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2019 Proceedings of the 36th ISARC, Banff, Alberta, Canada

Front matter and table of contents

Mohamed Al-Hussein

Abstract:

Keywords: No keywords

A Decision Tool to Simulate the Concurrent Interdependencies Between Multi-DFX Techniques in Machine Design Conflict Resolution

Anas Itani, Rafiq Ahmad and Mohamed Al-Hussein
Pages 1-9

Abstract: The overall performance of a life-cycle phase under investigation can be improved if Multi-Design for X (MDFX) technique’s design guidelines are applied concurrently. However, the complexity of selecting MDFX techniques at the conceptual and detailed design stages during machine development can increase by uncertain and imprecise knowledge about the MDFX ...

Keywords: Multi-Design for X (MDFX); life-cycle cost; conceptual and detailed design stage; conflict resolution; multi-layers

Robotic Technologies in Concrete Building Construction: A Systematic Review

Marwan Gharbia, Alice Yan Chang-Richards and Ray Zhong
Pages 10-19

Abstract: Several researchers have worked in the field of implementing robotics technology in concrete building construction, after the first attempt in the 1980s in Japan. Various motivations such as the shrinking labor population, the aging of skilled workers, and the construction safety issues have promoted the development of such technologies. However, ...

Keywords: Concrete buildings; Robotics in construction; Freeform construction; Future of construction

The Effectiveness of Virtual Reality in Safety Training: Measurement of Emotional Arousal with Electromyography

Sheng Xu, Qingqing Ni and Qiang Du
Pages 20-25

Abstract: The improvement of safety performance of construction workers heavily lies in safety training and great improvement has been achieved in training technology, training materials and training organisation. Currently, the form of training and induction based on traditional lectures and workshop studies has been innovated and enriched by digital and e-learning ...

Keywords: Virtual Reality; Safety Training; Emotional Arousal; Electromyography

3D Posture Estimation from 2D Posture Data for Construction Workers

Yantao Yu, Heng Li and Xincong Yang
Pages 26-34

Abstract: Construction workers’ behaviour is important for safety, health and productivity management. Workers’ 3D postures are the data foundation of their behaviours. This paper established a preliminary 3D posture dataset of construction tasks and provided a 3D posture estimation method based on 2D joint locations. The results showed that the method ...

Keywords: Posture estimation; Construction worker; Behavior management

A Low-Cost and Smart IMU Tool for Tracking Construction Activities

Xincong Yang, Fenglai Wang, Heng Li, Yantao Yu, Xiaochun Luo and Ximei Zhai
Pages 35-41

Abstract: Real-time activity monitoring is becoming one of the most significant technologies on construction sites because it can be applied to a variety of management problems, such as productivity formula and safety monitoring. However, current monitoring technologies are limited to recognizing postures in an ideal environment rather than dealing with the ...

Keywords: Inertial measurement unit; Construction tools; Activity recognition; Non-intrusive; Low-cost

An Investigation into the Effects of Deposition Orientation of Material on the Mechanical Behaviours of the Cementitious Powder and Gypsum Powder in Inkjet 3D Printing

Pshtiwan Shakor, Shami Nejadi and Gavin Paul
Pages 42-49

Abstract: Three-Dimensional Printing (3DP) is widely used and continues to be rapidly developed and adopted, in several industries, including construction industry. Inkjet 3DP is the approach which offers the most promising and immediate opportunities for integrating the benefits of additive manufacturing technic into the construction field. The ability to readily modify ...

Keywords: Inkjet 3DP; cement mortar (CP); gypsum (ZP 151); mechanical strength; dimensional precision

BIM-based Takt-Time Planning and Takt Control: Requirements for Digital Construction Process Management

Juergen Melzner
Pages 50-56

Abstract: Continuous and robust process planning is contrary to the different goals of project participants in the construction business. The aim of holistic building process management must be to optimize the overall process by streamlining individual processes. Lean management methods are increasingly being used to harmonize building processes. For this purpose, ...

Keywords: Lean Construction; Process planning; Construction Management; Building Information Modeling

Automated Unit Price Visualization Using ArcPy Site Package in ArcGIS

K. Joseph Shrestha and H. David Jeong
Pages 57-61

Abstract: State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) in the U.S. have an increasing amount of digital data from various sources. One such set of data is structured unit price data collected from bid lettings. Such data contain unit prices of thousands of bid items from hundreds of projects every year. While state ...

Keywords: No keywords

Real-time Tracking for Intelligent Construction Site Platform in Finland and China: Implementation, Data Analysis and Use Cases

Jianyu Zhao, Jinyue Zhang and Olli Seppänen
Pages 62-68

Abstract: Production control, especially lean construction approaches, has necessitated the needs of eliminating waste onsite. Though the collaborative methods such as Location-Based Management System (LBMS) and Last Planner System (LPS) have proven the improvement of productivities, the process of data collection has still remained manual, which could result in inaccuracy and ...

Keywords: Geographic-Information-System; Unit-Price-Visualization; Spatial-Analysis; Bid-Price-Estimating; Construction-Market

Identifying Moderation Effect between Project Delivery Systems and Cost Performance

Hyosoo Moon, Hyun-Soo Lee, Moonseo Park and Bosik Son
Pages 69-73

Abstract: This study was performed to identify the theoretical attribution of project type that moderates the impact of project delivery systems on cost performance. Previous studies have used direct relationship analysis to evaluate the project performance (e.g., the relationship between PDS and its cost performance, or the relationship between project type ...

Keywords: Cost management; Project delivery system; Design-build(DB); Design-bid-build(DBB); Cost performance; Change order; Project type; Moderation effect

Designing a Reliable Fiducial Marker Network for Autonomous Indoor Robot Navigation

Bharadwaj Mantha and Borja Garcia de Soto
Pages 74-81

Abstract: Automation and robotics offer significant potential to address some of the challenges faced by facility managers to efficiently operate and maintain indoor building environments. Previous efforts have focused on deploying mobile service robots for scheduled and periodic tasks such as monitoring, inspecting, and collecting data. Localization and navigation are two ...

Keywords: Autonomous Robot Navigation; Fiducial Markers; Indoor Localization; and Facility Management

Designing a Development Board for Research on IoT Applications in Building Automation Systems

Markus Hans Schraven, Carlo Guarnieri Calo Carducci, Marc Axel Baranski, Dirk Müller and Antonello Monti
Pages 82-90

Abstract: Recent advances in the development of Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices have enabled researchers to apply such on building automation systems (BAS). Especially in existing BAS, one big challenge is the diversity of communication methods. In such systems, gateways are required to connect various devices. However, while there are very few IoT-gateways ...

Keywords: IoT, Gateway, Building Automation, Wireless Communication, ESP32

Optimal Laser Scan Planning for As-Built Modeling of Plant Renovations Using Mathematical Programming

Eisuke Wakisaka, Satoshi Kanai and Hiroaki Date
Pages 91-98

Abstract: In recent years, terrestrial laser scanners have been introduced to enable efficient as-built modeling. Since heating, ventilating, and air conditioning facilities often include many pipes and ducts packed into small spaces, it is difficult to manually determine optimal scanner placements that can capture their surfaces with high accuracy and quality ...

Keywords: Laser scanning; scan planning; Structure-from-motion; Next-best-view; As-built; Plant renovation

Automatic Generation of the Vertical Transportation Demands During the Construction of High-Rise Buildings Using BIM

Keyi Wu, Borja Garcia de Soto, Bryan T. Adey and Feilian Zhang
Pages 99-106

Abstract: The explosion of high-rise building projects has increased the awareness on the importance of the planning and management of vertical transportation systems (i.e., tower cranes, construction elevators and concrete pumps). Although researchers have made beneficial efforts in several aspects of vertical transportation systems (e.g., optimal design capacities and layouts), the ...

Keywords: BIM; Vertical transportation demands; Vertical transportation systems; High-rise buildings

Standard Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) Collection Time Extraction of Sewer Pipes with Machine Learning Algorithm

Xianfei Yin, Yuan Chen, Ahmed Bouferguene, Hamid Zaman, Mohamed Al-Hussein, Randy Russell and Luke Kurach
Pages 107-113

Abstract: Closed circuit television (CCTV) is probably one of the most important technologies that is used by municipalities in order to monitor the structural and operational condition of sewer pipes. To be useful, CCTV video footage needs to be collected according to standards, which make such an operation, time consuming especially ...

Keywords: CCTV; Sewer pipes; Time extraction; RANSAC

Implementation Framework for BIM Adoption and Project Management in Public Organizations

Giuseppe Miceli Junior, Paulo C. Pellanda and Marcelo de Miranda Reis
Pages 114-121

Abstract: The arrival of Building Information Modelling (BIM) platforms to the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) markets and companies has led to a significant increase in efficiency in this economy sector. However, many AEC companies try to implement BIM as a normal or incremental change or improvement in technology rather than ...

Keywords: BIM adoption; Collaborative Design; Building Information Modelling; Public Works.

Classification and Exemplary BIM Models Development of Design Changes

Jia-Rui Lin, Yu-Cheng Zhou, Jian-Ping Zhang and Zhen-Zhong Hu
Pages 122-127

Abstract: Detection of design changes is essential for collaboration and version management in the design process of buildings. However, current detection methods based on Building Information Modeling (BIM) usually cause unreliable or meaningless results. This is because most of the current researches look at the question from a data change view, ...

Keywords: Design Changes; Classification; Building Information Modeling (BIM); Exemplary Model Database; Validation

Multi-objective Optimization Analysis for Selective Disassembly Planning of Buildings

Benjamin Sanchez, Christopher Rausch, Carl Haas and Rebecca Saari
Pages 128-135

Abstract: Adaptive reuse has the potential to maximize the residual utility and value of existing assets through green design methods such as selective disassembly planning. Studies in the field of selective disassembly for adaptive reuse of buildings are scarce and there is no evidence of established methodologies and/or analysis for the ...

Keywords: multi-objective optimization, selective disassembly, adaptive reuse, Circular Economy, green design.

Construction and Usage of Three-dimensional Data for Road Structures Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning and UAV with Photogrammetry

Satoshi Kubota, Chiyuan Ho and Kotaro Nishi
Pages 136-143

Abstract: In road maintenance, it is necessary to construct an environment that manages three-dimensional data and maintenance information for its effectivity and efficiency. The primary objective of this research is to support road maintenance work using three-dimensional data by combining point cloud data of terrestrial laser scanning and unmanned aerial vehicles ...

Keywords: Point Cloud Data; Terrestrial Laser Scanning; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; Road

Cartesian Points Visualization in Game Simulation for Analyzing Geometric Representations of AEC Objects in IFC

Jiansong Zhang, Yunfeng Chen, Rui Liu and Luciana Debs
Pages 144-151

Abstract: Industry foundation classes (IFC) is widely accepted as a promising standard for building information modeling (BIM). IFC data can be processed with many open toolkits such as IfcOpenShell and java standard data access interface (JSDAI), which greatly supports BIM research and technology development. However, IFC data is not intuitive and ...

Keywords: BIM; IFC; Geometric Information; AEC Objects; Game Simulation; Visualization; Cartesian Points

The Benefits of and Barriers to BIM Adoption in Canada

Yuan Cao, Li Hao Zhanga, Brenda McCabe and Arash Shahi
Pages 152-158

Abstract: The adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM) has influenced the traditional methods of planning, design, construction and operation of a physical asset. Organizations in Canada have adopted BIM to improve designs, foster stakeholder collaboration, and facilitate construction processes. To understand the extent of BIM adoption and implementation in the industry, ...

Keywords: Building Information Modelling; BIM; survey; benefits; barriers; benchmark;

On the Estimation of Resonance Frequencies of Hydraulically Actuated Systems

Manuel Pencelli, Renzo Villa, Alfredo Argiolas, Marta Niccolini, Matteo Ragaglia, Paolo Rocco and Andrea Maria Zanchettin
Pages 159-165

Abstract: A common problem when operating heavy hydraulic machines consists in low-frequency resonance phenomena that significantly limit the bandwidth of the closed loop position control. The interest in this topic is further motivated by the fact that the usage of traditional dynamic models of hydraulic actuators usually leads to the identification ...

