speeds in unstructured, expansive and harsh environments. The localization framework developed is sufficiently generic to be used on a variety of other autonomous land vehicles and is demonstrated by its implementation using field data collected from two different trials ...

Keywords: Outdoor Localization, Map Building, Iterative Closest Point, Extended Kalman Filter, Entropy, Scale Space

Monitoring of the Boring Trajectory in Underground Channel

T. Bock, A. Bulgakow, D. Krapivin, S. Aleksyuk, S. Pritchin
Pages 519-522

This paper deals with high precision directional boring of underground conduits, including programmable curved trajectories for enclosed digging driving communications and other purposes.

Keywords: underground channel, dynamic monitoring, driving communisations

A Multi-Sensory Approach to 3-D Mapping of Underground Utilities

L. Bernold, L. Venkatesan, S. Suvarna
Pages 525-530

The demand for new buried utilities, such as gas, power and fiber-optic communication lines is growing with new construction, re-construction, and the growth of the communication infrastructure worldwide. Because the machinery for placing the new utilities underground, such as backhoe excavators, trenchers, augers, drills, and plows, don?t ?feel? when they are getting close to ...

Keywords: Buried utility detection, Electromagnetic Induction, Ground Penetrating Radar, Sensor fusion

Automated Inspection of Utility Pipes: A Solution Strategy for Data Management

T. Shehab-Eldeen, O. Moselhi
Pages 531-536

Rehabilitation of urban infrastructures has received considerable attention in North America, creating a need for automation. Automating the rehabilitation process of various infrastructure facilities is driven by the need for cost reduction, higher quality and improved safety. This paper describes an automated system, AUTO-DETECT, recently developed, for rehabilitation of sewer pipes. AUTO-DETECT automatically analyzes ...

Keywords: Automation; Sewer pipes; Inspection; Data management

A Concept of the Robotoid Manager with AR

T. Bock, S. Ashida
Pages 537-541

For efficiency, construction managers take care of several job sites simultaneously. In order to be omnipresent, we propose a notification of ubiquitous construction management. Here we try to adopt the system, so named the Robotoid Manager, with; · AR system with mobile computers · Message board information system · Multi schedule optimizing · Progress monitoring and ...

Keywords: Ubiquitous management, AR (Augmented reality), Message board, Schedule optimizing, Schedule modification, Embedded system, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)

Representation and Integration of As-Built Information to IFC Based Product and Process Models for Automated Assessment of As-Built Conditions

B. Akinci, F. Boukamp
Pages 543-548

Frequent assessment of as-built conditions is necessary for active project control during construction. Assessment of as-built conditions involves collecting accurate as-built information and comparing the as-built information collected with given design and schedule information. Currently, different technologies exist for collecting accurate and comprehensive as-built information. The as-built information generated through these technologies is then manually ...

Keywords: Industry Foundation Classes, integrated design and as-built models, construction

A Case Study: Using the Wearable Computer in the Construction Industry

S. Fuller, Z. Ding, A. Sattineni
Pages 551-556

This paper aims to explore the prospective applications of cuttingedge technology like wearable computers in construction industry. The history, current research, application areas and future trends of wearable computing are investigated. The first-hand experience of the authors through a well-designed field experiment is introduced in detail to show how the technologies actually work. The field ...

Keywords: Construction, Palm PC, Punch List, Wearable Computers

The Value of Handheld Computers in Construction

K. Saidi, C. Haas, N. Bali
Pages 557-563

Construction is an information intensive industry in which the accuracy and timeliness of information is paramount. Construction projects can experience extensive delays or rework due to information that is unavailable, inaccurate or simply outdated. Handheld computers (HHC) have the potential to solve some of these problems by providing field workers with accurate, reliable ...

Keywords: field data, handheld computers, material tracking, punchlisting, quantity tracking

Situation-aware Interface Design: An Interaction Constraints Model for Finding the Right Interaction for Mobile and Wearable Computer Systems

C. Burgy, J. Garrett
Pages 563-569

The design of mobile and wearable computing devices involves decisions about how the user interacts with the hardware and software composing the device. Since applications of, and usage environments for, mobile and wearable computers has varied greatly, it has been difficult to build on previously collected design knowledge. The Interaction Constraints Model described in this paper offers an ...

Keywords: Design Constraints; Human-Computer Interaction; Industrial Applications; Mobile Computers; Wearable Computing