Keywords: Hydraulic systems, Hydraulic actuators, Motion Control

Predicting Bridge Conditions in Ontario: A Case Study

Maedeh Taghaddos and Yasser Mohamed
Pages 166-171

Abstract: Maintenance and repair of bridges represent significant costs in provincial and municipal government budgets. Prediction of bridge conditions can help managers in annual cost estimating and budget allocation. To assess Bridge Condition Index (BCI), each bridge component must be inspected every two years, tested if it is required, and rated. ...

Keywords: Bridge maintenance; Bridge Condition Index (BCI); Prediction model; Cluster; Data analysis

Automated Mathematical-Based Design Framework for The Selection of Rigging Configuration

Seyed Mohammad Amin Minay Hashemi, Sanghyeok Han, Jacek Olearczyk, Ahmed Bouferguene, Mohamed Al-Hussein and Joe Kosa
Pages 172-178

Abstract: Modularization in construction involves erection of large and heavy prefabricated modules at the job site. Modules, especially in industrial plants, are required to be lifted without any tilted angles vertically and horizontally to prevent applying bending moments to the lifting lugs and structural components. Configuration of rigging elements, which are ...

Keywords: Crane rigging; Automation; Center of gravity offset

An Analysis of the Problems of BIM-Based Drawings and Implementation During the Construction Document Phase

Yije Kim and Sangyoon Chin
Pages 179-186

Abstract: As construction projects become larger and more complex and the amount of information increases, the necessity of introducing BIM becomes bigger and the importance of BIM-based drawing extraction is also increasing. In particular, the construction document (CD) stage draws and documents the subjects determined from the project planning stage so ...

Keywords: BIM; BIM-based drawings; Construction documents; Construction drawings; Construction document phase

Identification of the Structural State in Automated Modular Construction

Aparna Harichandran, Benny Raphael and Abhijit Mukherjee
Pages 187-193

Abstract: Automated construction involves complex interactions between machines and humans. Unless all possible scenarios involving construction and equipment are carefully evaluated, it may lead to failure of the structure or may cause severe accidents. Hence monitoring of automated construction is very important and sensors should be deployed for obtaining information about ...

Keywords: Structural Monitoring, System Identification, Machine Learning, Automated Construction Monitoring

A Conversation-based System for School Building Inspections

Hao-Yung Chan, Liang-Yuan Liu and Meng-Han Tsai
Pages 194-200

Abstract: This research aims to develop a conversation-based system for school building safety inspections. The safety of school buildings requires routine and additional post-disaster inspections. However, the inspections are often complicated due to various timings and sets of checkpoints for different situations. In addition, the traditional paperwork process is not convenient ...

Keywords: Conversation-based system; Building safety inspection; Decision support; Chatbot; Data visualization

Enabling BIM for Property Management of Existing Buildings Based on Automated As-is Capturing

Ralf Becker, Elisa Lublasser, Jan Martens, Raymond Wollenberg, Haowei Zhang, Sigrid Brell-Cokcan and Jörg Blankenbach
Pages 201-208

Abstract: Digitization and automation in construction are increasing particularly due to the establishment of Building Information Modelling (BIM). The models of BIM contain geometric as well as semantic information. The level of abstraction ranges from coarse models up to detailed modeled technical components of the buildings. So far, BIM has been ...

Keywords: Building Information Modeling, BIM, Automation and Robotics, Data Sensing, Computing

Impact of 5G Technology on IoT Applications in Construction Project Management?

Varun Kumar Reja and Koshy Varghese
Pages 209-217

Abstract: IoT based platforms are enhancing decision-making capabilities in many sectors. The impact of IoT in construction has not been significant because of the unstructured nature of the process and the project-based approach to construction. Further, the technology platforms available today do not support high data flow from distributed locations as ...

Keywords: IoT, 5G, Digital Construction, Wireless Technology, Connectivity in Construction?

Context-Realistic Virtual Reality-based Training Simulators for Asphalt Operations

Faridaddin Vahdatikhaki, Armin Kassemi Langroodi, Denis Makarov and Seirgei Miller
Pages 218-225

Abstract: Asphalt operations are equipment-intensive, highly-coordinated, and context-sensitive. To ensure high-quality asphalt, operators need to be mindful of, among others, the degree of compaction required/achieved, temperature of the asphalt mixture, its cooling rate, other equipment, and the supply logistics. However, the current training program for the operators of asphalt equipment is ...

Keywords: Virtual Reality; Context-realistic; Operator Training; Asphalt operations

Generating Generic Data Sets for Machine Learning Applications in Building Services Using Standardized Time Series Data

Florian Stinner, Yingying Yang, Thomas Schreiber, Gerrit Bode, Marc Baranski and Dirk Müller
Pages 226-233

Abstract: Machine Learning Algorithms (ML) offer a high potential with low manual effort to discover appropriate energy efficiency measures for buildings. Although many building automation systems (BAS) record a high amount of data, technical systems such as boilers provide only a few data points per building. However, machine-learning algorithms require training ...

Keywords: Standardized data sets; Machine Learning; Simulation; Modelica; Building Energy Systems

Developing Personalized Intelligent Interior Units to Promote Activity and Customized Healthcare for Aging Society

Rongbo Hu, Amir Kabouteh, Katja Pawlitza, Jörg Güttler, Thomas Linner and Thomas Bock
Pages 234-241

Abstract: The world’s population is aging at an unprecedented pace. Aging society is not only a severe crisis in the developed world such as Germany and Japan, but also a rigorous challenge in emerging economies such as China. Many age-related diseases are fostered by the lack of physical, cognitive, and social ...

Keywords: Aging society; Assistive technology; Personalized Intelligent Interior Units; Physical and cognitive activities; Sensing technology

A Representative Simulation Model for Benchmarking Building Control Strategies

Alexander Kümpel, Florian Stinner, Bastian Gauch, Marc Baranski and Dirk Müller
Pages 242-249

Abstract: To increase the energy efficiency of building energy systems, many control strategies have been investigated in recent years. Researchers apply control strategies to different building energy systems in order to evaluate their performance. However, the scientific community lacks a commonly accepted reference building model and evaluation criteria. In this paper, we ...

Keywords: Building control strategies; Building automation; Benchmark; Modelica

Accurate Position Control for Hydraulic Servomechanisms

Manuel Pencelli, Renzo Villa, Alfredo Argiolas, Gianni Ferretti, Marta Niccolini, Matteo Ragaglia, Paolo Rocco and Andrea Maria Zanchettin
Pages 250-257

Abstract: A common problem when operating heavy hydraulic machines consists in the inability of performing accurate motion. In the last few years the development of non-linear control techniques and the production of increasingly more accurate and cheaper hydraulic drives induced a steadily growing interest towards the development of controlled hydraulic systems. ...

Keywords: Hydraulic systems, Hydraulic actuators, Motion Control

The Automation of the Softer Side of Smart City: a Socio-Semantic Roadmap

Tamer El-Diraby, Alain Zarli and Mohamed El-Darieby
Pages 258-265

Abstract: We present a roadmap for guiding public officials on establishing platforms for citizen empowerment in the smart city. The proposed roadmap is not a technical architecture. Rather, a set of paradigms, guidelines and references to advanced technology approaches that can support building a technical architecture. We start from the perspective ...

Keywords: Smart city; Citizen science; Socio-semantic analysis

Factors Affecting the Performance of 3D Thermal Mapping for Energy Audits in a District by Using Infrared Thermography (IRT) Mounted on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

Yu Hou, Lucio Soibelman, Rebekka Volk and Meida Chen
Pages 266-273

Abstract: Infrared Thermography (IRT) is a widely used non-destructive method for energy audits. However, plenty of research indicates that the performance of passive thermography is influenced by the method of data collection. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has been successfully employed for conducting RGB photogrammetry, but the data collected from an infrared ...

Keywords: Thermal mapping; Unmanned aircraft system (UAS); Flying configurations; Energy audits

Evaluating the Performance of e-Construction Tools in Highway Resurfacing Projects

Dhaivat Patel, Roy Sturgill, Gabriel Dadi and Timothy Taylor
Pages 274-281

Abstract: Interest in integrating E-construction in highway construction projects has increased in recent years due to reductions in staffing and resources across Departments of Transportation (DOTs) and initiatives from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Specifically, the addition of e-construction methods offers a boost in efficiency and safety in highway resurfacing jobs. ...

Keywords: E-Construction; E-Ticketing; Paver Mounted Thermal Profiling; Intelligent Compaction

Evaluating Risk Response Strategies on Construction Projects Using a Fuzzy Rule-Based System

Seyed Hamed Fateminia, Nima Gerami Seresht and Aminah Robinson Fayek
Pages 282-288

Abstract: The development and implementation of risk response strategies contributes to effective risk management processes in construction organizations. Risk response strategies need to be developed and implemented as follows: first, all possible risk responses for each given risk event of a project are identified; next, each risk response is evaluated to ...

Keywords: Risk management; risk response; fuzzy logic; FRBS

A Review of Data-Driven Accident Prevention Systems: Integrating Real-Time Safety Management in the Civil Infrastructure Context

Amin Assadzadeh, Mehrdad Arashpour, Ali Rashidi, Alireza Bab-Hadiashar and Sajad Fayezi
Pages 289-296

Abstract: Statistical reports point to the fact that civil infrastructure projects remain hazardous working environments. Despite the implementation of various safety procedures, the frequency and cost of work-related injuries are significant. Improvements in sensor technologies, wireless communication and processing power of computers as well as advancements in machine learning and computer ...

Keywords: Automation; Behavior related accidents; Building information modeling (BIM); Infrastructure sector; Construction safety management; Information Technology; Machine learning; Neural networks; Object detection; Risk analysis and control; Sensors

Augmented Reality-Enabled Production Strategy Process

Hala Nassereddine, Dharmaraj Veeramani and Awad Hanna
Pages 297-305

Abstract: Disruptive technologies offer avenues to significantly improve the performance of construction project delivery. While the construction industry is often labeled as conservative and unimaginative with regard to technology adoption, significant strides have been made in recent years – specifically, the use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) for information storage, distribution ...

Keywords: Augmented Reality; Building Information Modeling; Lean Construction; Production Planning and Control; Production Strategy Process; Takt Time Planning

Chatbot System for Data Management: A Case Study of Disaster-related Data

James Yichu Chen, Meng-Han Tsai, Cheng-Hsuan Yang, Hao-Yung Chan and Shih-Chung Kang
Pages 306-309

Abstract: This research aims to explore the effectiveness of chatbot system for highly-complex data management. With the growing popularity of mobile devices, the conversational information technology (IT) service, such as chatbot, has permeated into our daily life. Conversation-based systems are now widely utilized for helping the user to access the data ...

Keywords: Data Management; Conversational System; Chatbot

Integrating Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation and BIM for Planning UAV-based As-built MEP Inspection with Deep Learning Techniques

Kai Wang and Jack C.P. Cheng
Pages 310-316

Abstract: Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly used and have many potential applications in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. UAVs are now commonly controlled manually with an experienced survey engineer in field operation, but UAVs can also fly autonomously with the support of localization technologies such as simultaneous localization ...

Keywords: Automation; Flight Path Planning; Robotic Perception; Simulation; UAV

A Review of Social, Physiological, and Cognitive Factors Affecting Construction Safety

Sahel Eskandar, Jun Wang and Saiedeh Razavi
Pages 317-323

Abstract: Safety improvement in construction remains a high priority due to the significant rate of accidents compared to other industries. Despite the ongoing multitude of safety studies and policy recommendations concerning the high rate of injuries and casualties in construction, the extent of damage sustained is still significant. Major research studies ...

Keywords: Construction; Safety; Social Factors; Physiological Factors; Cognitive Factors

Automatic Classification of Design Conflicts Using Rule-based Reasoning and Machine Learning—An Example of Structural Clashes Against the MEP Model

Ying-Hua Huang and Will Y. Lin
Pages 324-331

Abstract: With the emergence of 3D technologies in a recent decade, BIM software makes it easy to detect those conflicts in the early stage of a project. Clash detection in BIM software is now a common task. Among those conflicts found by BIM software, however, a relatively high percentage belongs to ...

Keywords: Clash detection, Machine learning, Rule-based reasoning, BIM

Augmented Reality and Deep Learning towards the Management of Secondary Building Assets

Alessandra Corneli, Berardo Naticchia, Alessandro Cabonari and Frédéric Bosché
Pages 332-339

Abstract: The retrieval of as-is information for existing buildings is a prerequisite for effectively operating facilities, through the creation or updating of Building/Asset Information Models (BIM/AIM), or Digital Twins. At present, many studies focus on the capture of geometry for the modelling of primary components, overlooking the fact that many recurring ...

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Building survey, Inventory, BIM, Facility Management

Assessing Digital Information Management Between Design and Production in Industrialised House-Building – A Case Study

Henrik Eriksson, Marcus Sandberg, Jani Mukkavaara, Gustav Jansson and Lars Stehn
Pages 340-347

Abstract: Managing digital information in construction is commonly described through Building Information Modelling (BIM), which advocates seamless chains of information, increased coordination between different actors and a life-cycle perspective on information management. However, low adoption outside the design phase entails that handling information in production is in many cases manual and ...

Keywords: Digital Information Management; Industrialised house-building; Information utilisation; Tailored interoperability; Building Information Modelling

Platforms for Enabling Flexibility at Two Construction Companies

Henrik Eriksson and Ellinor Emilsson
Pages 348-355

Abstract: Product platforms have proven to be an effective means for many industries, seeking to achieve front end variety based on back end commonality. Modular design with standardised interfaces, enabling reuse of components in derivative products over time, has been a success factor for i.e. automotive industry and other types of ...

Keywords: Industrialised house-building; Process platform; Process standardisation; Platform strategy

A Study of Kinetic Façade Modelling Performance Using Virtual Reality

David Panyaa, J.H. Seo, H.J. Park, W.J. Lee and Seungyeon Choo
Pages 356-359

Abstract: Kinetic facades are dynamic building surfaces that manage light, ventilation, energy, or information. The programming of Kinetic facades require a vast technical expertise of building systems, materials and computer devices and constant alteration of models to examine till the desire purpose of the kinetic façade is achieved. There heavy dependence ...

Keywords: Kinetic system, performance-based design, digital simulations, design considerations, simulation

A Basic Study on Methodology of Maintenance Management Using MR

T. Kim, J. Jeong, Y. Kim, H. Gu, S. Woo and S. Choo
Pages 360-367

Abstract: Today, with the development of technology, various buildings can be constructed in the field of architecture, and the size and complexity of construction are increasing, and the life cycle of buildings is also increasing. As a result, the importance of technology and systems that can maintain and manage not only ...

Keywords: Maintenance; BIM (Building Information Modeling); MR (Mixed Reality); Efficiency

Process Modelling in Civil Infrastructure Projects: A Review of Construction Simulation Methods

Maryam Al-Kaissy, Mehrdad Arashpour, Sajad Fayezi, Ali Akbarnezhad and Baabak Ashuri
Pages 368-375

Abstract: It is known that process simulation is a feasible solution to deal with real-world complexities and problems. Civil infrastructure in particular, is a complex system that can benefit from process simulation. This paper provides a critical overview of different simulation modelling paradigms used in construction to achieve better system performance. ...

Keywords: Construction project planning, Infrastructure sector; Integrated and combined models; productivity and efficiency; Supply chain management

Optimizing Site Layout Planning Utilizing Building Information Modelling

Abhishek Raj Singh, Yash Patil and Venkata Santosh Kumar Delhi
Pages 376-383

Abstract: Site layout planning (SLP) is categorized as a non-deterministic polynomial time (NP) hard or complete class problem. Inefficient SLP can lead to congestion, safety conflicts and productivity reductions. Significant attention to the problem is evident in the field of construction management. A number of optimization routines and mathematical models are ...

Keywords: Site Layout Planning; Optimization; Building Information Modelling; Genetic Algorithm

Hyperspectral Imaging for Autonomous Inspection of Road Pavement Defects

Mohamed Abdellatif, Harriet Peel, Anthony G Cohn and Raul Fuentes
Pages 384-392

Abstract: Autonomous inspection of roads is gaining interest to improve the efficiency of road repair and maintenance. In this paper we will be showing the potential for using Hyper Spectral Cameras, HSC, to identify road defects. The key idea of this paper is that cracks in the road show the interior ...

Keywords: Road crack detection; Pavement defect inspection; Hyperspectral Imaging; Autonomous road inspection.

Inference of Relevant BIM Objects Using CNN for Visual-input Based Auto-Modeling

Jinsung Kim, Jaeyeol Song and Jin-Kook Lee
Pages 393-398

Abstract: This paper aims to propose an approach to inferring relevant BIM objects using techniques for recognition of design attributes and calculation of visual similarity using a deep convolutional neural network. Main objective is a visual-input based modelling approach to the automated building and interior design, and this paper represents a ...

Keywords: Automated Modeling, Building Information Modeling (BIM); Design Attributes; Visual data; Visual similarity;

Predicting Safety Hazards Among Construction Workers and Equipment Using Computer Vision and Deep Learning Techniques

Mingzhu Wang, Peter Kok-Yiu Wong, Han Luo, Sudip Kumar, Venkata-Santosh Kumar Delhi and Jack Chin-Pang Cheng
Pages 399-406

Abstract: The construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries suffering from a high on-site accident rate. A lot of safety hazards result from dynamic activities of construction workers and equipment. Therefore, tracking the location and motion of workers and equipment as well as identifying the interaction between them are ...

Keywords: Computer vision; Construction site safety; Convolutional neural network (CNN); Deep learning; Object detection; Spatial-temporal relationship; Trajectory tracking.

The Design of Building Management Platform Based on Cloud Computing and Low-Cost Devices

Li-Te Huang, Yi-Yang Chiu and Ying-Chieh Chan
Pages 407-414

Abstract: Indoor environment monitor and control are important aspects of reducing building energy consumption and maintaining occupants’ visual and thermal comforts. Previous research showed that the lots of buildings were not able to provide designed service level in the daily operation and the feedback from occupants showed that the predetermined service ...

Keywords: Building Management Platform; Cloud Computing; Low-Cost Devices

Spatial Information Enrichment using NLP-based Classification of Space Objects for School Bldgs. in Korea

Jaeyeol Song, Jinsung Kim and Jin-Kook Lee
Pages 415-420

Abstract: This paper presents an approach to classifying spatial categories of space objects using their textual properties in IFC data. As a standardized data format of building information, IFC enhances the data interoperability between the heterogeneous domain software. However, there are some problems that required information is omitted due to the ...

Keywords: Building information modeling (BIM), Spatial information enrichment, Natural language processing (NLP), Industry foundation classes (IFC)

Towards Automated HVAC Controls Commissioning: Mechanisms to Identify Temperature and Flow Related Functions of AHU Components

Raghuram Sunnam, Semiha Ergan and Burcu Akinci
Pages 421-428

Abstract: Commissioning (Cx) of heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) systems has emerged as an effective sustainable practice to ensure high performance of these systems during operation. According to a DOE report, HVAC systems used 62% of the energy consumed by buildings in the US in 2011. It was also reported that ...

Keywords: HVAC Controls Commissioning, HVAC Controls Design Intent, HVAC Controls Information Requirements, HVAC Sequence of Operations, Building Information Modeling

A Chatbot System for Construction Daily Report Information Management

Jehyun Choa and Ghang Lee
Pages 429-437

Abstract: Consistently updating, analyzing, and managing construction-related information is one of the key success factors in project management. Quite a few construction projects have recently started to utilize instant messaging (IM) applications such as Slack, WhatsApp, and WeChat as a communication channel among project participants to share daily construction information due ...

Keywords: Construction daily report; Chatbot; Instant messaging application

Supporting Deconstruction Waste Management through 3D Imaging: A Case Study

Yujie Wei, Akash Pushkar and Burcu Akinci
Pages 438-445

Abstract: Conventional demolition approaches of razing a building at the end of its life-cycle generate a large amount of mingled debris, which is difficult to reuse and recycle. Compared to demolition, deconstruction involves disassembling a building systematically and it is a more environmentally friendly alternative. Recent research studies have focused on ...

Keywords: 3D Imaging; Demolition; Deconstruction; Waste Management; Laser Scanning; Image

Text Detection and Classification of Construction Documents

Narges Sajadfar, Sina Abdollahnejad, Ulrich Hermann and Yasser Mohamed
Pages 446-452

Abstract: Large construction projects generate thousands of documents that require a careful management. The classification of documents is an important step in document management and control. Construction documents are generated in different formats, many of which are unstructured and contain drawings and images, which makes the task of document classification and ...

Keywords: Construction document; Text detection; Classification; Data mining; Optical Character Recognition (OCR); Deep Learning

Holonic System for Real-Time Emergency Management in Buildings

Berardo Naticchia, Leonardo Messi, Massimiliano Pirani, Andrea Bonci, Alessandro Carbonari and Lucia Cristina Tolve
Pages 453-460

Abstract: Emergency management can benefit from advanced information and communication technology (ICT), since it can support officers in charge of emergency management to deal with urgent decision within a really short deadline. Further enhancement can derive from the application of holonic systems, which typically deal with the unexpected. In fact, unexpected ...

Keywords: Holonic System; Emergency Management; Fire Safety; BIM.

Grasped Element Position Recognition and Robot Pose Adjustment during Assembly

Kepa Iturralde, Taku Kinoshita and Thomas Bock
Pages 461-468

Abstract: Upgrading building envelopes with fully prefabricated 2D modules requires high accuracy during the manufacturing process with tolerances lower than 1 mm. In the research described in this paper, computer designed and accurately manufactured objects have been assembled with robotic arms. However, in previous phases, it was detected that during the ...

Keywords: Deviation; Localization; Estimation; Adjustment

Adaptive Haptically Informed Assembly with Mobile Robots in Unstructured Environments

Pradeep Devadass, Sven Stumm and Sigrid Brell-Cokcan
Pages 469-476

Abstract: Robot assisted construction processes in the architectural domain which include assembly are uncommon due the size difference of the robot with respect the scale of the output. In order to extend the workspace of industrial robots, these can be mounted on top of a mobile platform. However industrial mobile robotics ...

Keywords: Mobile Robotics; Onsite Construction; Haptic Feedback; Re-informed design; Human-Robot Collaboration; Haptic Programming

Integrating Earthwork Ontology and Safety Regulations to Enhance Operations Safety

Alhusain Taher, Faridaddin Vahdatikhaki and Amin Hammad
Pages 477-484

Abstract: Safety in the construction industry remains a major challenge despite the technological advancements made in recent years. In recent years, ontologies are applied to give a formal structure to the knowledge in different domains. Ontologies also facilitate the integration of various domain knowledge and thus allow for better cross-functional developments ...

Keywords: Earthwork; Ontology; Regulations; Safety

Combining Deep Learning and Robotics for Automated Concrete Delamination Assessment

Evan McLaughlin, Nicholas Charron and Sriram Narasimhan
Pages 485-492

Abstract: Computer vision and robotics present tremendous opportunities for automating routine inspections of reinforced concrete bridges. One of the most critical aspects of these inspections is delamination assessment, as delaminations present immediate safety concerns due to falling concrete. Current methods of delamination assessment include hammer sounding and chain dragging, which are ...

Keywords: Convolutional neural network; Pixel-wise segmentation; automation; Delamination assessment; Bridge inspection

Web-Based Job Hazard Assessment for Improved Safety-Knowledge Management in Construction

Emad Mohamed, Parinaz Jafari, Estacio Pereira, Stephen Hague, Simaan Abourizk and Rod Wales
Pages 493-500

Abstract: An essential component of effective safety management systems is the identification and proactive mitigation of hazards through the completion of job hazard assessment (JHA). Aimed at identifying potential hazards and subsequently implementing controls that reduce the likelihood or severity of incidents, JHA is a manual process influenced by the experiences, ...

Keywords: Safety; Job Hazard Assessment; Web-Based; Knowledge Management

Leading Safety Indicators: Application of Machine Learning for Safety Performance Measurement

Parinaz Jafari, Emad Mohamed, Estacio Pereira, Shih-Chung Kang and Simaan Abourizk
Pages 501-506

Abstract: Proactive approaches designed to prevent incidents before they occur are essential for achieving effective safety management. Emerging as an important component of proactive safety management, leading indicators are used to assess and control safety performance. With the aim of reducing the number or severity of worksite accidents, methods capable of ...

Keywords: Safety Leading Indicators; Safety Management; Safety Performance; Machine Learning

Towards the Ontology Development for Smart Transportation Infrastructure Planning via Topic Modeling

Jin Zhu and Sudipta Chowdhury
Pages 507-514

Abstract: Media age has seen a huge amount of data flowing in from all directions, be it online news sources, social media, technical documents, and many more. There is a huge scope of these data sources for utilization in the transportation sector that can potentially improve the current practice of transportation ...

Keywords: Smart Transportation infrastructure planning; Ontology; Taxonomy; LDA; NMF

Automated Detection of Urban Flooding from News

Farzaneh Zarei and Mazdak Nik-Bakht
Pages 515-520

Abstract: Although minor overflows do not cause a huge amount of loss; as the number of such overflows increases, the amount of water wasted, and the compound consequent challenges become considerable. Therefore, detecting overflows, investigating their cause root and resolving them in a timely manner are among new needs for infrastructure ...

Keywords: Classification; Montreal newspaper; Urban Flooding; Water overflows

Adaptive Automation Strategies for Robotic Prefabrication of Parametrized Mass Timber Building Components

Oliver David Krieg and Oliver Lang
Pages 521-528

Abstract: This paper presents applied research into automated and adaptive robotic prefabrication strategies for a generative platform design enabling mass customized, mass timber modular construction. The development is part of an ongoing effort by the company to bring a holistic approach of design-driven modular mass timber housing and advanced prefabrication techniques ...

Keywords: Robotics; Prefabrication; Timber construction; Mass timber; Automation; Modular building; Computational design; Digital fabrication; Affordability; Platforms for life;

Semantic Network Analysis as a Knowledge Representation and Retrieval Approach Applied to Unstructured Documents of Construction Projects

Rodrigo Rodrigues Aragao and Tamer El-Diraby
Pages 529-536

Abstract: Reusing knowledge from past projects is a critical task in construction, given the increasing complexity in such projects: numerous stakeholders, a multi-disciplinary domain, and multi-objectives besides the traditional ones such as cost and schedule. Unstructured data, such as progress reports and minutes, is a rich source of knowledge that can ...

Keywords: Knowledge retrieval and representation; Unstructured data; Network analysis; Blockmodeling; Construction management; Energy use

Digital Fabrication and Crafting for Flexible Building Wall Components: Design and Development of Prototypes

Nzar Naqeshbandi and Paulo Mendonça
Pages 537-543

Abstract: This research aims to explore and reflect the links between form, function, material and fabrication to develop and assemble more adjustable and flexible building walls. The interconnection of these main aspects of creation is particularly driven by the raising prominence of digital and computational tools in the context of design ...

Keywords: Digital design; Digital fabrication; Crafting; Building wall components; Component design; Rapid Prototyping

As-is Geometric Data Collection and 3D Visualization through the Collaboration between UAV and UGV

Pileun Kim, Jisoo Park and Yong Cho
Pages 544-551

Abstract: The characteristics of dynamic construction sites increase the difficulty of collecting the high-quality geometric data necessary to achieve construction management activities. This paper introduces a new autonomous framework for 3D geometric data collection in a dynamic cluttered environment using an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This method first deploys UAV to collect photo ...

Keywords: Mobile Robot; UGV; UAV; Point Cloud; Laser Scanning; SLAM; Path Planning

Web-based Deep Segmentation of Indoor Point Clouds

Zehuan Chen, Erzhuo Che, Fuxin Li, Michael Olsen and Yelda Turkan
Pages 552-559

Abstract: Deep learning and neural networks have empowered many tasks including semantic segmentation and image classification. Recently, novel neural networks were proposed that could directly process three-dimensional (3D) point clouds. In this paper, we present a software tool incorporating a variety of measuring tools to analyze and validate raw point cloud ...

Keywords: Point cloud; Deep learning; Web-based interaction

Ontology for Logistics Requirements on a 4D BIM for Semi-Automatic Storage Space Planning

Jan Weber, Jana Stolipin, Markus König and Sigrid Wenzel
Pages 560-567

Abstract: Well-coordinated construction site logistics are important for the efficient assembly of large-scale plants. Delays in logistics have a negative impact on assembly processes and vice versa. Incorrect storage or improper transport can lead to damage to the sensitive plant components. All relevant logistical constraints must therefore be systematically analyzed, assessed ...

Keywords: No keywords

Integrating Social Sustainability in Value Stream Mapping: Panelized Post-Disaster Temporary Housing Case Study

Miguel Mora, Burcu Akinci and Luis Alarcón
Pages 568-577

Abstract: The Triple Bottom Line (TBL) framework defined by Elkington in 1998 [1] proposed three aspects of sustainability: economical, environmental and social. However, several researchers have observed that further studies are needed to guide people and companies on how to achieve sustainable development. Specifically, many gaps are found in trying to ...

Keywords: Social sustainability; Value stream mapping; Lean and Sustainability; Post-disaster temporary housing; Panelized housing

An Experimental Investigation of the Integration of Smart Building Components with Building Information Model (BIM)

Kereshmeh Afsari, L. Florez, Emily Maneke and Mahdi Afkhamiaghda
Pages 578-585

Abstract: Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a methodology to digitally represent all the physical and functional characteristics of a building. Importantly, in smart buildings smart components that are enabled with sensing and actuation need to be modeled accurately within the BIM model. This data representation needs to include multiple status of ...

Keywords: Smart components; BIM; Smart buildings; Sensors; Actuators

Semantic Segmentation of Sewer Pipe Defects Using Deep Dilated Convolutional Neural Network

Mingzhu Wang and Jack C.P. Cheng
Pages 586-594

Abstract: Semantic segmentation of closed-circuit television (CCTV) images can facilitate automatic severity assessment of sewer pipe defects by assigning defect labels to each pixel in the image, from which defect types, locations and geometric information can be obtained. In this study, a deep convolutional neural network (CNN), namely DilaSeg, is developed ...

Keywords: Dilated convolution; Convolutional neural network (CNN); Semantic segmentation; Sewer pipe defect; Defect segmentation; Visual inspection

Information Exchange Process for AR based Smart Facility Maintenance System Using BIM Model

Suwan Chung, Soonwook Kwon, Daeyoon Moon, K.H. Lee and J.H. Shin
Pages 595-602

Abstract: In this study, we propose information exchange process for the effective integration of building information modeling (BIM) into an augmented reality (AR)-based smart facilities maintenance (SFM) system. The proposed SFM system refers to a system that combines technologies such as AR and IoT sensors in the field maintenance work. This ...

Keywords: Building information model; Facility maintenance; Augmented reality; Business process modeling notation

A Framework Development for Mapping and Detecting Changes in Repeatedly Collected Massive Point Clouds

Sanghyun Yoon, Sungha Ju, Sangyoon Park and Joon Heo
Pages 603-609

Abstract: On a construction site, progress deviations can cause fatal damages to the project and stakeholders. Therefore, accurately monitoring and managing the construction environment is essential. Efficiently detecting and recognizing the changes will be the key factor for monitor and management goals. In this research, we present a framework for detecting ...

Keywords: Mobile laser scanning (MLS); ROS; Deep learning; Change detection; Hadoop

Development of the Simulator for Carrying a Lifted Load in Large Plant Construction

Yoshihito Mori, Masaomi Wada, Sayuri Maki and Satoshi Tsukahara
Pages 610-615

Abstract: Large plant construction has numerous works, and the proportion of hoisting operations in the total construction work is high. In the hoisting operations, many things should be considered to keep the operations safe, and the work steps of the hoisting operations are planned by considering them. However, it is difficult ...

Keywords: Simulator; Mixed reality; three-dimensional measurement

Digital Twinning of Existing Bridges from Labelled Point Clusters

Ruodan Lu and Ioannis Brilakis
Pages 616-623

Abstract: The automation of digital twinning for existing bridges from point clouds has yet been solved. Whilst current methods can automatically detect bridge objects in points clouds in the form of labelled point clusters, the fitting of accurate 3D shapes to detected point clusters remains human dependent to a great extent. ...

Keywords: Digital twin; BrIM; BIM; Point cloud data; IFC

Improved Tag-based Indoor Localization of UAVs Using Extended Kalman Filter

Navid Kayhani, Adam Heins, Wenda Zhao, Mohammad Nahangi, Brenda McCabe and Angela Schoellig
Pages 624-631

Abstract: Indoor localization and navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is a critical function for autonomous flight and automated visual inspection of construction elements in continuously changing construction environments. The key challenge for indoor localization and navigation is that the global positioning system (GPS) signal is not sufficiently reliable for state ...

Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV); Building Information model (BIM); Indoor navigation; Autonomous flight; Visual inspection; Construction automation; Extended Kalman filter (EKF)

Live Data Visualization of IoT Sensors Using Augmented Reality (AR) and BIM

Worawan Natephra and Ali Motamedi
Pages 632-638

Abstract: Recently, the integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology and Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR/AR) technologies during the operation and maintenance phase has been increasingly adopted. There has also been a surge of interest in the exploitation of Internet of Things (IoT) for constructed facilities, in the form of ...

Keywords: BIM; sensors; thermal comfort; Augmented Reality; Arduino; Internet of Things (IoT); Visualization

An Image Augmentation Method for Detecting Construction Resources Using Convolutional Neural Network and UAV Images

Seongdeok Bang, Francis Baek, Somin Park, Wontae Kim and Hyoungkwan Kim
Pages 639-644

Abstract: Images acquired by UAV can be analyzed for resource management on construction sites. However, analyzing the construction site images acquired by UAV is difficult due to the characteristics of UAV images and construction site images. This paper proposes an image augmentation method to improve the performance of an object detection ...

Keywords: Image augmentation method; Faster R-CNN; UAV; Resource management

A New UAV-based Module Lifting and Transporting Method: Advantages and Challenges

Jin Ouk Choi and Dong Bin Kim
Pages 645-650

Abstract: The modular construction technique is the one key technology that can substantially advance the competitiveness of the construction industry. However, the industry is having difficulty creating an optimum environment for broader and more effective use of modularization due to one key barrier: implementing a modular construction technique, that is, shipping ...

Keywords: Modular construction; Modularization; UAS; Drone; Logistics; Module transportation; Lifting

Time-Warping: A Time Series Data Augmentation of IMU Data for Construction Equipment Activity Identification

Khandakar M. Rashid and Joseph Louis
Pages 651-657

Abstract: Automated, real-time, and reliable equipment activity identification on construction sites can help to minimize idle times, improve operational efficiencies, and reduce emissions. Many previous efforts in activity identification have explored different machine learning algorithms that use time-series sensor data collected from inertial measurement units mounted on the equipment. However, machine ...

Keywords: Data augmentation; Activity recognition; Time series; Construction equipment; Machine learning; IMU

Comparative Study of Experienced and Inexperienced Operators with Auto-controlled Construction Machine

Takeshi Hashimoto and Kenichi Fujino
Pages 658-664

Abstract: In the Japanese construction industry, it is predicted that during the next ten years, more than a million veteran technicians will retire, and a sudden shortage of experienced technicians will be inevitable. One way of countering this problem now being considered is the use of robotics technology to support inexperienced ...

Keywords: Construction machine; Experienced operator; Inexperienced operator; Machine control

Design, Modelling and Simulation of Novel Hexapod-Shaped Passive Damping System for Coupling Cable Robot and End Effector in Curtain Wall Module Installation Application

Meysam Taghavi, Taku Kinoshita and Thomas Bock
Pages 665-671

Abstract: The application of robotics in the construction industry has been growing recently. However, it suffers from the lack of construction dedicated systems. The industry is characterised largely by designers and researchers scrambling to adapt systems from other industries and trying to apply them to the construction industry. In the application ...

Keywords: Construction robotics; Design; Modelling; Simulation; Passive damper; Hexapod; Cable robot; Façade installation

Computer Vision Techniques in Construction, Operation and Maintenance Phases of Civil Assets: A Critical Review

Shuyuan Xu, Jun Wang, Xiangyu Wang and Wenchi Shou
Pages 672-679

Abstract: Throughout the life cycle of civil assets, construction, operation and maintenance phases require monitoring to assure reasonable decision makings. Current methods always involve specially-assigned personnel conducting on-site inspections, which are work-intensive, time-consuming and error-prone. Computer vision, as a powerful alternative to manual inspection, has been extensively studied during the ...

Keywords: No keywords

Monitoring and Alerting of Crane Operator Fatigue Using Hybrid Deep Neural Networks in the Prefabricated Products Assembly Process

Xiao Li, Hung-Lin Chi, Wenfeng Zhang and Geoffrey Qiping Shen
Pages 680-687

Abstract: Crane operators fatigue is one of the significant constraints should be monitored. Otherwise, it may lead to inefficient crane operations and safety issues. Recently, many deep neural networks have been developed for fatigue monitoring of vehicle drivers by processing the image or video data. However, the challenge is to distinguish ...

Keywords: Fatigue monitoring and alerting; Deep learning; Crane operator; Prefabricated construction

Automatic Floorplan Generation of Living Space for Simulating a Life of an Elderly Resident Supported by a Mobile Robot

Can Jiang and Akira Mita
Pages 688-695

Abstract: A mobile robot follows a resident and grabs his/her health condition using a Kinect sensor. The 3D environment of the robot’s working space has a huge impact on the design and operation of the mobile robot in two aspects: (1) it defines movements of the resident; (2) it affects the ...

Keywords: Floorplan; Automatic simulation; Mobile robot; Elderly people living alone; Design; Operation policy

Infographics on Unmanned Dozer Operation

Shigeomi Nishigaki and Katsutoshi Saibara
Pages 696-703

Abstract: As for unmanned dozer operation, this study aims development on infographics to reduce likely mental stress burden to operators in the remote-control room. First of all, this paper introduces problems in unmanned construction and the purpose of this study. Secondly, actor-critic based construction control system is described, which generates infographics. ...

Keywords: Unmanned construction; Infographics; Actor-Critic; Loading surface displacement; Underground stress

Formulation of the Optimization Problem of the Cyber-Physical Diagnosis System Configuration Level for Construction Mobile Robots

Alexey Bulgakov, Thomas Bock and Tatiana Kruglova
Pages 704-708

Abstract: This article studies the development of a cyber-physical prediction diagnosis system for electric drives of the construction robots. The structure of the five level diagnosis cyber-physical system is described. The optimization problem with the configuration level of the cyber-physical diagnostic system is formulated.The problem of determining the optimal trajectory for ...

Keywords: Cyber-physical diagnosis system; Building robots; Electric drives; Optimal trajectory; Wear

Ontology-Based Knowledge Modeling for Frame Assemblies Manufacturing

Shi An, Pablo Martinez, Rafiq Ahmad and Mohamed Al-Hussein
Pages 709-715

Abstract: As modular construction becomes popular, an increasing number of products are prefabricated in an offsite construction environment. While improving the productivity and efficiency of construction-oriented production, it also raises the complexity of process planning. Although the specifications of a product are fully defined by Building Information Models (BIM), no information ...

Keywords: Building information modeling; Ontology modeling; Offsite construction; Construction automation; Construction manufacturing

Measuring and Positioning System Design of Robotic Floor-tiling

Tianyu Liu, Huixing Zhou, Yanan Du and Jianping Zhao
Pages 716-721

Abstract: The research of floor-tiling robots aiming to replace the artificial floor tile installation, which is a trend in the development of construction automation. Modular design of the robotic floor-tiling system used embedded PC as the main controller, which has several advantages, such as reliable system performance, convenient modular communication, and ...

Keywords: Robotic floor-tiling; Control system; Embedded PC; Modular design

3D Human Body Reconstruction for Worker Ergonomic Posture Analysis with Monocular Video Camera

Wenjing Chu, Sanghyeok Han, Xiaowei Luo and Zhenhua Zhu
Pages 722-729

Abstract: In the modular construction industry of Canada, workers experience awkward postures and motions (reaching above shoulder, back bending backward, elbow/wrist flex, etc.) due to improper workstation designs. The awkward postures often lead to worker injuries and accidents, which do not only reduce the productivity but also increases the production cost. ...

Keywords: No keywords

Dispersed Cyber-Physical Coordination and Path Planning Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Alexey Bulgakov, Daher Sayfeddine, Thomas Bock and Sergei Emelianov
Pages 730-734

Abstract: In recent years, drones have been used exclusively for military missions, but with the advent of new characteristics in UAV technology, more industries are now moving to add this new element to their practices. Engineers and analysts use UAVs to monitor projects, scan the ground, find out its dimensions and ...

Keywords: Cyber-physical system; UAV; Robot path planning

Design and Development of Drill-Resistance Sensor Technology for Accurately Measuring Microbiologically Corroded Concrete Depths

Nicolas Giovanangeli, Lasitha Piyathilaka, Sarath Kodagoda, Karthick Thiyagarajan, Steve Barclay and Dammika Vitanage
Pages 735-742

Abstract: Microbial corrosion of concrete is a severe problem that significantly reduces the service life of underground sewers in countries around the globe. Therefore, water utilities are actively looking for in-situ sensors that can quantify the biologically induced concrete corrosion levels, in order to carry out preventive maintenance before any catastrophic failures. As a solution, this paper ...

Keywords: Concrete, corrosion, drill resistance, measuring, sensor, sewer.

A Real-Time 4D Augmented Reality System for Modular Construction Progress Monitoring

Zhiyang Lin, Frank Petzold and Zhiliang Ma
Pages 743-748

Abstract: Construction monitoring plays a vital role in modular construction practice, since faulty installation of individual parts could incur significant delays and extra cost to the project, modular construction eagerly requires a real time progress monitoring. Previous researchers tended to get as-built site data back at first, like making cloud points ...

Keywords: Construction progress monitoring; Modular construction; 4D BIM; Augmented reality

Development of an Eye- and Gaze-Tracking Mechanism in an Active and Assisted Living Ecosystem

Alexander Liu Cheng, Nestor Llorca Vega and Galoget Latorre
Pages 749-755

Abstract: This paper details the development of an open-source eye- and gaze-tracking mechanism designed for open, scalable, and decentralized Active and Assisted Living (AAL) ecosystems built on Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs). Said mechanism is deliberately conceived as yet another service-feature in an on-going implementation of an extended intelligent built-environment ...

Keywords: Intelligent built-environments; Active and assisted living; Wireless sensor and actuator network; Internet of things; Adaptive architecture

Improvement of Automated Mobile Marking Robot System Using Reflectorless Three-Dimensional Measuring Instrument

Takehiro Tsuruta, Kazuyuki Miura and Mikita Miyaguchi
Pages 756-763

Abstract: In previous study we have already reported fully automated mobile marking robot system in construction site for streamlining marking work that is currently carried out manually. However, marking accuracy and efficiency were not satisfied compared to those of construction worker, further improvement was desired. This paper is the second report ...

Keywords: Marking; Mobile robot; Reflectorless three-dimensional measuring instrument

A Mask R-CNN Based Approach to Automatically Construct As-is IFC BIM Objects from Digital Images

Huaquan Ying and Sanghoon Lee
Pages 764-771

Abstract: Various image-based building object recognition approaches have been developed to create as-is Building Information Models (BIMs) of existing buildings. However, existing approaches generally rely on human-designed features to automatically or semi-automatically recognize building objects, which makes them sensitive to input images and difficult to extend to new building objects. Furthermore, ...

Keywords: As-is BIM object; IFC; Image-based modeling; Deep learning; Mask R-CNN

Using Scan-to-BIM Techniques to Find Optimal Modeling Effort; A Methodology for Adaptive Reuse Projects

Mansour Esnaashary Esfahani, Ekin Eray, Steven Chuo, Mohammad Mahdi Sharif and Carl Haas
Pages 772-779

Abstract: With increased computing power to render 3D models and affordability of as-built data acquisition technologies, new techniques for enhancing the quality of pre-project planning of adaptive reuse projects can be investigated. The main objective of this research is to present a decision making methodology to select the optimum effort using ...

Keywords: Adaptive reuse; Value of information; Pre-project planning; Scan-to-BIM; Modeling; Existing buildings

Primitive Fitting Using Deep Geometric Segmentation

Duanshun Li and Chen Feng
Pages 780-787

Abstract: To identify and fit geometric primitives (e.g., planes, spheres, cylinders, cones) in a noisy point cloud is a challenging yet beneficial task for fields such as reverse engineering and as-built BIM. As a multi-model multi-instance fitting problem, it has been tackled with different approaches including RANSAC, which however often fit inferior models in practice with noisy ...

Keywords: Geometric Segmentation; Primitive Fitting; As-Built BIM

Employing Simulated Annealing Algorithms to Automatically Resolve MEP Clashes in Building Information Modeling Models

Hsieh-Chih Hsu and I-Chen Wu
Pages 788-795

Abstract: Building Information Modeling (BIM) covers the whole lifecycle of a building and facilitates the coordination of activities in the design, construction, and operation stages. However, during the design stages of pre-construction, it is time-consuming for a BIM project team to resolve design clashes as they integrate models finished by individual ...

Keywords: Building information modeling; Clash resolution; Simulated annealing algorithms

Application of Virtual Reality in Task Training in the Construction Manufacturing Industry

Regina Barkokebas, Chelsea Ritter, Val Sirbu, Xinming Li and Mohamed Al-Hussein
Pages 796-803

Abstract: Automation in construction manufacturing is becoming increasingly common due to the drive for higher productivity and increased quality. One important consideration in the implementation of automation is the training and maintenance of the equipment. This study proposes an approach to assess the training for assembly/disassembly and maintenance of machines developed ...

Keywords: Virtual Reality; VR; Maintenance; Automation; Training; Construction; Manufacturing;

Improving the Quality of Event Logs in the Construction Industry for Process Mining

Liyuan Chen, Seokyoung Kang, Shahin Karimidorabati and Carl Haas
Pages 804-811

Abstract: Process mining is an emerging tool kit to discover, analyze, and improve workflows. In the construction industry, projects can be large and unique in terms of costs and durations. In such projects, commercial software that support analyses and decision making may be helpful. Process mining software allow construction companies to ...

Keywords: Process mining; Event log; Pre-processing

Applying an A-Star Search Algorithm for Generating the Minimized Material Scheme for the Rebar Quantity Takeoff

Shen Chang, Ruei-Shiue Shiu and I-Chen Wu
Pages 812-817

Abstract: Rebar engineering is a construction method for building structures that is critical to the earthquake resistance of the entire building. The construction process and quality of rebar have always been valued by the construction industry, and it is imperative to improve the quality of reinforcement construction to reduce injuries. In ...

Keywords: Building Information Modeling; Rebar Takeoff; A-Star Search Algorithm; Construction Phase

Using BIM and Sensing Mats to Improve IMU-based Indoor Positioning Accuracy

Chia-Hsien Chen and I-Chen Wu
Pages 818-823

Abstract: Currently, numerous approaches to Indoor Positioning Systems (IPSs), such as RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication), fingerprint, PDR (Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning), and image recognition, have been developed. But each individual positioning method has unique drawbacks. In this study, we provide an IPS with a novel combined positioning method that applies Building Information ...

Keywords: BIM; Indoor Positioning System; IoT; IMU; Sensing Mat

Assessment of Work Efficiency of HMD Viewing System for Unmanned Construction Work

Genki Yamauchi, Takeshi Hashimoto and Shin'Ichi Yuta
Pages 824-830

Abstract: This study describes a simple head mounted display(HMD) viewing system for an unmanned construction system(UCS) and an assessment of the work efficiency using the HMD system. The deployment of a UCS is a significant problem because majority of the construction machines are not compatible with remote operation. In this study, focusing ...

Keywords: Unmanned Construction Work; Teleoperation; Head Mounted Display;

Using Virtual Reality Simulation for Optimizing Traffic Modes Toward Service Level Enhancements.

Firas Habbal, Fawaz Habbal, Abdallah Al Shawabkeh, Abdulla Al Nuaimi and Ammar Safi
Pages 831-837

Abstract: Traffic congestion and roads service level are major issue in many countries. Using technology such as simulation offers effective approach to better understanding the problem, and predict optimal solutions. This paper examines the application of Virtual reality (VR) for evaluating the roads service level of five different scenarios in UAE ...

Keywords: Virtual realities; automation in Construction; roads service level; traffic objects enhancements.;

PPEs Compliance Technology to Legalize the Automated Monitoring of Safety Standards

Fawaz Habbal, Firas Habbal, Abdulla Al Nuaimi, Anwaar Al Shimmari, Ammar Safi and Tala Abhushuqair
Pages 838-845

Abstract: Governments are always looking to monitor safety violations on construction sites. Those violations are not only causing numerous injuries and deaths to workers but also delays and subsequently costs to the project developers. In the hierarchy of control, personal protective equipment (PPE), albeit the least effective, is still one of ...

Keywords: smart hart hard hat; automation in construction; construction safety; site surveillance technology, legalization, personal protective equipment, worker rights

Use of Finite Element Analysis for the Estimate of Freezing & Maintenance Phase of Indirect & Direct Artificial Ground Freezing of Proposed Frozen Silt Mat, an Alternative of Timber Mat

Ghulam Muhammad Ali, Mohamed Al-Hussein and Ahmed Bouferguene
Pages 846-853

Abstract: The use of heavy cranes has increased with the impact of modernized modular construction, which in turn has led to heavier modules, with weights often measured in hundreds of tons. As a result, the criticality of such lifts depends primarily upon the ground support health. The traditional approach is to ...

Keywords: Artificial Ground Freezing, Brine Chillers, Liquid Nitrogen, Crane Mats, FEA, ANSYS Simulation

DEM-based Convolutional Neural Network Modeling for Estimation of Solar Irradiation: Comparison of the Effect of DEM Resolutions

Jae Heo, Jaehoon Jung, Byungil Kim and Sanguk Han
Pages 854-861

Abstract: Recently, the use of solar panels has increased because of the growing demand for solar energy. To determine appropriate installation sites of photovoltaic (PV) panels, estimating the available solar energy at a certain area is important to predict the amount of power generation and planning PV plant operations. However, traditional ...

Keywords: Solar energy, solar irradiation prediction, GIS, convolutional neural network

Direct-Write Fabrication of Wear Profiling IoT Sensor for 3D Printed Industrial Equipment

Nuwan Munasinghe, Lewis Miles and Gavin Paul
Pages 862-869

Abstract: Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is an emerging technology, not only as a prototyping technology, but also to manufacture complete products. Gravity Separation Spirals (GSS) are used in the mining industry to separate slurry into different density components. Currently, spirals are manufactured using moulded polyurethane on fibreglass ...

Keywords: IIoT; Wear Sensor; Additive Manufacturing; 3D Printing; Industry 4.0

Developing Responsive Environments based on Design-to-Robotic-Production and -Operation Principles

Henriette Bier, Turkuaz Nacafi and Erik Zanetti
Pages 870-875

Abstract: The development of physical and computational mechanisms aimed at augmenting architectural environments has been one of the foci of research implemented at the Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology (TUD) for more than a decade. This paper presents the integration of distributed responsive climate control ...

Keywords: Design-to-Robotic-Production and -Operation; Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks; Responsive Environments

An Approach to Enhance Interoperability of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Data Exchange in Integrated Building Design and Analysis

Troy Nguyen and Elvis Amoah
Pages 876-883

Abstract: Achieving high energy-efficient building designs requires conducting energy analyses iteratively starting from the conceptual stage to ensure suitable selection of building components to meet energy performance requirements. In recent years, advanced BIM capabilities have allowed designers to assimilate design and energy modeling processes geared towards improving productivity. However, there are ...

Keywords: Data Exchange; Interoperability; Building Information model; Data Interface; Energy Modeling

Impact of BIM on Electrical Subcontractors

Anoop Sattineni and Bradley Brock
Pages 884-896

Abstract: The use of BIM in the electrical subcontractor community has been increasing over the past few years. The practice of using BIM for this sector varies in many ways as compared to the design profession or the use of BIM by general contractors. This study focuses on the current state of ...

Keywords: BIM; Electrical; Subcontractor; Coordination; Field Installation; Productivity;

Analytic Hierarchy Process as a Tool to Explore the Success Factors of BIM Deployment in Construction Firms

Shunming Liang, I-Chen Wu, Zheng-Yun Zhuang and Chin-Wen Chen
Pages 897-905

Abstract: The overall performance of a life-cycle phase under investigation can be improved if Multi-Design for X (MDFX) technique’s design guidelines are applied concurrently. However, the complexity of selecting MDFX techniques at the conceptual and detailed design stages during machine development can increase by uncertain and imprecise knowledge about the MDFX ...

Keywords: Building Information Modelling; Delphi Method; Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP); System Adoption Factors (SAF)

3D Modeling Approach of Building Construction based on Point Cloud Data Using LiDAR

Byeongjun Oh, Minju Kim, Chanwoo Lee, Hunhee Cho and Kyung-In Kang
Pages 906-912

Abstract: LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) emerges as a mapping technology that provides fast, accurate, and reliable data with geometric representation of construction facilities. The technology has received high recognition especially since the importance of digital transformation in construction projects has been emphasized. However, the current state of 3D technologies including ...

Keywords: LiDAR; 3D modeling; building construction; digital transformation; point cloud data

New System Form Design Process Using QFD and TRIZ

Changsu Lee, Dongmin Lee, Hunhee Cho and Kyung-In Kang
Pages 913-920

Abstract: Current forms used in the construction site are faced with problems such as casting quality, increased labor costs and longer construction period. To solve these problems, a new system form that reflects the opinions of people who actually use it in the construction site. In this study, a new system ...

Keywords: System form; Concrete structure; Quality function deployment (QFD); TRIZ

Automated Clash Resolution of Rebar Design in RC Joints using Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning and BIM

Jiepeng Liu, Pengkun Liu, Liang Feng, Wenbo Wu and Hao Lan
Pages 921-928

Abstract: The design of rebar in reinforced concrete (RC) structures is a mandatory stage in building construction projects. Due to the large number and complicated arrangement rules of rebar in each design code, it is impractical, labor-intensive and error-prone for designers to avoid all clashes (i.e., collisions and congestion) manually or ...

Keywords: Building Information Modeling; Reinforcement Learning; Multi-agent; Rebar Design; Clash Resolution; RC Joints

Automated Localization of a Mobile Construction Robot with an External Measurement Device

Selen Ercan, Sandro Meier, Fabio Gramazio and Matthias Kohler
Pages 929-936

Abstract: The localization of a robot is a crucial part of any task that involves the mobile manipulation of objects. The precise repositioning of a mobile robot within the workspace is particularly important for on-site construction in situations where the operating area is much larger than the reach of the robot ...

Keywords: On-site construction; Localization; External measurement systems

Analysis of the Perceptions of Beneficiaries and Intermediaries on Implementing IPD in Indian Construction

V. Paul C. Charlesraj and Vatsala Gupta
Pages 937-944

Abstract: Selection of appropriate project delivery system is key for project success. It also gains much importance in a fast developing economy like India where there is a greater emphasis on development of housing and infrastructure involving huge investments. The present practices of project delivery led to inefficiency and distrust among ...

Keywords: Indian construction; Integrated Project Delivery; intermediaries

Modelling Traffic Conditions on Fuel Use and Emissions of On-road Construction Equipment

Khalegh Barati and Xuesong Shen
Pages 945-952

Abstract: The consumption of fossil fuels by on-road vehicles is a main source of air pollution specifically greenhouse gases (GHGs) worldwide. The construction industry, due to the use of a large number of heavy-duty equipment including haulage trucks, contributes to a significant amount of fuel consumption and consequent emissions production. Due ...

Keywords: Construction Equipment; Traffic Condition; Fuel Use and Emissions; Construction Sector; Idling Mode; Equipment Stop

Distributed Coordination and Task Assignment of Autonomous Tandem Rollers in Road Construction Scenarios

Patrick Wolf, Thorsten Ropertz, Alexander Matheis, Karsten Berns and Peter Decker
Pages 953-960

Abstract: Automation in construction is a highly active field of research with promising prospects for more efficient construction processes. This paper presents a novel behavior-based approach for distributed coordination of autonomous tandem rollers. Hereby, a detailed road representation and concepts for tandem roller and paver interaction as well as distributed task assignment are presented. The concept has been ...

Keywords: Off-Road Robotics; Behavior-Based Control; Multi-Robot Cooperation; Automated Road Construction

Indoor Visualization Experiments at Building Construction Site Using High Safety UAV

Tomohiro Narumi, Shigeru Aoki and F. Muramatsub
Pages 961-966

Abstract: Importance has been placed on improving productivity at construction sites in a recent year, reducing bitterness and repetitive work, and improving the e?ciency of inspec- tion and management work. Since buildings usually have a unique shape, e?ciency improvement methods used in mass production plants had not been able to be ...

Keywords: Construction management; Inspection; UAV

Using Serious Games in Virtual Reality for Automated Close Call and Contact Collision Analysis in Construction Safety

Olga Golovina, Caner Kazanci, Jochen Teizer and Markus König
Pages 967-974

Abstract: Injuries and fatalities resulting from workplace accidents remain a global concern within the construction industry. While education and training of personnel offer well known approaches for establishing a safe work environment, Serious Games in Virtual Reality (VR) is being increasingly investigated as a complementary approach for learning. They yet have ...

Keywords: accident investigation; close call; construction safety; equipment contact collisions; hazard; human-hazard interaction; risk prevention; serious game; situational awareness; virtual reality; workforce education; training

Impact of BIM on Field Pipeline Installation Productivity Based on System Dynamics Modeling

Lijuan Chen, Peixin Shi and Qinglin Wu
Pages 975-981

Abstract: It is well documented that Building Information Modeling (BIM) can significantly improve project performance and productivity. Although the construction phase typically involves in the largest part of financial cost during the project life, insufficient attention has been paid in academia to quantitatively address the impact of BIM on labor productivity. ...

Keywords: Information technology impact; BIM; system dynamic modeling; field productivity

Trajectory Prediction of Mobile Construction Resources Toward Pro-active Struck-by Hazard Detection

Daeho Kim, Meiyin Liu, Sanghyun Lee and Vineet R. Kamat
Pages 982-988

Abstract: In construction, unanticipated struck-by hazards often arise, which have resulted in a significant number of construction fatalities. To address this problem, many studies have attempted to automate proximity monitoring and struck-by hazard detection using various technologies, such as wireless sensors and computer vision methods. While this technology focuses on understanding ...

Keywords: Struck-by hazard; Pro-active intervention; Trajectory prediction; Deep neural network; Hyper-parameter tuning

Automated Monitoring of Physical Fatigue Using Jerk

Lichen Zhang, Mohsen Mutasem Diraneyya, Juhyeong Ryu, Carl Haas and Eihab Abdel-Rahman
Pages 989-997

Abstract: Construction workers are commonly subjected to ergonomic risks due to manual material handling that requires high levels of energy input over long work hours. Fatigue in musculature is associated with decline in postural stability, motor performance, and altered normal motion patterns, leading to heightened risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Physical ...

Keywords: Fatigue; Masonry; Classification; Lifting; Jerk

A Real-time Path-Planning Model for Building Evacuations

Farid Mirahadi and Brenda McCabe
Pages 998-1004

Abstract: Simultaneous evacuation is the most widely used evacuation strategy in buildings. However, there are other evacuation strategies that might lead to safer outcomes if selected appropriately. Different forms of evacuation result from applying time delays to phased evacuation or altering path planning. The best strategy for evacuation depends on the ...

Keywords: Evacuation; Dijkstra; Route risk index; Geometric network graph; BIM; IFC; Fire safety

Development of an Earthmoving Machinery Autonomous Excavator Development Platform

Rauno Heikkilä, Tomi Makkonen, Ilpo Nishanen, Matti Immonen, Mikko Hiltunen, Tanja Kolli and Pekka Tyni
Pages 1005-1010

Abstract: This paper presents the initial planning phase results of excavator automation in the SmartBooms research project funded by Business Finland. Automation control is a key factor for the earth construction industry. Automation of excavators enables increased productivity and accurate adjustment of the digging work process, especially in depth control, which ...

Keywords: Excavator; Automation; Development Platform; Robotic

Construction Data-Driven Dynamic Sound Data Training and Hardware Requirements for Autonomous Audio-based Site Monitoring

Yiyi Xie, Yong-Cheol Lee, Tallis Huther Da Costa, Jongyoon Park, Jayati H Jui, Jin Woo Choi and Zhongjie Zhang
Pages 1011-1017

Abstract: In a dynamic construction site, sound generated by work activities and equipment operations is one of vital field data indicating construction progress, work performance, and safety issues. However, because of an enormous number of construction work types, accurate sound classification is currently limited. To address this challenge, this study proposes ...

Keywords: Schedule-based data training; Audio-based site monitoring; Audio sensor-based hardware system; Automated work activity surveillance; Machine Learning-based sound classification

Applying Kanban System in Construction Logistics for Real-time Material Demand Report and Pulled Replenishment

Ningshuang Zeng, Xuling Ye, Xiaofeng Peng and Markus König
Pages 1018-1025

Abstract: Drawbacks of the absence of the flow view in the conventional construction logistics planning gain more attention. Inefficiency and wastes (e.g., on-site overstock) in the construction logistics caused by adopting an avoidance strategy is recognized. Meanwhile, the unstable labour productivity and periodic planning method cause difficulties for adopting Just-in-Time (JIT) ...

Keywords: Kanban; Construction Logistics; Pull; Real-time Demand; Building Information Modeling

Simulating Wood-framing Wall Panel’s Production with Timed Coloured Petri Nets

Fabiano Correa
Pages 1026-1033

Abstract: The integration of design and construction processes remains, after decades of dedicated research, a great challenge. Even considering the specific context of pre-fabrication and modularization, it was just in recent years, with increasing adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM) processes, that the challenge, albeit in a virtual environment, begins to ...

Keywords: High-level Petri Nets; Building Information Modeling; Simulation; Wood-framing

Spatial Efficacy of Respiration Monitoring using Doppler Radars for Personalized Thermal Comfort Assessment

Wooyoung Jung and Farrokh Jazizadeh
Pages 1034-1041

Abstract: Recent research efforts have shown that human thermophysiological features could play a crucial role in inferring occupants’ thermal comfort, which is required for comfort-aware heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) operation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that variations of respiration, a representative human thermophysiological feature, can be non-intrusively quantified by ...

Keywords: Comfort-aware HVAC operation; Doppler radar; Respiration monitoring

BIM-based Automated Design Checking for Building Permit in the Light-Frame Building Industry

Harish Narayanaswamy, Hexu Liu and Mohamed Al-Hussein
Pages 1042-1049

Abstract: Automation of the code compliance checking has been explored extensively, particularly in recent years with the emergence of building information modelling (BIM). Still, automated code compliance checking has not yet been fully realized, as there is no standardized method for rule interpretation and building model preparation for code compliance. Manual ...

Keywords: Building Information Modeling (BIM); Automated code compliance checking; Building permit; Building rules

Schedule Quality Assessment for nD Models using Industry Foundation Classes

Ashok Kavad, Rahul Dharsandia, Abdelhady Hosny and Mazdak Nik-Bakht
Pages 1050-1056

Abstract: Schedule assessment models were created to ensure the proper development of a schedule. The checks can be categorized into scheduling-related and constructability reviews. Most of the existing automated models are targeted towards two-dimensional schedules, and not nth-dimensional, despite the emergence of building information modelling in the construction industry. The ...

Keywords: 4D Modelling; Schedule health assessment; Schedule quality checks; IFC

A Mixed VR and Physical Framework to Evaluate Impacts of Virtual Legs and Elevated Narrow Working Space on Construction Workers’ Gait Pattern

Mahmoud Habibnezhad, Jay Puckett, Mohammad Sadra Fardhosseini and Lucky Agung Pratama
Pages 1057-1064

Abstract: It is difficult to conduct training and evaluate workers’ postural performance by using the actual job site environment due to safety concerns. Virtual reality (VR) provides an alternative to create immersive working environments without significant safety concerns. Working on elevated surfaces is a dangerous scenario, which may lead to gait ...

Keywords: Construction safety; virtual reality; virtual legs; extreme height; gait pattern; fall

Experiencing Extreme Height for The First Time: The Influence of Height, Self-Judgment of Fear and a Moving Structural Beam on the Heart Rate and Postural Sway During the Quiet Stance

Mahmoud Habibnezhad, Jay Puckett, Mohammad Sadra Fardhosseini, H. Jebelli, Terry Stentz and Lucky Agung Pratama
Pages 1065-1072

Abstract: Falling from elevated surfaces is the main cause of death and injury at construction sites. Based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports, an average of nearly three workers per day suffer fatal injuries from falling. Studies show that postural instability is the foremost cause of this disproportional falling ...

Keywords: Virtual reality; Postural sway; Height; moving structural beam; Heart rate; Construction safety

Applying Eye Tracking in Virtual Construction Environments to Improve Cognitive Data Collection and Human-Computer Interaction of Site Hazard Identification

Xuling Ye and Markus König
Pages 1073-1080

Abstract: In the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) field, eye tracking technology is being applied more frequently in cognitive research such as hazard identification. These studies typically use eye tracking in a diagnostic way and pay less attention to the application of virtual environment. However, in virtual environment, eye tracking not ...

Keywords: Eye Tracking; Virtual Environment; Human-Computer Interaction; Site Hazard Identification

Optimizing the Usage of Building Information Model (BIM) Interoperability Focusing on Data Not Tools

Elvis Amoah and Troy Nguyen
Pages 1081-1090

Abstract: Architectural, Engineering, Construction (AEC) and Facility Management (FM) industry rely on varied expertise to achieve a highly successful project. The industry professionals in these fields require greater level of collaboration in managing the expectation of a project success. When every individual in the team uses different BIM software, it becomes ...

Keywords: Building Information Modelling (BIM); BIM Software; Interoperability; BIM Collaboration; Data exchange

Digital Terrain Modeling Using AKAZE Features Derived from UAV-Acquired, Nadir and Oblique Images

Hyojoo Son, Hyunsoo Kim and Changwan Kim
Pages 1091-1097

Abstract: During construction, digital terrain models based on images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are useful, as they rapidly provide data for objective volume calculations that can be used to monitor in-progress earthworks. As many curved objects are present on construction sites and as construction materials and equipment can provide partial ...

Keywords: AKAZE; Digital Terrain Model; Earthwork; Oblique Images; Photogrammetry; UAV

Deep-Learning for Occupancy Detection Using Doppler Radar and Infrared Thermal Array Sensors

Milad Abedi and Farrokh Jazizadeh
Pages 1098-1105

Abstract: An accurate, real-time monitoring of the occupancy state of each space is a necessity for applications such as energy-aware smart buildings. In this paper, we have studied the feasibility of using Doppler Radar Sensors (DRS) and Infrared Thermal Array Sensors (ITA) to build an effective occupancy detection framework. The proposed ...

Keywords: Doppler Radar Sensor; Infrared Thermal Array Sensor; Deep Learning; Deep Neural Network

Towards Mobile Projective AR for Construction Co-Robots

Siyuan Xiang, Ruoyu Wang and Chen Feng
Pages 1106-1113

Abstract: The construction industry has been suffering from both low labor productivity growth and safety issues, due to the increasing project site complexities and the lack of skilled labors. As a potential technical solution, Augmented Reality (AR) has been studied to reduce the cognitive workloads in construction job sites by visualizing task-related information in the direct context ...

Keywords: Projector-based AR; Camera-Projector System; Pose Estimation; Mobile Co-Robots

Implementing Collaborative Learning Platforms in Construction Management Education

Ralph Tayeh, Fopefoluwa Bademosi and Raja R.A. Issa
Pages 1114-1120

Abstract: Over the last few decades, the investments in more complicated construction projects, involving multiple disciplines and different teams, have increased the need for more complex communication means. The purpose of communication methods is to ensure higher levels of coordination between project participants (owners, architects, engineers, contractors, suppliers, etc.). Adequate communication ...

Keywords: BIM; Next Gen BIM 360; Collaboration; Construction; Education

Quantifying Remoteness for Construction Projects Using Nighttime Satellite Imagery and Machine Learning

Pouya Zangeneh, Hesam Hamledari and Brenda McCabe
Pages 1121-1128

Abstract: Remoteness, although a subjective concept, has indispensable consequences. It can support decision-makers in quantifying risks and feasibilities of developing newly discovered mineral deposits, resilience planning and evaluation of accessibility challenges of remote communities, or support agency budget allocations for much-needed services. Developing a remoteness index typically involves merging spatial and ...

Keywords: Remoteness; Accessibility; Resource Projects; Resilience; Nighttime Satellite Imagery; Machine Learning; GeoTIFF

BIM-based Decision Support System for Concrete Formwork Design

Roman Romanovskyi, Leonardo Sanabria Mejia and Ehsan Rezazadeh Azar
Pages 1129-1135

Abstract: The type and quantities of formwork system are necessary information for construction process of a concrete-framed building and the solution to this problem usually lays on the shoulders of specialized consulting firms or contractor's engineering department. These calculations are generally performed using available procedures and guidelines. The conventional formwork design ...

Keywords: Formwork design; Construction; Automation; Building Information Modelling; Reinforced Concrete

Deep Learning Detection for Real-time Construction Machine Checking

Bo Xiao and Shih-Chung Kang
Pages 1136-1141

Abstract: Construction sites require many efforts to be well organized due to the complicated tasks and various construction machines. Recently, computer vision technology has gained success in the construction research field. By deploying single or multiple cameras, we can extract construction information from videos and then help the project manager to ...

Keywords: Construction Machine; Computer Vision; Deep Learning

A Comparison of TLS-based and ALS-based Techniques for Concrete Floor Waviness Assessment

Nisha Puri and Yelda Turkan
Pages 1142-1148

Abstract: Laser scanning-based techniques have been applied for checking the dimensional tolerances of concrete elements. Several studies utilized Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for measuring concrete floor waviness. The results of those efforts have shown that accurate floor waviness information can be obtained using TLS. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) mounted with cameras ...

Keywords: TLS; ALS; Continuous wavelet transform; Depth map; Point cloud; Dimensional quality control; tolerance compliance

Comparison of Virtual Communication Environment for Remote BIM Model Review Collaboration

Tzong-Hann Wu, Feng Wu, Shih-Chung Kang and Hung-Lin Chi
Pages 1149-1154

Abstract: Remote building information modeling (BIM) model review collaboration is the trend in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. Virtual communication environment is a key factor in a successful collaboration. However, the proper environment has yet to be fully revealed. Therefore, this study aims to identify the effective environment. We ...

Keywords: Remote collaboration; Virtual communication environment; BIM model review

Efforts to Unmanned Construction for Post-disaster Restoration and Reconstruction

Shigeo Kitahara, Yasushi Nitta and Shigeomi Nishigaki
Pages 1155-1162

Abstract: This paper presents largely severe natural disasters had happened in Japan, and efforts to unmanned construction until now. First, problems in responses to post-disaster restoration and reconstruction are reported. Secondly, are described demonstration of ultra-long-distance unmanned construction and the requirements for the deployment. Thirdly, this paper presents research and development ...

Keywords: Post-disaster; Unmanned construction system; Situational Awareness; Ultra-long-distance; Autonomous crawler carrier

Service Level Evaluation of Florida’s Highways Considering the Impact of Autonomous Vehicles

Amirsaman Mahdavian, Alireza Shojaei and Amr Oloufa
Pages 1163-1170

Abstract: Automated vehicles (AV) are undergoing development at a remarkable pace and have the potential to revolutionize the existing transportation system. The ASCE [1] evaluated the United States’ infrastructure as a D+ grade. Moreover, they predicted radical infrastructure investment gaps in the surface transportation sector in the upcoming years. Some new ...

Keywords: Autonomous Vehicles; Traffic Flow and Capacity; Long-term Planning; Highway

Study of Construction-Oriented Structural Connectors for a Temporary Bridge

Yao-Yu Yang, Chia-Ming Chang, Shih-Chung Kang and Fang-Yao Yeh
Pages 1171-1175

Abstract: Temporary bridges are indeed of need after a critical disaster due to the connectivity and efficient assembly. However, the conventional structural design of these temporary bridges may be limited by the construction requirements. In this study, a new type of structural connectors is developed and beneficial for more effectively assembling ...

Keywords: Bolt-free connectors; Rotational assembly workability; Temporary bridges; Construction-oriented design procedure

Through-Wall Object Recognition and Pose Estimation

Ruoyu Wang, Siyuan Xiang, Chen Feng, Pu Wang, Semiha Ergan and Yi Fang
Pages 1176-1183

Abstract: Robots need to perceive beyond lines of sight, e.g., to avoid cutting water pipes or electric wires when drilling holes on a wall. Recent off-the-shelf radio frequency (RF) imaging sensors ease the process of 3D sensing inside or through walls. Yet unlike optical images, RF images are difficult to understand by a human. Meanwhile, in ...

Keywords: Through-Wall Imaging; ObjectRecognition; Pose Estimation; Deep Learning

Schedule Uncertainty Analysis System Framework to Manage and Allocate Historical Data for Industrial Construction Project

In Seok Yoon, Hyun-Soo Lee, Moonseo Park, Jin Gang Lee and Sang Sun Jung
Pages 1184-1188

Abstract: Many project managers and researchers have emphasized the importance of considering uncertainty in the scheduling of EPC projects, and perform stochastic analysis when preparing a schedule to reflect uncertainties of duration for project activities. In this case, the uncertainty of the individual activity duration is treated as probabilistic variables, and ...

Keywords: Schedule Analysis; Probabilistic Analysis; Uncertainty; System Framework; Data Model

A Methodology for Indoor Human Comfort Analysis Based on BIM and Ontology

Weiwei Chen, Keyu Chen, Vincent J.L. Gan and Jack C.P. Cheng
Pages 1189-1196

Abstract: In the operations and maintenance (O&M) stage of a building, thermal comfort and acoustic comfort are essential for the health and productivity of occupants. There are many complaints about the indoor human comfort in office buildings due to inappropriate indoor temperature or noise. Building information modeling (BIM) technology is an ...

Keywords: Acoustic Comfort; Building Information Modeling; Ontology Approach; Thermal Comfort; WELL Building Standard

Pavement Crack Mosaicking Based on Crack Detection Quality

Yeo-San Yoon, Seongdeok Bang, Francis Baek and Hyoungkwan Kim
Pages 1197-1201

Abstract: A vehicle-mounted video camera, which is one of low-cost off-the-shelf devices, can be used economically for pavement crack monitoring. The pavement frames obtained by the video camera can be merged to form a mosaic image, from which road distress information can be extracted. However, quality of crack detection in the ...

Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network; Crack Detection Quality; Pavement Crack Mosaicking; Vehicle-mounted Camera

VBUILT: Volume-based Automatic Building Extraction for As-Built Point Clouds

Mustafa Khalid Masood, Akash Pushkar, Olli Seppänen, Vishal Singh and Antti Aikala
Pages 1202-1209

Abstract: Monitoring the progress of a large construction site manually is a challenging task for managers. By collecting visual data of the site, many monitoring tasks can be automated using machine vision techniques. In this work, we study a new method of collecting site data, which is through crane camera images ...

Keywords: Building extraction; crane cameras; convex hull; progress monitoring

Robotic Fabrication of Nail Laminated Timber

Hakim Hasan, Anish Reddy and Andrew Tsayjacobs
Pages 1210-1216

Abstract: Robotics, mass timber, and parametric design are all key technologies that are underutilized in construction. To fully take advantage of these new technologies requires a rethinking of the entire process from design to construction. The Greenbuild Pavilion represents a new construction workflow, in which a digital parametric model is communicated ...

Keywords: Robotic Fabrication; Nail Laminated Timber; Mass Timber; Automated Construction; Digital Fabrication; Architectural Robotics; Advanced Timber Structures, Sustainable Structures

Design of a Robotic Software Package for Modular Home Builder

Cheng-Hsuan Yang, Tzong-Hann Wu, Bo Xiao and Shih-Chung Kang
Pages 1217-1222

Abstract: This paper is sharing an on-going project about the design of a software package, tentatively coined as RS4B, for the builders of modularized construction. The shortage of labour resources and safety awareness issues have become the emerging problems in the construction industry. As the price of robots gradually decreases within ...

Keywords: Modular homes; Industrial robots; Robotic construction

Implementation of an Augmented Reality AR Workflow for Human Robot Collaboration in Timber Prefabrication

Ondrej Kyjanek, Bahar Al Bahar, Lauren Vasey, Benedikt Wannemacher and Achim Menges
Pages 1223-1230

Abstract: In this paper, we present a set of enabling technologies developed for the KUKA Innovation Award to facilitate Human Robot collaboration targeted for the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector. Critically, little progress has been made in the usability of user interfaces for industrial robots [1]. We targeted our investigation ...

Keywords: Human-robot Collaboration; Timber Construction Prefabrication; Robotic Fabrication; Augmented Reality; Digitalized Construction; Hardware-Software Interoperability

Case Study on Mobile Virtual Reality Construction Training

Mario Wolf, Jochen Teizer and J.H. Ruse
Pages 1231-1237

Abstract: Recent surveys among construction firms found, a majority has a hard time filling craft worker/hourly positions and salaried jobs. Among the ways they are trying to create more is in-house training. However, existing learning methods have been lagging effectiveness or are outdated. New approaches, like mobile virtual reality, are being ...

Keywords: digitalization; construction safety; personalized feedback; virtual reality; virtual trainings; workforce education and training

Simulating Extreme Points of Crane by Robot Arm in Virtual Reality

Kuan-Lin Chen, King-Ho Tsang, Yao-Yu Yang and Shih-Chung Kang
Pages 1238-1244

Abstract: Crane simulations are necessary for selecting a proper type of crane for an erection task in a construction project. However, simulating the motion of a specific crane is hardly realized because modelling a specific crane is complex. Thus, by taking advantage of a robot arm with multiple degrees of freedom, ...

Keywords: Simulation; Extreme point; Robot arm; Crane

Development of Classification Model for the Level of Bid Price Volatility of Public Construction Project Focused on Analysis of Pre-Bid Clarification Document

Yeeun Jang, June Seong Yi, Jeongwook Son and Jeehee Lee
Pages 1245-1253

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to classify the level of formation of the bid price by using the type of uncertainty inherent in the bid document as a variable. To this end, the research examined the factors of the project related to the bid price presented in the previous ...

Keywords: Risk Management; Bid Price Risk; Bid Price Volatility; Uncertainty of Bid Document; Pre-Bid Clarification; Bid Price Average; Bid Price Range; Machine Learning (ML); Classification Model; Public Construction Project

Construction Payment Automation through Smart Contract-based Blockchain Framework

Han Luo, Moumita Das, Jun Wang and Jack C.P. Cheng
Pages 1254-1260

Abstract: A construction contract facilitates payments through the supply chain by integrating people, activities, and events throughout the project period through obligations, permissions, and prohibitions in its terms and conditions. The management of payments is a manual process and is more difficult in the case of construction projects as different stakeholders ...

Keywords: Blockchain; Smart Contracts; Construction Projects; Interim Payments

Government Open Data and Sensing Data Integration Framework for Smart Construction Site Management

Chiu-Ming Lee, Wei-Liang Kuo, Tzu-Jan Tung, Bo-Kai Huang, Shu-Hsiang Hsu and Shang-Hsien Hsieh
Pages 1261-1267

Abstract: This paper proposes a cloud-based data management framework that integrates open data from the government and monitoring data from construction site sensors. The integrated data can be consumed by artificial intelligence for smart construction project management, e.g. schedule control, resource arrangement and workers’ safety. The framework includes two major parts: ...

Keywords: BIM; Construction; Data Integration; Internet of Things; Edge computing; Data distribution Service

Review of BIM-centered IoT deployment: State of the Art, Opportunities, and Challenges

Mehrzad Shahinmoghadam and Ali Motamedi
Pages 1268-1275

Abstract: Thanks to the digital representations provided through Building Information Modeling (BIM), successful adoption of emerging digital technologies have been increasingly reported within the constriction and facility management research community. On the other hand, the number of research studies exploiting the principles of the Internet of Things (IoT) to enhance automation ...

Keywords: Building Information Modeling (BIM); Internet of Things (IoT); Sensing technologies; BIM-centered IoT; Facility management; Construction 4.0

Automatic Key-phrase Extraction to Support the Understanding of Infrastructure Disaster Resilience

Xuan Lv, Syed Ahnaf Morshed and Lu Zhang
Pages 1276-1281

Abstract: Preventing natural disasters from causing substantial social-economic damages relies heavily on the disaster resilience of the nation’s critical infrastructure. According to the National Academy of Sciences, research on understanding and analyzing the disaster resilience of our infrastructure systems is a “national imperative”. To address this need, this paper proposes an ...

Keywords: Infrastructure disaster resilience; Automatic keyphrase extraction; Natural language processing

Artificial Intelligence Techniques to Support Design and Construction

Atefeh Mohammadpour, Ebrahim Karan and Somayeh Asadi
Pages 1282-1289

Abstract: In recent years, researchers have relied heavily on data (historical and real-time) and digital solutions to support informed decisions. Consequently, data analysis has become an integral part of the design and construction process. Researchers spend a tremendous amount of time cleaning, organizing, and understanding the data. Artificial Intelligence (AI) can ...

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence Techniques; Artificial Intelligence Applications; Architecture, Engineering, and Construction Industry

Frequency Sweep Based Sensing Technology for Non-destructive Electrical Resistivity Measurement of Concrete

Sathira Wickramanayake, Karthick Thiyagarajan, Sarath Kodagoda and Lasitha Piyathilaka
Pages 1290-1297

Abstract: Electrical resistivity is an important parameter to be monitored for the conditional assessment and health monitoring of aging and new concrete infrastructure. In this paper, we report the design and development of a frequency sweep based sensing technology for non-destructive electrical resistivity measurement of concrete. Firstly, a sensing system prototype was developed based on the Wenner ...

Keywords: Concrete; electrical resistivity; frequency effects; frequency sweep; infrastructure; infrastructure health monitoring; non-destructive; rebar effects; sensor

3D Printing Architectural Freeform Elements: Challenges and Opportunities in Manufacturing for Industry 4.0

Marjo Niemelä, Anqi Shi, Sara Shirowzhan, Samad Sepasgozar and Chang Liu
Pages 1298-1304

Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) printing, as one of the additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, is transforming the design and manufacture of products and components across a variety of disciplines, however, architectural design and the construction industry have only recently begun to adopt these technologies for construction purposes. AM is considered one of the ...

Keywords: 3D printing; design; architectural freeform elements; construction; Fusion 360 Software; G-code; human-interface; Industry 4.0

Teaching Robots to Perform Construction Tasks via Learning from Demonstration

Ci-Jyun Liang, Vineet Kamat and Carol Menassa
Pages 1305-1311

Abstract: Robots are expected to be widely used on future construction sites to assist human workers in the performance of repetitive physically-demanding tasks. Unlike typical manufacturing assembly lines, where parts are delivered to robots and workers in stationary workstations, construction robots and human workers must accumulate all necessary resources and repeatedly ...

Keywords: Robot Learning from Demonstration; Computer Vision; Autoencoder; Ceiling Tile Installation

Applying Augmented Reality Technique to Support On-site Rebar Inspection

Hao-Wei Hsu and Shang-Hsien Hsieh
Pages 1312-1318

Abstract: Rebar inspection plays an essential role during construction phases to assure the safety of the construction. Usually, inspectors use 2D drawings and tape measures to inspect rebars. However, the effectiveness of the inspection is greatly hindered by indirect three-dimensional information in 2D drawings and visual obstruction of measuring by rebars, ...

Keywords: Augmented Reality; Rebar inspection; On-site inspection

Developing a Workflow for Cloud-based Inspection of Temporary Structures in Construction

Chang Liu, Sara Shirowzhan and Samad M.E. Sepasgozar
Pages 1319-1326

Abstract: Temporary structures are used during construction and removed after construction. It is necessary to inspect these structures in terms of quality and stability in an automated manner. However, the storage and sharing of inspection data of temporary structures is a problem because most of them have not been included in ...

Keywords: 3D building modelling; Photo modelling; cloud-based construction data analysis; virtual inspection; Temporary structure; Safety management

Towards Rule-Based Model Checking of Building Information Models

Christoph Sydora and Eleni Stroulia
Pages 1327-1333

Abstract: Designing a building, so that it adheres to all the relevant applicable constraints imposed by construction codes to cultural preferences to the owners’ styles and aesthetics, can be a daunting task, requiring many laborious hours of review and modification. Given the increasing adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in the ...

Keywords: Building Information Modeling (BIM); Design Constraints; Rule Checking

Smart Construction Monitoring for Disaster Prevention Based on Spatial Information and GNSS/USN/IoT

Sangho Yeon and Chunhum Yeon
Pages 1334-1338

Abstract: The monitoring technique by combination of the measurement method with the fine precision of the sensor collecting the satellite-based information that can determine the displacement space, is available to a variety of diagnostic information. The measurement method by a GNSS with the sensors is being requested. The progress of natural ...

Keywords: GNSS; USN; IoT; Construction Disaster Monitoring; Spatial Information